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BRADLEY UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 



31272 00528 8988 



MANUAL TRAINING 
MAGAZINE 



CHARLES A. BENNETT, Editor 
WILLIAM T. BAWDEN, Managing Editor 



ASSISTED BY 

WILLIAM E. ROBERTS 

ARTHUR D. DEAN 

FRANK M. LEAVITT 



VOLUME XIV 
1913 



PUBLISHED BI-MONTHLY 

(No Summer Number) 



iLlft iHanual Arts Prras 

PEORIA, ILL, 



INDEX 



(Names of contribulor? of articles are set in small caimtals 

Current Hems .) 



lEl indicates an editorial. (C. I.) indicates 



A B C of a Philosophy of Handwork, The — 
Francois Mentre. translated by \V. T. Baw- 
dcn. 431. 
Activities of the Normal School (C. I.), 194. 
Another Step Forward (E.)— Charles A. Ben- 
nett. J6^. 
Art Education: Retrospective and Prospective 

— William A. Mason. 1. 
Awakenintr of Manual Arts Organizations 

lE.* — William T. Bawden, 466. 
Associations— American Society of Engineer- 
ins: Praftsmen. 1S2; Boston Manual Train- 
ins Club. 177. 367, 473; Conference of 
Charities and Corrections, 181; Depart- 
ment of Superintendence. 276 ; Detroit 
Manual Training Club. 182; Eastern Art 
and Manual Training Teachers Associa- 
tion, 484; Illinois High School Conference, 
• 273*; Illinois Manual Arts Association, 
376; Illinois Schoolmasters' Club, 182; 
Illinois State Teachers' Association. 373; 
Inland Empire Teachers' Association. 71; 
Minneapolis Manual Arts Club, 274; 
Missouri Association of Applied Arts and 
Science. 481; National Education Associa- 
tion. 64, 480; National Society for the Pro- 
motion of Industrial Education, 180, 269; 
School Crafts Club, 272; Second National 
Conference on Vocational Guidance, 179; 
Southwestern Ohio Manual Training 
Round Table, 274; Teachers College 
Alumni Association, 373 ; Twenty-fifth 
Educational Conference of the Academies 
and High Schools in Relations with the 
I'niversity of Chicago, 489; Western 
Drawing and Manual Training Associa- 
tion, 57, 372; Wisconsin School Arts and 
Home Economics Association, 481. 
Badger. Ozro B.— High School Manual 
Training Problems for Country Boys (111.), 
329. 
Bad Habits Formed at School (E.)— Charles 

A. Bennett, 50. 
BwvDES. Wll.i.iAM T.— Awakening of Man- 
ual Arts Orcanizations (E.), 466; Gilbert 
Burnet Morrison (E.), 364; Possibility of 
the Survev Idea (E.), 467. 
BF.NSFTT. CHARLES A.— Another Step For- 
ward (E.). 266; Bad Habits Formed at 
School (E.), 50; Changes and Tendencies 
(E.), 263; H. Williams Smith (E.), 267; 
.\n 'lUuminating Experiment fE.), 51; 
The Jov of Work (E.), 54; The Outlook 
in England (E.). 468; Professor Bawden 
goes to New York (E.). 56; A Revolution- 
ized Countv Institute (E.), 52; Significant 
Change in CJermany (E.), 55; William L. 
Savre (V..), 175. , ^, , . . 

BeRO Joseph — What the C.raduate from the 
EiKhth Grade Shopwork Should Know, 
443. 
Central States (C. I.), 88. 
Change- and Tendencies ^E.)— Charles A. 

Bennett, 263. 
Children'^ Bureau. The. (C I.), 84. 



Colorado (C. I.), 93. 

Cost of Materials for Manual Training in 
the Elementarv Grades, The — Leon F. A. 
Hein, 129. 
Crawsh.wv, Frf.d D. — Report of a Committee 
on Mechanical Drawing for High Schools, 
522, 458. 
Culture Elements in the Manual Arts, The — 

Robert W. Selvidge, 413. 
Deax, Arthur D. — Need of More Time for 
Manual Training (E.), 361; Safeguarding 
Dangerous Machinerv (E.), 173; Some 
Things May Be Discarded (E.), 364; The 
Up-Bringing of a Teacher: An Open Letter 
to the Manual Training Teachers, 344; 
What Is Fundamental (E.), 363. 
Democracy in Education (E.) — W. E. Rob- 
erts, 360. 
Descriptive Geometry II: Methods of Pre- 
sentation — H. W. Miller, 24. 
Eastern States (C. I.), 85. 
Education: Knowledge and Efficiencv (E.) — 

W. E. Roberts, 172. 
Foreign Notes — H. Williams Smith, 301, 405, 

508. 
Future of the Manual Training High School 
in Vocational Education, The — Charles B. 
Howe, 105. 
Gilbert Burnet Morrison (E.)— William T. 

Bawden, 364. 
Heath, Howard R. — Manual Training in the 
Primarv Schools of Victoria, Australia, 
(111.), "l51. 
Heix, Leon F. A. — The Cost of Materials for 
Manual Training in the Elementary 
Grades, 129. 
High School Manual Training Problems for 
Country Boys (111.)— Ozro B. Badger, 329. 
HiLLix, Foster F. — Record and Cost Keeping 

in School Shops (111.), 223. 
Howe, Charf.es B. — The Future of the Man- 
ual Training High School in Vocational 
Education, 105. 
How Forestrv Can Help the Manual Train- 
ing Teacher (111.)— Edwin R. Jackson, 138. 
H. Williams Smith (E.)— Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 267. 
H. Wii.MAMS Smith — Foreign Notes, 301, 405, 

508. 
Illuminating I'xperiment, An, (E.) — Charles 

A. Bennett, 51. 
Industrial Arts for Bovs of tlie Seventh and 
Eighth School Years.' The, (111.)— Ernest B. 
Kent, 309. 
Inexpensive Basketry, I\', (111.) — William S. 

Marten, 37. 
Ill Indianapolis, (C. I.), 195. 
In the East (C. I.), 195. 
Jackson, Edwin R. — How Forestry Can Help 
the Manual Training Teacher, (III.), 138. 
Joy of Work, The (E.)— Charles A. Ben- 
nett, 54. 
Kent, Ernest B.— The industrial Arts for 
Boy's of the Seventii and Eighth School 
Years (III.), 309. 



INDEX 



Lathe, Nam a A. — Rooms in Paper: Problems 
in Construction and Design, IV, (111.). 165 
V, 23 5, VI, 352. 

Leavitt, Frank M. — Vocational Guidance 
and the Manual Arts, 423. 

Lewis, E. E. — The Present Status of Voca- 
tional Subjects in the High Schools of Cali- 
fornia, 229. 

Living in School (E.)— W. E. Roberts, 361. 

Manual Arts Department of George Peabody 
College for Teachers (C. I.), 395. 

Manual Arts Exhibit at Medford, Oregon 
(C. I.), 95. 

Manual Training in a Kentucky Rural 
School (C. I.),' 403. 

Manual Training in the Primary Schools of 
Australia (111.')— Howard R. "Heath, 151. 

Manual Training Workshop Built by Gram- 
mar School Pupils, A, (111.) — Charles G. 
Wheeler, 417. 

Marten, William S. — Inexpensive Basketrs^ 
IV, (111.), 37. 

Mason, William A. — Art Education : Retro- 
spective and Prospective, 1. 

McKiNNEY, James — Shopwork and Mathe- 
matics for Grade I (111.), 447. 

Metalwork With Inexpensive Equipment for 
the Grammar and High Schools, (111.) X, 
XI, XII— Arthur F. Payne, 157, 248, 434. 

Mentre, Francois — The xA B C of a Philos- 
ophy of Handwork, 431. 

Miller, H. W. — Descriptive Geometry II: 
Methods of Presentation, 24. 

Mott, Sarah M. — Shopwork and Mathe- 
matics for Grade I (111.), 447. 

Need of More Time for Manual Training 
(E.)— Arthur D. Dean, 361. 

New Domestic Science Course in Milwaukee 
High Schools (C. I.), 196. 

New Manual Training School, Arkansas 
City, Kansas, (C. I.), 404. 

Outlook in England, The, (E.) — Charles A. 
Bennett, 468. 

Payne, Arthur F. — Metalwork With Inex- 
pensive Equipment for the Grammar and 
High Schools (111.), 157, 248, 434. 

Phillips, J. D. — Report of a Commitee on 
Mechanical Drawing for High Schools, 
322, 458. 

Possibility of the Survey Idea (E.) — William 
T. Bawden, 467. 

Practical Arts and Vocational Guidance — C. 
A. Prosser, 209. 

Present Status of Vocational Subjects in the 
High Schools of California, The — E. E. 
Lewis, 229. 

Printing in the Schools (C. I.), 297. 

Professor Bawden Goes to New York (E.) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 56. 

Prosser, C. A. — Practical Arts and Vocation- 
al Guidance, 209. 

Record and Cost Keeping in School Shops 
(111.)— Foster F. Hillix, 223. 

Report of a Committee on Mechanical Draw- 
ing for High Schools — Fred D. Craw- 
shaw and J. D. Phillips, 322, 458. 



Resides, George H. — Some Finishing Mater- 
ials and Their Uses in Connection With 
School Work (111.), 28. 

Reviews — Arts and Crafts Club's Art and 
Industry in Education, 103; Audsley's 
Amateur Joinery in the Home, Art of Poly- 
chromatic and Decorative Turning, Artis- 
tic and Decorative Stencilling. 206; Bab- 
bitt's Working Drawings, 305 ; Berry's 
Primer Writing Book, 206; Caffin's Art for 
Life's Sake, 514; Carter's Artistic Leather 
Work, 307; Chamberlain, Murphy, and 
Guillou's Design and Construction, 514; 
Charter's Methods of Teaching, 103 ; 
Chubb's Festivals and Plays, 306; Clarke's 
Tin-Plate Working, 205; Dearborn's Notes 
on Neurology of Voluntary Movement, 207; 
De Forest's Illustrations of Design, 207; 
Dow's Composition, 410; Dow's Theory and 
Practice of Teaching Art, 306; Edelman's 
Experimental Wireless Stations, 307; Fax- 
on's Annual Magazine Subject — Index, 515; 
Grubb and Taylor's Industrial Primary 
Reader, 102; Herrick's Reclaiming a Com- 
monwealth, 208; Hough's Leaf Key to the 
Trees of Northern States and Canada, 101; 
Ilgen's Forge Work, 410; Jessup and 
Logue's Handicraft Book, 101; Johnson's 
Toys and Toymaking, 206 ; Kellev and 
Mowll's Textbook of Design, 307;' Kid- 
ner's Educational Handwork, 411; King's 
Inside Finishing, 410; King's Series 
in Woodwork and Carpentry, 205 ; 
Magnus' Educational Aims and Efforts 409; 
Maule's Boys' Book of New Inventions, 
307; Meier's School and Home Gardens, 
514; Needham's Folk Festivals, 102; Nine- 
teenth Annual Report Western Drawing 
and Manual Training Association, 207; 
Popular Mechanics Year Book, 1913, 305; 
Proceedings Ninth Annual Meeting of Il- 
linois Manual Arts Association, 206; 
Reeve's Practical Dressmaking Up to Date, 
Elements of Dress Pattern-Modeling for 
Professionals, 306; Rollison's Alphabets and 
other Materials Useful to Letterers, 306; 
Sargent's Fine and Industrial Arts in Ele- 
mentary Education, 100; Smith, Tower, and 
Turton's Experimental Physics for Sec- 
ondary Schools, 103 ; Social Motive in 
School Work, 100; Stout Institute Bulletin, 
Outline and Bibliography of Food Study, 
103; Van Schaack's Woodworking Safe- 
guards, 101 ; Vaughn's Printing and Book- 
binding, 305; Windoes' Architectural 
Drawing Plates, 308; Windoes' Drafting 
Instruments and How to Use Them, 103; 
Woodworker Series, 205. 

Revolutionized County Institute, A (E.) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 52. 

Roberts, W. E. — Democracy in Education 
(E.), 360; Education: Knowledge and Ef- 
ficiency (E.), 172; Living in School (E.), 
361; Vocational Guidance in Cleveland 
(E.), 264; Why Children Leave School 
(E.), 360. 



IX D E X 



Rooms in Paper: Problems in Construction 
and Design (111. "I — Nama A. Lathe and 
Esther Szold, 165, 23 5, 3 52. 

Rural Schixil Manual Training (C. I.) 95. 

Safeguarding Dangerous Machinerv (E.) — 
A.' D. Dean. Ml. 

Samuel Cupples — Calvin M. Woodward, 46. 

Santa Barbara Normal School (C. I.), 90. 

ScovEi., Marv C. — The Theater: A Second 
Grade Problem (111.), 115. 

Sei.vidge. Robert W. — The Culture Elements 
in the Manual Arts, 413. 

Significant Change in Germany (E.) — 
Charles A. Bennett, 55. 

Shop Problems — Andirons, 3S9; Boiler Con- 
nections, 3S4; Book Rack, 2S7; Camp Stool, 
J79: Child's Chair, 491; Clothes Line 
^^'inde^, 1S7; Combination Table and 
Davenport, 74; Do\vel-Rod Cutter, 80; 
Emery Grinder, 279; Garden Marker, 282; 
Grade Carpentry Project, 3S4; Library 
Table, 74; Lunch Table, 491; Mission 
Chair, 74; Morris Chair, 496; Negative 
Rack, ISS; Nozzle Holder, 192; Planer 
Jack, 3S9; Printing a Monthly Paper, 379; 
Push Stick, SO; Return Bend and Pipe 
Tee, 389; Scouring Board, 1S6; Shoe Polish 
Box, S3; Sleigh Pole, 491: Small Cabinet, 
3S2; Square Fern Stand, 499; Table Plant 
Stand, 193; Taboret, 74; Test Problem in 
Projection Drawing, 383; Thirteen-inch 
Brick Wall, 3S7; Trousers Hanger, 491; 
Umbrella Rack, 279; Winding Stick, 191; 
Windmills, 379; Wood Finishing Panels, 
3S2. 

Shopwork and Mathematics for Grade I (111.) 
— James McKinne\' and Sarah M. Mott, 
447. 

Some Finishing Materials and Tlieir Uses in 
Connection with School Work (111.) — 
George H. Resides, 28. 



Some Things May Be Discarded (E.) — 

Arthur D. Dean, 364. 
Southern States (C. I.), 97. 
Subjects and Organization (C. I.), 293. 
Summers, L. L. — Woodwork in the Lower 

Grades (111.), 10. 
SzoLD, Esther — Rooms in Paper: Problems in 

Construction and Design, 165, 235, 3 52. 
Theater, The : A Second Grade Problem 

(111.)— Mary C. Scovel, 115. 
Time Allowance (C. I.), 2SS. 
Up-Bringing of a Teacher, The: An Open 

Letter to the Manual Training Teachers — 

Arthur D. Dean, 344. 
Vacation Schools (C. I.), 84. 
Vocational Guidance in Cleveland (E.) — 

W. E. Roberts, 266. 
Vocational Guidance and the Manual Arts — 

Frank M. Leavitt, 423. 
West (C. I.), 199. 
Western States (C. I.), 89. 
What the Graduate from the Eighth Grade 

Shopwork Should Know — Joseph Berg, 443. 
What Is Fundamental (E.) — Arthur D. Dean, 

363. 
What the Manufacturer Should Expect of the 

Manual Training School Graduate — Wilson 

H. Henderson, 245. 
Wheeler, Charles G. — A Manual Training 

Workshop Built bv Grammar School Pupils 

(111.). 417. 
Whv Children Leave School (E.)— W. E. 

Roberts, 360. 
William L. Savre (E.)— Charles A. Bennett, 

176. 
Woodward, Calvin M. — Samuel Cupples, 

46. 
Woodwork in the Lower Grades (111.) — L. 

L. Summers, 10. 



C'jPVkm.mt. 1^1.1. Thk Mam Ar Aurs I'kess 




SAMUEL CUPPLES. 

(See p. 46.) 



VOLUME XIV NUMBER 1 



MANUAL TRAINING MAGAZINE 



OCTOBER, 1912 



ART EDUCATION. 
RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE. 

William A. Mason 

A LATIN author writing over a thousand years ago said : "The 
times change and we change with them." This declaration of 
growth or admission of readjustment to a changing environ- 
ment b}^ this worthy Roman has a genuine, modern ring to it. Yet it 
would not be at all surprising to find after all that in reality he was, 
or had been, quite a conservative in his day. Most Romans were, until 
it was too late to be anything else. Indeed, we find today that most 
successful people who are progressive and up to the times were conserva- 
tive first before they learned how to develop out of their conservatism. 
Possibly it had been noted as early as this author's day what the phy- 
siologists have long told us about the body being wholly renewed every 
seven years. Whether this is scientifically true or not we will leave 
to the scientists to decide. It is a time-honored period anyhow; and 
we assume that the statement included the mind as well as the body. 
To young, impatient youth this uncertain cycle seems an age. He 
would like to discount it at least one-half and even then to gamble in 
futures over it. It certainly is long enough for the inexperienced be- 
ginner, whether an art student or any one else, to make many mistakes 
due to his impulsive optimism, and almost too short for wiser heads 
thoughtfully and seriously to try out newer ideas and advanced methods 
demanded by the changing times. Just about five of these cycles have 
transpired during the past generation and we older heads looking back 
over the educational advancement of our times have to ask ourselves 
the question: "Have w^e changed commensurate with the times?" 



2 M.^M'.^L TR.^IXhWG MAGAZISE 

Let us for a monu-nt turn over the pages of our drawinii; recortl- 
book back to the early beginninijs of the study and recall the methods of 
instruction of that day. When the introduction of drawinjj into the 
public schools of this country was first advocated somewhat o\er thirty 
years ago, it was wholly on the plea of its practical value in beneiiting 
the growing industries of the covuitry that it was adopted, and as "in- 
dustrial drawing" it took its place in the curriculum. Its foundation 
was geometry. Its method was over-scientific and analytic, and its 
expression was formal, stiff' and colorless. The pedagogical assumption 
underlying the work in its beginnings was that the young pupil was 
not able to draw ainthing until he had mastered the alphabet of 
drawing by a laborious drill on lines and plane figures of all possible 
shapes and in all conceivable positions. The person who paraphrased 
the saying "Nothing succeeds like success" into our present watchword : 
"The best way to learn to draw is to draw" had not arrived. Hut be 
it said for our teachers of drawing of that period that that was the day 
of alphabetic analysis in language study that preceded phonetic reading. 
The pedagogy- of that day had not advanced to the knowledge of the 
psychological fact that the young, impressionable mind of the child 
visualizes a word in its entirety, and, providing the alphabetic elements 
are not too complex, recognizes its form as a picture, tn bloc so to 
speak, as he would recognize a friend's face or any other concrete object. 
This analytic point of view naturally was imposed upon the teacher of 
drawing. He made the same mistake, only a far more fatal one in 
drawing, of ignoring almost wholly at the outset the element of per- 
ceptional training gained thru the observation and drawing of concrete 
objects, and drilled primarily on linear execution. The hand was 
trained at the expense of the eye. Manual skill far outran visual insight. 
The result was considerable mechanical excellence, but little or no real 
art appreciation as we understand it today. The linear treatment per- 
meated every phase of the subject. The designs were linear, ofttimes 
with little regard for potential color areas; the drawing of plants 
resembled crimped wire designs: and the drawing of objects, when not 
ctjpied, was flat and dead and deserved the classification "still life." 
One word serves to characterize any exhibition of drawings of that 
^ay_ colorless. .Moreover, the broader and w ider interests of the sub- 
ject in the way of training in esthetics thru all forms of nature drawing 
and its application, color study and its application in design, the study 
of art masterpieces and other art implications now included in our sub- 



ART EDVCATION 3 

ject, were hardly visioned at that time. It was the drawing teacher's 
place to teach industrial drawing and he tiid his dut\- thor(jl\' according 
to his light. Those of us who remember the work of that day must 
admit that a \ery high degree of skill of hand was attained by a large 
proportion of the pupils. If artists or artistic pupils were not developed 
at least many went out from the schools possessed of considerable tech- 
nical skill. 

Now, wherein have present tlay methods improved upon those of the 
past? Unquestionably in many dilierent directi()ns. It has long since 
been recognized that the past dry, skeletal method of analytical drawing 
was pedagogically incorrect not to say unsatisfying and uninspiring. The 
child asked for bread and he was given a stone. Manual dexterity at 
all cost was formerly the primary aim. Esthetic insight languished. 
Nature, the child's birthright, was a stranger in the school room. It 
was a thing apart, to be enjoyed only out of school hours, providing 
any time at all could be found for it. If we have done nothing else 
in our present day work we have conferred a boon upon the child in 
bringing so m.uch of nature into the school room and basing our srudv 
upon nature instead of the abstractions of geometry. * * * We owe 
it to the children whose destinies are in a measure in our hands, to the 
parents who deliver them into our keeping, to the school boards that 
pay us for our leadership, and — what we do not sufficiently think about 
— to the community, that the united efforts of all of us living within 
its bounds are striving to develop, to see to it that the course in drawing 
shall meet every demand that the needs of the present day may lay upon 
it and to purge it of every adventitious exercise that may rob the subject 
of its high value in producing useful, efficient citizens. 

CULTIVATION OF GOOD TASTE. 

The intellectual demands of the day most distinctly require a higher 
art appreciation in almost every phase of living and the cultivation of 
better taste in the appointments of the homes, the buildings and the 
surroundings of the city. We have responded to this deniatid and the 
scb.oolroom has been flooded with flowers, landscapes, figure d'^awings, 
the world's masterpieces, many of the latter happily finding their places 
in the school readers so that the great artists are becoming as familiar 
as the great writers, — and why should they not? All this is most en- 
couraging. Everybody likes it, most of all the pupils themselves, and 



4 UJATJZ. TR.^IMXG MAGAZISE 

it i> haviiii: an uplifting effect upon them. But there is a danger and, 
I believe, a tendency of carrying the picture making element too far 
in our work. Its educative value up to a certain point is unquestioned. 
Prohahlv there is no other e.xercise in drawing more valuable in 
training in the proper functioning of eye and hand than object 
drawing. But it can be carried to an excess in the direction of picture 
making, with its too inviting accompaniments of light and shade and 
color values. This may be legitimate work for the higher schools for 
the comparatively few pupils who enter them. But we who have the 
rank and file of the great mass of pupils below the high school to instruct 
must consider the sum total of our obligations towards those in our 
keeping and their future position in the community. It is a very com- 
plex age in which we live and it is becoming more and more so with 
every decade. Never before has there been a time when there were so 
many interests to reconcile in our educational courses. Never before 
too were there greater opportunities for the pupils going out from our 
schools to enter the large industrial establishments of our cities to engage 
in constructive pursuits where technical skill in mechanical and artis- 
tic operations is required. The question which we have to ask ourselves 
is: "Are we turning out from our eighth grades pupils possessed of 
sufficient manual skill successfully to enter upon such prospective em- 
ployment?" Generally speaking I fear not. I do not think the pupils 
of today possess quite so much pure mechanical skill as formerly, tho 
they have better insight and are far more artistic in their perceptions 
and in their handwork. This is a gain to be gratified over, but not 
to be satisfied with. We intend to put a peg in here and hold on to 
the gain but to advance along other lines. There is need on the part 
of us all, but I speak more particularly of the teachers of art, to recog- 
nize the complexity of the problems before us and rationally to adapt 
the course in drawing to the changing conditions of the times. This 
is largely an industrial age, calling for manual skill and constructive 
ability. Only ten per cent of the pupils entering the primary school 
ever reach the high school. The industrial ranks are recruited almost 
wholly from those pupils whose education ends with the grammar 
grades. These pupils require a definite preparation for their prospec- 
tive vocations. While maintaining as far as possible our high, artistic 
standards, ue must recognize that there should be in our courses 
of study much that makes for real disciplinary manual skill, some- 
what comparable to the definite problems soon to be faced by these 



ART EDUCATION 5 

pupils. The indiscriminate drawing of flowers, landscapes, the posed 
figure, still-life groups, and such interesting and artistic exercises, dear 
to the heart of every art teacher, are valuable only within reasonable 
limits. It must frankly be admitted that some of this work is beyond 
the capacity of many of these pupils. It must not be carried too far. 
Other exercises more practical must share the time with them. We 
must remember that our aim is not to turn out working artists but artis- 
tic workmen. Furthermore, the art teacher must not live unto himself 
alone and keep drawing a thing apart from the daily life of the child. 
He should be alive to the school, home, and community interests of the 
child. He should take excursions into other fields. Museums, picture 
galleries, collections, city institutions, industrial establishments, should 
be visited by the pupils and essays be written about them. The succeed- 
ing drawing lesson should be a cover design for these essays, each one 
an original arrangement. In the planning and execution of the letter- 
ing, the border and the simple, significant illustration or decoration, if 
any be employed, will be found one of the very best drawing exercises 
that the average pupil^ — and there are a good many of them — can be 
given. It involves the exercises of restrained taste and comprehensive 
planning with definite, ordered spacing and skillful, artistic rendering. 
We must have more good lettering and less poor painting. 

ART AND MANUAL TRAINING. 

It is incumbent upon the teacher of drawing more fully to coordinate 
and correlate his work with that of the sewing and manual training 
teachers, as well as with every other educational agency within the 
school. In the subject of decorative design this is most essential. We 
should have done wnth so-called pure, abstract design. Whatever is 
done in this line should be practical. It should as far as possible be 
applied in some real, concrete problem. This vitalizes the subject and 
makes it worth while. When girls find out that they can easily learn 
to stencil in colors on fabrics, making window curtains, cushions, etc., 
design takes on a new meaning for them. The pupil immediately dis- 
covers when he works in concrete materials that he cannot proceed 
whimsically, riotously, with lax restraint, in the flamboyant style native 
to the average school child ; but that the physical limitations of the sur- 
face, the compelling influence of the contour lines and the purpose and 
use of the object constructed and to be decorated impose definite, struc- 
tural conditions upon his design that cannot be overlooked nor violated. 



6 U V.vr.//. TRilMXC. M.lC.iZlXE 

In these cooperame exercises invohiiiL:; manual training ami drawing 
it will be disco\ereil that the cotistrvicti\ e work will react with hene- 
ticial results upon the art oi design. 

There is as urgent a demand for reciprocity in the affairs of the 
republic of the classroom as in the afiairs of nations; and if we desire 
in the future to make the subject of drawing the able handmaid in the 
school that it ought to be, we must from now on recognize its inter- 
dependence in the curriculum. It is a means to an end, not an end 
itself. We are not to teach art wholly for art's sake; but for nothing 
under the sun than ft)r the child's sake. We haven't yet found out 
just what that desideratum is to be, but we should strive so to ilo. 
\\ e should neither deny the pupil the benign influence of art nor shoot 
clear over his head and altogether miss him by our too high aim. We 
should ever bear in mind the significant, the momentous fact that the 
pupil in the grammar grades is only a ver}- few years — many only a few 
months — oft from some vocation, and every drawing lesson should help 
to establish some habit of mind or motor activity that will be helpful 
in this \c)cation. The problem is neither simple in its proportion nor 
eas\' in its solution. No one has solved it yet. Vhc end and aim of 
the instruction seem to be complicated by the diversity of individual 
interests. To an extent these always existed but were not considered 
nor pro\ided for. New conditions seem to confront us as we proceed. 
For example, somewhere out of this modern school organization have 
suddenly appeared the backward, delinquent, disciplinary, and other 
special classes of pupils. Whether suspected before or not, they are now 
organized and require their own courses of study adapted to their pecu- 
liar needs. It should be more largely instrumental and still more closely 
correlated with the course in manual training. Hie chief problem of 
the future then for the art teacher seems to be to reconcile and harmonize 
all these conflicting interests; to decide upon the irreducible minimum 
of pure artistic training that every pupil lea\ ing the public schools 
should have :is a basis for manhood, culture anil refinement, and facility 
of hand that will serve him in any future walk of life. 

ORf.AXI/. ATION FOR TKACHINC. KI FICIKNCV. 

Hut in an\ event, whether our courses m art ought to be less or 
inr»re artistic, whether they should be dominated from the purely cul- 
tural point r)f view f)r frf)m the vocational standpoint, wr need to have 



.^RT ED VC. -IT ION 7 

our schools more thoroly organized on tlie highest plane of teaching 
efficiency. We should apply the principles of the successful business 
and industrial establishments to the managements of our schools. We 
need some Fred 'Faylor to show us how to secure the maximum amount 
of efficiency in our corps of instructors. In one matter in particular 
I am convinced that the efficiency expert would agree with some of the 
foremost educators of our day. We employ special teachers of sewing, 
cooking and manual training who teach the pupils these* branches in 
the classroom; but the grade teacher is expected to teach all the subjects 
under the study of drawing, whether representative, constructive, or 
decorative. In this age of differentiation of function this proposition 
is almost untenable. It is fine in theory but it does not work out in 
practice. It is a good basis to depart from but not always to adhere to. 
As we drawing teachers ourselves very well know there are many grade 
teachers who have not and never will have the slighest conception of 
what drawing is or ought to be. There are a great many others who 
teach the subject only indifferently well. The pupil's time is all but 
wasted in their rooms. The system should be flexible enough to per- 
mit that such teachers should be relieved of this study and their classes 
placed in the hands of teachers more competent in this branch. 

Nine years ago Dr. Butler of Columbia University spoke in these 
warning words before the National P]ducation Association: 

After a child has been in scliooi for four cr five years he is brought b\' the 
courfe of study to the point where the subjects begin to divide. They begin to 
take on separateness. The pupil comes in contact with the higher reaches of 
ivHOwledge, and no person short of a genius can command the scholarship to 
teach wise!}- and economically the whole series of subjects which are represented 
in the upper elemetary, or grammar, grades. To prepare teachers adequately for 
tnc work now required of them in these grades is an absolute impossibility. We 
'fed, first of all, so to rearrange our work in those grades, and so to readjust ili.^ 
tCcching of the subjects there, that we can command better scholarship. We can- 
not do this until we divide the subjects among several teachers. 

We teachers of art know better than any body else that there is not, 
as Dr. Butler intimates, enough time to be found in the Normal School 
adequately to prepare every teacher successfully to teach our branch in 
the elementary grades. We realize more keenly than any body the truth 
of our poet's words: "Art is long and time is fleeting." If we would 
increase the efficiency of art instruction in the elementary grades in the 
future, we should adopt the departmental system of teaching this subject 
in the higher, if not in the entire, grammar grades. Wherever this 



8 MriM .^L TRrilXIXG MAGAZINE 

obviously more efficient method of instruction has been tried, at least 
within my own experience and I believe it has been the verdict of every- 
one, it has resulted in a decided improvement in tlie work. The argu- 
ments in favor of the general proposition are of course too self-evident 
to be seriously controverted. I believe no one undertakes to deny them. 
But man\ seem to see insuperable, concomitant disadvantages in its intro- 
duction that will affect the general welfare of the schools. But it 
must be conceded that anything that makes for better and more efficient 
instruction in an\ branch should be welcomed and reconciled at almost 
any cost. It will probably soon be found that the original cost was 
trifling as compared with the future gain. 

Briefly to recapitulate then, the problems that confronted the teachei 
of art in the past, as we have noted, were comparatively simple. The 
educational outlook as far as art education was concerned was limif^i. 
The purpose \ery vaguely apprehended to teach industrial art in the 
schools led to mechanical processes which dominated the instruction. 
It became industrial — whatever that meant — without being artistic. The 
term "applied art" was popularly used in connection with some of the 
exercises in design, but as no material whatever was used but the draw- 
ing paper, the designation became rather a travesty. It was like the 
play of Hamlet with Hamlet omitted. Following this stage at a later 
date came a natural revulsion from this mechanical method and a period 
of bold audacity in fine art was ushered in which is only just closing. 
The proverbial pendulum which appears to beat time for our educational 
movements must ha\e beaten all former records in its wide swing away 
from the normal. Painting pure and simple — the unadulterated Simon- 
pure article — was taught to babes and grown-ups alike, from the kinder- 
garten to the high sch(jol. as tho all were to become painters. Under 
this influence thousands of embryo artists applied at the doors of our 
academies of fine arts only to discover later on that their superficial 
education had fitted them for neither the arts nor the industries. 

We are learning to do better now. We are, 1 trust, making an 
earnest endeavor to reconcile the mechanical and the artistic elements 
in our work. Neither should be over-looked; neither should be over- 
forced. The\- wait upon each other. No true problem in applied art 
worthy of the name can be carried out without the underlying elements 
of geometric construction. Then too, the introduction of concrete ma- 
terials into the schorjls, as textiles, fabrics, leather, wood, c(jpper, etc., 
have given to ch-sign a new content and meaning not recogni/.ed before. 



.7/?r EDVCATIOh- 9 

In the presence of the concrete material itself we discover that the 
appropriate desij^n arises out of the object, its purpose and sliape, rather 
than bein^ applied to it. Academic desijj;n fails when we face these 
practical problems. So the teacher of drawin*;: should welcome the intro- 
duction of these materials into the classroom. He should extend the 
glad hand to the manual training teacher. The\^ are both working for 
technical excellence; and no form of school correlation in the future 
can better make for the welfare of the pupil than that which should 
obtain betrween these two teachers. By their hearty cooperation, I 
believe, school life for the pupil will be made more interesting, more 
inviting for its longer continuance, and a larger proportion will be 
better prepared to take a higher and more respected position in the 
commimit\ than at an\' time heretofore. 




AODITION ON RURAL SCHOOL FOR 
MANUAL TRAINING ROOM, BUILT BY 
STUDENTS, SPRING VALLEY, MINN. 




Fig. 1. FIRST B. GRADE AT WORK. .MODELS SHOWN WERE MADE THE PREVIOUS 

TEN WEEKS. 



WOODWORK IN THE LOWER GRADES. 

1 , . L . Summers. 

DL RINCj the past few years a ^reat deal has been said about 
the \alue of industrial education and there has been not a little 
criticism concerninji; the failure of manual training. Manual 
training is not a "cure-all," especially when taken in such small doses 
and at such wide intervals. Two hours a week for the seventh and 
eighth grades is about the average time. I'his is one hundred and sixty 
hours in two years or si.xteen da\s of an apprentice's time. 

We think we have manual training in our schools but as a mattter 
of fact this IS not so. Some of our larger cities of hve thousand popu- 
lation and over have manual training in the sixth, seventh, and eighth 
grades and the first two years of the high school while almost all of the 
smaller cities, all of the villages and country- schools, and the first five 
grades in the larger cities have little or no mainial training. How 
much manual training are we giving to the quarter of a million boys and 



10 



ICUODIfORK /A I'HH LOllER GR.IDES II 

girls who drop out of school each year before they finish the sixth grade? 
It is this quarter of a million which is most in need of industrial 
education for they eventually will form the lowest level of society. 

It is not a difficult thing to say what should be done but quite 
another thing to tell how it can be ilone. If we wish to teach a child 




FIG. J. SECOND A. GRADE, SHOWING TEACHER AND THE PU?II,3 AT WORK. 

to read we must have a trained teacher and set apart a portion ot each 
day for this instruction. If we wish to lay the foundation for industrial 
occupations we must have trained teachers and begin this work the day 
the pupil enters school. Certificates of graduation from our Normal 
schools must include industrial training and teachers now in the service, 
not having had this training, should be required to attend summer 
schools. Industrial work started in the kindergarten should be continued 
during the entire public school period and should be regarded just as 
fundamental to every child's education as reading. During the first six 
grades, industrial work including "drawing and physical training should 
require at least one-third of each school day and beginning with the 
seventh grade, for boys and girls electing an industrial course, one-half 
of each day should be given to this work. These industriaJ courses 



12 



M.^Mril. TR.^IMXG M.^GA'/.ISE 



niiilht end with rhe close of the second year of the hi^h school and 
diplomas iiranted to pupils finishing them. 

The ahove is written as an introduction to a description of an ex- 
periment which has been made durintr the pa-^-t seven years at the Osh- 
kosh. Wisconsin, State Normal School. 




FIG. 3. SHOWING THIRD B. GRADE AND THEIR WORK OF THE PREVIOUS TEN WEEKS. 



WOODWORK FOR VERY YOUXG CHILDRKX. 

One cold winter day about seven years a<^o I found a little kinder- 
garten boy standinji outside the school buildiivj;, ami in reply to my 
question he said he was waiting for his sister. On inquir\' I found that 
he did this ever\ day, so I arranged with his teacher to have him wait 
in the manual training room. It was a \ery natural thins: for the 
boy to want to do somethin^^ so I j^ave him some narrow strips of soft 
wood and showed him how to make a ladder. He did so well with 
this kind of manual traininfr that I asked permissicjn of the president 
to make an experiment with an entire first ^:rade class. This proved 
a.s satisfactory as the work with the little boy, so the following year 
woodwork was pur inro all of the ;:rad'.'s befj^inning with the first. 



iroODIlORK Ii\ THE LOWER GRIDES 



n 



The simple benches constructetl b\ the seventh and ei<ihth yrade 
pupils have proven to be very satisfactory These are shown in Figs. 
1 to 4. The tools used are the hammer, ten-inch back-saw, rule, try- 
square, knife, sandpaper, and file. 

The first >ear we used common pine laths but these did not of^er 




FIG. 4. FOURTH B. GRADE PUPILS AT WORK. SHOWING THE WORK OF THE PAST 

TEN WEEKS. 

variety enough so we began to use hasswood surfaced two sides to the 
following thicknesses: one-fourth, three-eighths, one-half, and three- 
fourths inches. For most of our work we use material three-eighths of 
an inch thick. This is ripped at the school to any desired widths and 
is given to the pupils in pieces from three to four feet long. By accident 
we found that cigar box" nails are better adapted for the use of young 
children than brads. 

It will be seen that the equipment for this work is very inexpensive 
and the material used in the first four grades will not average more 
than fifty cents a pupil each year. 

At our Normal school the children are taught by the students who 
have previously had ten weeks of manual training instruction and their 
teaching is supervised by the head of the manual training department. 



^^ 14 



M.l\l\n. TRAlMXa MAGAZISE 
\\OOV)\\OKK AND NUMBER WORK. 



The nioilcls hkuIc b\ the pupils in the first four grades are varied 
and interestiiiiZ and an effort has been inatle to connect this manual 
training with the other school work. For example, all of the number 

work of the first and second grades 
is taught in an applied way as a 
part of the maiuial traininL^. We 
have no trouble in st) arranging the 
projects that it is possible to give 
the combinations in a logical order 
and at the same time to allow the 
child to discover them. The pupils 
have very little difKculty in retain- 
ing these combinations for they are 
not only able to hold them in the 
memory but are able to see how 
they look on the nde. To illus- 
trate: We may have, in making a 
bird-house, boards seven inches 
long and five inches long. After 
squaring the end of the board the 
pupil is asked to measure seven 
inches on the board and mark with 
a dot. He is then told to measure 
five inches more without moving 
his rule and indicate by means of 
a second dot. Next he squares the board thru these dots. After sawing 
oft both boards he verifies his results by measuring the second board. 
We let the child discover his mistake when he makes one. Following 
this plan the pupils use all of the combinations a great many times during 
the first two years. We make use of the nails driven into the models 
to count b\ twos, threes, fours, etc. 

During the first and second years the pupils have rather a wide 
experience in applied number work and are able to absorb more real 
arithmetic than is usualK taught following the old method. The use 
of the rule in connection with the things constructed gives the child 
an excellent foundation for his later work with fractions. I frequently 
have such answers as this from httle first grade pupils. This board, or 




FIG. 5. STEPS SHOWING THE CON- 
STRUCTION" OF THE SLED, A FIRST GRADE 
MODEL. THE BIRD HOUSE IS A SECOND 
GRADE MODEL. 



iroODJiORK IN THE LOWER GRADES 



15 



whatever the pupils happen to he measurinjz;, is six inches and a halt 
and a quarter and a half of a quarter. 'Ihis is simply fiivin^ an il- 
lustration of how easy it is for the children to see fractions. It is just 
as easy for them to find one-half of their foot rule, one-quarter, or one- 




^.^:w»r«siaMfyM^ 



^ k 




FIG. 6. SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF A MARTIN HOUSE. THIRD GRADE MODEL. 



half of a quarter. In this applied way the pupils of the higher grades 
can be taught to add, subtract, multiply, and divide fractions as easily 
as they ordinarily do whole numbers. I firmly believe that the number 
"bugbear" which works such havoc with so many little children is the 
stumbling-block, which the methodical pedagog, in the form of an unreal, 
uninteresting, incomprehensible book, has put into the hands of im- 
mature little children. If the best plan should be followed, no book 
on arithmetic whatever would be put into the hands of any pupil 
before the fifth grade, for up to this time all of the number work can 



16 l/.V.Vr.V/. TRrlLMXC M.AGrlZINE 

be taught a thousand rinu-s better in an applied way and all of this 
time saved tor industrial training: which inchides the number work. 

I'l'I'll.S IXTKRESTKU IN' THK WORK. 

The children are \ ery much mterested in makinii; tools and apparatus 
which they use \n their manual trainmL:; and other school work. In 
both the first and second .i2;rades we make looms which are quite as 
satisfactory as an\ we rind on the market. After using the loom it 
bect)mes the propert\ of the pupil and is taken home. 

The germinator is a very useful model. After it is made the pupils 
paint it with asphaltimi to keep the water from warping the boards. It 
is hlled with moss or cotton and the seeds are placed on top of the 
moss and under the glass. This makes it possible to see the growth 
of both the stem and the roots. By the use of the germinator we are 
able to furnish excellent material for the drawing classes, the nature 
study classes, and the language work. This model is made in several 
of the grades. 

The bird-houses which we bin Id every spring serve a double purpose 
for we tr\- to make this a nature study lesson as well as a manual 
training model. The work on this model is always preceded by a talk 
about the birds which are usually seen each spring in the neighborhood 
and the children are on the lookout for the rirst new comers. Stories 
of birds are told and the children are shown colored pictures. Each 
child chooses a bird for which he wishes to make a house. These 
houses var\ in size and the doors must be made just large enough for 
the birds which are to occupy them. After choosing the bird, the size 
of the house and the door are determined upon and the pupils begin 
work. The method followed in making the houses is the same so the 
difference in size makes it mcjre interesting to the individual pupil. Fig. 
5, showing the steps followed in making the bird-house, illustrates how 
simple this model is. First the ends are made on the plan of con- 
structing a platform. If we are using lumber two inches wide and 
wish to make the door for the wren-house we use one inch lumber where 
the d(i(jr is to be made cutting the board off so the opening will be one 
inch wide. A board one inch wide finishes this platform. Next the 
sides are nailed on and then the top and bottom. VVe make an ad- 
ditional roof and put this on top leaving an air space between. Hun- 
dreds of these bird-houses arr found all over the city. 



IfOODirORK IK THE LOH'ER GRADES 



17 



Fig. 6 shows a martin-housi' witli tour compartnients. These houses 
have been made this sprin<2; by third jijrade children. The one in the 
illustration — showing the steps — was made h\- a boy nine years old. The 
others were made by two pupils working together. We sometimes try 
a two-story martin-house with eight compartments. 




FIG. /. FOURTH R. GRADE GROUP PROJECT GEOGRAPHY. 

Another model which we feel will be useful in our nature work is 
the blueprint frame. This is the hrst year we have tried the blueprint 
frame and it has been made in the third grade. The method of con- 
struction is very simple and the model is perfect from the standpoint of 
doing the work for which it was designed. 



CORRELATED PROBLEMS. 

We try to make history and geography more interesting and com- 
prehensive by having the pupils construct some of the things about which 
they are studying. Such as canal locks, water wheels, elevators, dredges, 
scows, etc. 

A year or two ago a fourth grade became verv much interested in 



IS 



M l.\L rir TR.HMXC MAl'.r/.lSE 



transportation b\ means of railroads. Those pupils made a very com- 
prehensive stiuh of the different kinds of cars, sizes, uses, etc., and 
finally constructed the cars 5is well as a crude en>:ine and tender. Fig. 
7 shows some of the things they made. 

We begin making tools in the first grade and we encouratze the 




FIG. 8. SHOWING How IHK SLhD HROJhXT IS CARRIKI) Oil'. FIRST GRADE MODEL. 

SEE ALSO FIG. 5. 

children to hx up home shops. Each year the pupils w rite letters to 
Santa Claus asking for certain tools and as a result almost all of the 
bo\s and girls in our model school ha\e home workshops. In them they 
spend much of their spare time during the uar and a great deal of their 
vacation time. 

An effort is made to let the pupil put himself into his work as much 
as possible. When we wish to teach a process we \ery often have the 
pupils all make the same thing and exactly alike. This is illustrated 
in Fig. <S. which shows several sleds made by a first grade. 'I'he lower 
part is the same in all the sleds, but the pupils arc allowed to finish 
according to fancy. Some have added a seat, some two, others a box and 
a seat, etc. Several times each semester the pupils have similar op- 
portunities, as well as a chance to take the initiative and make entirely 
original mcjdels. At Christmas time we make tens and we are beginning 
to draw and saw out animals which we use in the toy making. 

IMfl ( RI-,-l'R.\.MI\(;. 
Hrginning \\\x\\ the first grade and loiitinuing thru all of the grades 



liOODH'ORK IN THE LUHEK GR.WES 



19 



SHPliw 



we teach the framing; of pictures, see Fi^. 9. This we try to make much 
more than the constructinji; of frames. The children select the pictures 
which they very often cut from maj^azines and brin^ to their teachers 
for criticism. The student teacher submits the pictures to the super- 
visors for suggestions. As a rule the pictures selected are colored and 
if some pupil is unable to Hnd i 
pleasing picture, one is furnished 
for him. The pictures framed in 
the first grade are uniform in size 
and this project follows the making 
of the loom. In the second grade 
the frames may be any size up to 
a certain limit. In the third, two 
or more pictures are framed in a 
group. In the fourth grade hard 
wood is used and the pupils must 
saw to a knife line, and in the fifth 
the frame is made from a single 
board using the jig-saw. The rab- 
bet is formed by gluing a second 
piece on to the first having a larger 
opening. 

Toys are made in all of the 
grades and the ages of the pupils 

determine the character. We feel that we are only making a beginning 
in this field. The importance of good substantial home-made toys can 
hardly be overestimated. If American children can he taught to make 
good toys, of pleasing proportions and decorated with simple harmonious 
colors, we will be going a long way toward cultivating good taste which 
will show itself in the decorations and furnishings of homes m the 
future. 

As early as possible we introduce practical things into the course. 
Hoth boys and girls make hand sleds in the third grade which they 
can use. The illustrations show that the sleds are different and that 
the pupils have a good deal to say about the character of the sleds. In 
the fourth grade the boys may make a double runner. This is but a 
single example of a large number of usable things made. 

Beginning with the fourth grade the square prism material is used. 
Interesting mission furniture, hook- and music-racks, tabouretts, etc.. 




FIG, 9. 



PICTURE-FRAMING, 
TO FIVE. 



GRADES TWO 



20 



.\/.V.Vr.7Z. TRr{l\L\G MAGAZISE 



are made. 1 his is difficult work and requires very accurate sawing and 
is an excellent test of the pupils' ability. 

Group work is not as successful in the low er i2;rades as the individual 
projects. We have tried >rroup work with some success in the third 
grade. A circus parade is an interesting subject and each child should 




FIG. 10. THIRD GRADE GROUP PROJFCT CIRCII3 PARADK. 



be give a wa'jon to make and the animals to model in clay. See Fig. 10. 

A farm scene can be worked out in the spring. The pupils can 
make the farm buildings, lay out fields, build fences and gates, construct 
the farm tools, machinery, wagons, sleighs, etc. They should also have 
a chance to model the animals and people, plant the fields to grain, and 
spend the entire spring in a profitable study of farm life. 

Our pupils have been \{-r\ much interested in makmg all of the kinds 
of wagons, carts, etc., which they see at different times in the city. The 
working out of this project is preceded by several weeks of observation 
and almf)st daih (jucsrionin^ on the part of the teacher. 

W'c tr\ to inrcrcst the pupils as earl\ as possible in the world's work 



IfOODUORK IS THE LOWER CR.WES 21 

and we find that tourth and fifth, and even third, ^rade pupils are very 
much taken with work of this character. 

I thoroly believe in the importance of paper work, raffia work, clay 
modeling, etc., in these lower grades but in comparison, uurk in ivoo/i 
is many times more valuable. 

I was recently talking with a teacher who has been supervisor of 
practice for many years in one of our leading Normal Schools and she 
said that it is her opinion that industrial work of the right character in 
the first four grades is of more importance than any other four years 
of the pupils school life. 

SUMMARY. 

To realize the importance of this simple woodwork in the lower 
grades one must observe the children during a period of several months. 
The muscular development and control which will be apparent will 
convince the most skeptical of the importance of this kind of manual 
training. I have carefully- studied this woodwork in the lower grades 
for the past seven years and I feel that it is worth while for the fol- 
lowing reasons. 

First: It takes the pupils out of the school desks and necessitates 
the use of the larger muscles of the body. 

Second: It provides a kind of activity which gives the child pleasure 
— hammering and sawing — and when coupled with the making of useful 
objects which appeal to the child, may well be called play work. 

Third : It provides a kind of work which connects the child's world 
with the world of things about him. 

Fourth: It gives an actual number experience which is of the 
greatest importance to a child of this period. 

Fifth: It vitalizes and makes real many things in geography and 
history which the pupils usually read about or at best see thru pictures. 

Sixth: It furnishes a practical incentive for the use of constructive 
imagination. 

Seventh: It provides a kind of muscular gymnastics, which may be 
so graded that the sequence will develop power in the child by the 
mastering of new difficulties. 

Eighth: It makes the development of the body and the mind or>c 
and the same thing. 

The outline presented herewith is a tentative plan of work for the 
first five grades which we change whenever we find anything better. 



MAMAL TRALMNG IN THE GRADES 



Time: Thirty Minutes Daily 



I'KP.CKSSES. 



Ri.:c. 

rry-square. 
Saw. 
Hammer. 
Sandpaper 
File. 
Knife. 

For 3rd 
grade. 
Spokeshave 
or Draw 

ing-knife 
is added 



1st. 



Stiuaring. 

Sawing. 

Measuring. 

Nailing. 

Sandpapering. 

Filing. 

Whittling. 

Staining. 



2nd. 



Squaring. 

Sawing. 
Same as for ^Teasu^ing 
Grades 1, 2. Nailing. 
and 3, with ^Vhittling. 
addition of 



3rd. 



bit, brace, 
and screw- 
driver. 



Filing. 
Sandpapering. 
Staining. 
Waxing. 
Sawing to 

Knife Line. 
Boring. 



4th 



Sth. 



Bench-Hook. 

Plant-Stand. 

Sled. 

L.otim. 

Picture-Frame. 

(Size Uniform.) 

Ladder. 

Nail-Box. 

Stools. 

Plant-Stand No. 

Table. 

Cart. 



Box with Cover. 

Wardrobe. 

Cupboard. 

Wash-Bench. 

Picture-Puzzle. 

Box. 

Germinator. 

Rural Mail 
Wagon. 



Mill 



1. Map-Puzzle Box. 



ORIGIN.^L WITHIN LIMIT/ 
GIVING OPPORTUNITY 
DESIGN. 

2. Plant-Stand. i 

3. Sled. 



L Chair. 

2. Foot-Stool. 

3. Table, made from 
■)4" s(}. pr. material 5. 
and large enough for 
use bv small children. 



2. 



Bench- Hook, made 
from board 14" thick 
and 4" wide; end 
strip 1J4" wide. 

Salt- or Mail-Box. 



3. Jardinier-Stand. 



6. Picture-Frame ; 

(Size limited by tei 
10. Bird-House. 
12. Cjlove-Box. 



2. Picture-Frame; 

(2 pictures in one f 

3. Sled, (large cnou 
use. ) 

7. Martin-House. 

(4 or 8 compartmei 



Picture-Frame; 

(hard wood) 

Saw to knife line. | 

Kitchen Knife-Bo> i 
Saw to knife line. 



Necktie-Rack. 
One-piece hardwot 
Picture-Frame. 
Desk-Calendar. 
Mouse-trap. 
Tool-Chest, made 
sq. pr. strips. 
Use miter-box. 





MANUAL 


TKAINLNG L\ THE GRADES 






GROUP WORK AND TOOLS, APPARATUS. AND CORRELA- 






iRIGINAL. 


INDUSTRIAL 
CORRELATION. 




TION WITH OTHER SCHOOL 
WORK. 


rOYS AND GAMES. 


MATERIAL. 


d 7. Xmas 




4. 


Loom to be used as soon as 


.Many of the 


1/4", 3/8", 


Ddels. 






Hnisiied. 


models in the 


1 2" soft 


(lis, Furn- 








1st grade are 


wood boards 


re. Lumber 








classed as toys. 


ripped to any 


;pared by 








10, 11, 12, 13 


desired 


cher to 








are Toys. 


widths. 


^e pupils 












start. 14 












d 15 Origi- 
1. 












d 8. . Xmas 


Farm Scene. 


1. 


Loom larger than one made 


3, 4, 5 and 12 


Material same 


jdels. 


Building, 




in 1st grade Rugs made 


a re Toys. 


as for first 


acher to 


fences, tools, 




from material found at 




grade. 


.'e pupils a 


wagons, 




home, and most of weaving 






rt by shovv- 


sleighs, etc. 




done b}' child as home work. 






l things 


can be made. 


10 


and 11. Bird-House and 






lich might 






Germinator. 






made. 14 












d 15. 












iginal. 












tmas. Mod- 


+. Land Trans- 


11. 


Blueprint Frame. 


12. Ring Toss. 


Same as for 


, Boxes, 


portation. 8. 


Canal-Locks. 


13. Swing Seat. 


grades 1 and 2 


:ture- 


Farm, milk, 9. 


Dredge. 


6. Toboggan 


with addition 


amex, Sleds, 


mail, stone, 10. 


Water-Wheel. 


Slide. 


of 3/4" board 




hucksters' de- 


See-Saw. 




ripped for 




livery wa- 








sleds, etc. 




gon*, etc. 












Carts, wheel- 












barrows. 












sleighs. 








Cmas Mod- 


7. R. R. Trans- 8. 


Science Models. Windlass, 


13. Darts. 


Same as for 


. 14. Origi- 


portation. 


Derrick, Testing tensile 




grades 1, 2 


1 Model. 


Box, furni- 


strength of wire. Center of 




and 3, with 


limal Toys 


ture, coal, oil, 


Gravity Apparatus, etc. 




addition of 


Wheels. 


stock, passen- 9. 


Models illustrating the ear- 




3/4" sq. ,M 




ger cars, en- 


ly discoveries in N. A. 




material. 




gine, tender, 10. 


Models illustrating Indian 








etc. 


life. 








11. 


Flower Boxes for School- 












room. 










13. 


Seed Tester. 






Cmas Mod- 




io7 


Tool Box, sq. pr. strips. 


14. Kites. 


Same as for 


. 15. Origi- 


11. 


Models ill. Colonial life: 


Windmill. 


grades 1,2, • ■ 


1 Model. 


12. 


Stocks, Pillory, Ducking- 
Stool. 
Weather-Vane. 




and 4. 






13. 


Block-House, sq. pr. strips. 










16. 


Science Models: Loop the 
Loop, Models ill. action and 
reaction. Lever, Spirit Level. 







DESCRlPriVK GEOMETRY. II. METHODS OF PRESEN 

TATION. 

H. \V. Mii.i.FR. 

THERE an- in use at present in \arious institvitit)ns, three methods 
of presentiniz the subject of descriptive i:cometr\ . It is perhaps 
e;u;ier to describe briefly the procedure followed under each of 
these methods than to name the methods themselves. 

From investiiiation. the writer finds that 200 hours is a fair average 
of the time spent by students of various institutions in preparation and 
recitation of the subject under discussion. 1. Under the first method 
about 150 hours are spent in preparation and oral recitation and 50 
hours in the draftini;-room in solution of *!;raphic problems. In such 
courses the time spent in oral recitation is devoted to oral quizzing 
of the students on analyses; the time in the drafting-room in solving 
from thirty to fifty graphic problems and in inking in various colored 
inks. 2. Under the second method the 200 hours are about equally 
divided between preparation and oral recitation, and drafting-room work 
in solving graphic problems; i. e., about 100 hours in preparation and 
recitation, and 100 hours in drafting. 3. Under the third method the 
procedure of the first is about reversed; i. e., about 50 hours are spent 
in preparation and 150 in the drawing room solving graphically both 
theoretical and practical problems. 

If the engineering education is to be of any value to a man he must 
be taught from the time he enters until he leaves, how to record or 
express his knowledge and ideas both verbally and graphically. If he 
is to direct the operations of others he must be able to express intelligibly 
his orders and directions. If he can express himself verbally but not 
graphically. c)r the reverse, he is continually handicapped in meeting 
occasions where the other accomplishment is necessary; and if he is 
able to express himself in neither way he is not <m engineer but a laborer 
to be directed by others. 

How common it is to hear a teacher say of a student: "He knows 
the >ubject. he is bright enough, but he cannot express himself in- 
telligibl\ ;"' or to sa\ of a class: "They can solve problems at the 
board but make a hcjpeless mess of it when they attempt to explain 
their work." This fault or deficiency is so common that it seems to 
be taken for granted as necessary. Each teacher has a remedy to 

24 



DESCRIPTIIE GEOMETRY 25 

suggest but that remedy is not to be applied by him. But few of us 
teach a subject with a conviction that it is our duty to teach each 
student to the utmost of our ability, how to express verbally always, 
and graphically also if the subject be such, the knowledge he is gaining 
from that study. How much better application a student can make 
this year, of the knowledge gained last year, if last year's teachers 
(remembering that we are "last j'^ear's teachers" of next year), had. 
besides giving their students a thoro understanding of their studies, 
taught them to speak and write intelligibly that knowledge. 

The selection of one of the three methods of presentation as the 
proper one then seems to depend entirely upon one's conception of his 
duty as a teacher of that particular subject. Expressed in a few^ words, 
it seems to the writer that the duty of every teacher, no matter what 
his subject be, is to teach his students to speak and write intelligently 
and intelligibly in the language of the subject he teaches; if he fails 
in this he shirks his responsibilities, because he need not fail. If this 
conception of duty be correct the second method will accomplish the 
desired results. 

The following is a summary of the manner in which this second 
method is applied with most pleasing success at the University of Illinois. 
Except during the first two weeks, when the students are taught to 
plot problems by coordinates, all exercises (plates) are printed from 
zinc etchings. Students formerly consumed about one-fifth of the two- 
hour period in plotting problems from coordinates; the practice became 
monotonous, taught nothing, bred carelessness, and wasted time. This 
time is now used in solving extra problems. In all. the student solves 
graphically about 400 theoretical and practical problems. 

SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE. 

Time: 18 weeks, second semester of Freshman year. 

No. hours per week, 8 ; divided into two 3-hour and one 2-hour 
periods; e. g., Tu. 8-11, Th. 8-11, S. 8-10. 

No. Recitations per week, 3; first hour of each period; e. g., Tu.. 
Th., S., each, 8-9. 

No. Lessons per week. 2 ; first hour of each three-hour period ; e. 
g.. Tu., Th., 8-9. 

No. Review hours per week, 2; first hour of two-hour period in oral 
review on previous two lessons ; second hour, review plate. 



2t .W /.Vr.V/. TR tlMXa M.^Cl/.IXE 

Quizzes: Given reixularh at intorxals of three weeks or six lessons. 

Examinations: Inter-Semester examination on point, line, and plane, 
iliven as soon as this work is finished. No further examination on this 
part of the work except for such men as fail on this examination. 
Failures on inter-semester examination are not recorded. 

Final Examination : Final examination on surfaces, developments, 
and intersections for all at end of semester. Final examination on whole 
text for those who failed on first examination. 

DIVISION OF WORK. 

Drawing-room work: Two-hour plates (8I2 x 11") containing 
five or six irraphic problems to be solved by the theory of the day's 
lesson or any previous lesson. One-hour review plates. 

Home work: Plates containing five or six graphic problems. 
Handed in at beginning of each recitation on an assigned lesson. Not 
accepted later under any consideration. Solved at home by theory of 
lesson for day on which plate is due. 

Text: Miller: Descriptive Geometry. 

I^l'ICAI, SCHHDULE FOR ONE WEEK's WORK. 

Tuesday, 8-9. (a) Home plate received, next home plate given 
out. (b) Recitation on articles ( — ). Instructor uses from twenty 
to thirty minutes in explaining points which may have given trouble 
in the lesson of the day; also in explaining theoretical or practical 
applications of theory of the day's lesson ; also in clearing up points 
generally misunderstood in previous lesson. (c) During remainder 
of the hour as many men as possible are sent to the boards to solve 
freehand, problems assigned them from the quiz sheets in back of text, 
(d) Men not sent to the boards are given three to five minute quizzes 
on analyses or problems. Remainder of time in oral quizzing on 
analyses. 

Tuesday, 9-11. Students report from recitation to the drawing- 
room, each is given plate (all receive the same plate) containing five or 
six graphic problems (plate printed from zinc etching). This plate 
must be handed in at 1 1 :0f) o'clock, finished or unfinished. No aid is 
given by the instructors. The plate amounts to a two hour quiz; the 
smdents so understand it, and know that if some one else works their 



DESCRIPTirE GEOMETRY 27 

home plate they themselves will be caught up in ttu- drawing- room. 
No trouble whatever is experienced with men havinji; others work their 
home plates, jis it works immediately to their detriment; no one tries 
it a second time. 

Thursday, 8-11. Similar to Tuesday thruout. 

Saturday, 8-9. Review on last two lessons. The quiz sheets in the 
back of the text contain about 850 graphic problems, from which forty 
or fifty can be found to apply to the last two lessons. As many students 
as possible are sent to the boards, each assigned a certain problem which 
he solves (freehand), giving first the analysis then the construction. 
Another student then takes his place; it is usually found possible to 
have all of a class of twenty-five recite in the one hour. This review 
recitation was only lately introduced ( the two-hour period having been 
used in solving a two-hour plate) and the oral recitation, in which the 
instructor criticizes keenly the student's choice of English, has worked 
such a benefit that the experiment is now a custom. 

Saturday, 9-10. Students are given printed plates (three problems), 
which are printed on the mimeograph the day before so that the problems 
may be designed to correct difficulties experienced in the last two lessons. 

ONE UNIT IN TIME AND PROCEDURE. 

Week Day Procedure 

( Home plate received. 

1 Tu. Recitation j Oral Recitation. 

(1 hour) I Written Recitation or Quiz. 

( Graphic Quiz. 
Drafting-Room ( Plate of five or 
(2 hours) (^ six graphic problems. 

Th. Same as Tuesday 

S. Review of Tu. and Th. 

(Both oral and graphic) 

2 Tu., Th., S. Same as Week No. 1 

3 Tu., Th. Same as Week No. 1 

S. Quiz on Weeks 1, 2, and 3. 



>(niK FlMSHINC^ MATERIALS AND THEIR USES IN 
CONNECriON WITH SCHOOL WORK. 

CiKORGE H. Resides. 

THE courses as outliiuHl in most manual traininy: and industrial 
training: schools of today consist of a required number of exercises 
in wood, illustrating the use of the tools and various joints as 
used in connection with cabinet-making. After these exercises are com- 
pleted the pupils are usually allowed to make such pieces of furniture as 
appeal to their tastes and meet with the approval of the instructor. This 
same method is followeil to some extent in the shopwork given in en- 
gineering courses in some colleges and universities. While these courses 
generally consist of a larger amount of exercise work, some time is 
usualh devoted to furniture design and construction. This is especially 
true of the teachers" courses in manual training. 

In this class of work we are brought to the place where the finishing 
materials and their uses play their part. Care should be used in select- 
ing a finish suitable to the style of furniture; that is, certain styles of 
furniture look best with mission finish while on others it would not be 
appropriate at all. In order to assist students in selecting suitable 
finishes for pieces of furniture which they had constr\icted, the writer 
prepared eighte<^n sample panels; see Fig. 2 for dimensions. Both sides 
of the lower portion of the panels were finished. Thk has a tendency 
to keep the panels straight and permits of two different shades or styles 
of finish being used on the same piece. The upper portion is not 
finished at all, the idea being to show the natural wood in contrast to 
the finished part. 

I>ectures on finishing materials and their uses are given the students 
in connection with the woodwork. The different materials entering 
into the making of stains, fillers, shellac, varnishes, panels, etc., are 
taken up in detail and explained. The panels referred to above are of 
great service in the lecture work. In connection with detailed de- 
scription of the materials entering into the making of stains, several 
bare panels are selected and stained, showing the method to be followed 
in applying the stain; the same procedure being followed with the 
filler, shellac and varnish. The final finishing, waxing, or rubbing 

28 



FINISHING AL^TERI.^LS 29 

<lo\\n and polishiiiji; is dune during the next class period. A record 
is kept of the material used on each panel. This is then typewritten 
and pasted on each one. In this way anyone can readily see what 
materials were used in the finishing. Small pieces of furniture can also 
be used to advantage for demonstration work in finishing. 





^^^^^HHH^HH 


wm 


MMMHlHHil^^^^HHl 




^^^IHBMHi 


nism^p^^^^^^i 




^ 


,«^t«r^^^^^i 




iM S 


, : r n 




liaui 




■■■M'i li^^H ^BBSI 



FIG. 1. ARRANGEMENT OF PANELS SHOWING USE OF VARIOUS FINISHING MATERIALS. 

The panels were made of various kinds of wood, such a? oak, plain 
and quarter-sawed, chesnut, walnut, mahogany, yellow pine, maple, 
poplar and basswood. After they were all finished, the next question 
was how to place them on the wall so that they would not get scratched 
or marred, and also so that they could be revolved so that either side 
could be seen. Fig. 1 shows the method finally adopted. Thirtj-six 
brass angle plates were made from sheet brass %'' thick, see Fig. 3. 
These were screwed to a board on the wall, and spaced so as to allow 
the panels to be revolved without striking each other. A small brass 
washer was placed between the angle plate and the panel, both top and 
bottom. 

Stains are usually classed under three heads: water stains, spirit 
stains and oil stains. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. A 
large percentage of all furniture stains is produced from anilines. Some 
■colors have an acid reaction, others neutral ; the balance are alkaline. 
Water stains are purchased in powder form. The formulas on the can 
tell how much powder to use in a given quantity of water. Water 
stains penetrate the wood very deeply; this is especially true if applied 
warm. Another advantage it has is that it costs less than spirit or oil 
■stain. The disadvantages are, that it raises the grain of the wood, re- 
quiring considerable sandpapering in order to prepare it for filling and 
varnishing or waxing. Another objection the writer has to it, is that 



30 



\I.L\L .11 TRril M.\c: .u.7(;.v//A/-: 



■»* -'.'«»s/<'c py^A 



it is difticvilt to iict unitorni colors. This is especially true in school 
work where oiih a small quantit\ is wanted at one time. 

Acid stains are made chiert\ troni anilines. The anilines are dissolved 
in alcohol and allowed to stand tor several days. They are then strained 
:um\ are read\ tor use. Acid stains penetrate the wood very deeply, and 

i:i\e \er\ ,>:ood results, hut the chief 
ohjection to acid stain is that it raises 
the iirain as does water stain. 

Aniline colors are produced from 
coal tar. This .uroup is most hrilliant 
i_Vr* and ahsolutel\ transparent, so that it 
makes what is called a perfect stain, 
containinii: no pigment whatever, hut 
it has the disadvantage of not heing 
\er\ fast when suhjected to light. 

Oil stains are made hy dissolving 
pigments in linseed oil and turpentine 
or naphtha. Oil stains would cer- 
tainh be the ideal stains and even 
with their drawbacks they have much 
to recommend them. The one feature 

-7 J' 4 r^^ which belongs to them is that the> 

FIG. :. SAMPLE FiNisHis-G PANEL. ^j„ j^j,^ ,-^i^^. f^e grain of the wood. 

1 he common line of oil stains do not 
penetrate ver\ deeplv into the wood. Another method of making stains 
is to use a pigment coloring such as sienna, umber, Van Dyke brown, and 
the newer group of colors, called toners, which are produced by the later 
treatment of certain colors which are called paranitranaline or Alizarine 
colors. This method of treating the products of coal tar and combining 
them with certain fixed pigments has the effect of making them very fast 
when subjected to light. ( )il stains and special Spartan stains made by 
the last named method arc \er\ powerful And penetrating, and give 
splendid results. 

Some companies in making stains or dyes, dissoKc the colors in 
alcohol. This gives them pcnctraring (]\ialities. 'I here is also a small 
<juantit\ of oil added so that the stain ma\ be easily applied and not 
show laps. The sinall (]uantit\ of oil added also prevents the stain from 
raising the grain of flic wdod. Stains of this character give very satis- 
factor\ results. 



FINISH I A a MA IE RIALS 



31 



Varnish stains are very simple to manufacture, as the bods is com- 
posed entirely of varnish. Any varnish that will dry properK' and retain 
a good gloss is suitable for this work. To this varnish is added what 
ever coloring materials may be desired to produce certain effects, hither 
the aniline or paranitranaline colors may be used. 




PIG. 3. BRASS ANGLE PLATE. 

In using a stain it makes considerable difference whether it is used 
on the solid wood or on a veneered surface. On the thin veneered 
surface backed up with glue, the stain will not penetrate deeply, while 
on solid wood the stain penetrates deeper, making a much deeper shade 
of color. Another controlling factor is the texture of the wood, whether 
it be soft or hard. Soft woods take stain more readily than hard woods. 
The stain for soft woods would therefore require more reducing if the 
same shade is desired. Some stains require wiping after being on the 
wood twenty to thirty minutes; others are allow-ed to dry entirely, while 
with some others the stain is allowed to dry about two hours and then 
the filler is applied right over the stain ; the rubbing in and wiping of 
the filler will clear up all laps or cloudiness of the stain. A second 
coat of stain will always darken the color. It is always wise to follow 
the instructions as given on the labels by the manufacturers. 



FILLERS. 



These are divided into two classes; liquid fillers and paste fillers. 
Liquid fillers are usually made from a cheap grade of rosin varnish, 



S: U./.vr.//. TR.^IMMi M.ia.^ZISF 

dr\er and rurpt'iuiiu'. and \\irh sonu- body ot whirin.iz or sonic similar 
suhstancc. 

Liquid HlK'r is intended ro he useil onh on closo-iirained woods; 
such as \olK)\\ pine, maple, or hirch. It is clieaper than paste tiller and 
is more easih applied, inasmuch as it is merely painted on like varnish 
and allowed to dr\. After it is dr\ it should he sanded down so as to 
obtain a smooth, even surface. Shellac is better than liquid filler, but 
it costs more mone\ and it is more difficult to apply so that it does not 
show laps. 

Paste filler. The base of paste filler is usually very finely ground, 
needle-like silex. to which is added enouizh pure linseed oil, and a ^ood 
grade of Japan drier to form a cement w hen ilryiuL:. This makes what 
is called the natviral tiller. When producing a combination tiller, such 
as golden oak, light antique, or dark antique, etc., coloring matter is 
added to this cement to produce the desired effect. Pigment colors 
ground in oil are the best. This mixture is then thinned with turpentine 
or benzine to a working consistency before it is applied. The use of 
whiting and cornstarch in making paste fillers shoidd be discouraged. 
Dark tillers should be used o\er dark stains. 

Pilling is the all important operation to the wood fmisher, which 
cannot be slighteii if the finished product is to pro\e satisfactory. 
Filling means the perfect le\eling up of the surface of the wood upon 
which the permanency of the finish depends; it is the foundation, and if 
it has been imperfectly laid, it is sure to cause trouble at some later 
period. The tiller should be applied with a rather stiff bristle brush. 
The writer has seen men who claimed to be finishers, apply paste filler 
just the same as they would paint or varnish, allowing it to remain a 
minute or two and then wiping it off, wiping in the direction of the 
grain of the wood, 'ibis method of tilling should be discouraged as it 
is really nothing more than staining, that is, so far as actual results are 
concerned. 

The tiller slujuld be allowed to remain on the wood until it is pasty 
and sticky and then as much of it as is possible should be rubbed into the 
pores, rubbing across the grain. Fine shavings, excelsior, or burlap can 
be used for rubbing and wiping the tiller, but for first class work, cotton 
waste is more satisfactory. The filler should all be wiped off the surface 
of the wood. If this is not done the finished product w ill have a rather 
clouded appearance after it is varnished. Ivxamine the job carefully and 
if the pores are not all tilled up properly, give it another coat of tiller. 



FINISHIXC MlTERllLS 33 

A piece of furniture, or in fact, any kind of woodwork will look better 
with one coat of varnish upon a thoroly filled surface, than it will with 
two coats of varnish upon a poorh filled surface. 

All open-grained woods, such as oak, chestnut, ash, walnut, ma- 
hogany, etc., should be filled with a paste filler. Some finishers apply a 
coat of liquid filler on top of the paste fill'er, \\ hile others use a surfacer. 
Either method usually gives satisfactory results. The object of using 
the liquid filler or surfacer is to seal thoroly the pores of the wood so as 
to prevent any shrinking of the varnish. 

ORANGE SHELLAC VARNISH. 

Orange shellac varnish is made by dissolving flake shellac gum in 
alcohol. Either grain, denatured, or wood alcohol may be used, but 
grain and denatured are preferable to wood alcohol. Orange shellac 
can be procured in two shades ; the one being a very pale yellow, the 
other a rich amber. 

White shellac varnish is made from bleached shellac gum and 
alcohol. It will be found necessary to apply heat in dissolving the 
bleached shellac gum. 

Orange shellac varnish is used for painting patterns, polishing work 
on the lathe and as a surfacer or first coater over a filled surface on 
which varnish or wax is to be applied. The writer prefers the very pale 
yellow shellac. 

White shellac is vised on light colored work where no discoloration 
is permissable and it is also to be preferred to orange shellac, as a first 
coater, except on very dark colored wood. It is easier to apply than 
orange shellac, owing to the fact that it does not dry as quickly and 
does not show the laps as plainly. 

VARNISH. 

Varnish is used chiefly to beautify the surface and to protect the 
color and the grain of the wood under it. In a general way varnish is 
made from gum, linseed oil, turpentine, and the necessary dryer. 

The making of varnish is a process which requires the greatest care 
and precision. About 125 pounds of selected gum is placed in a large 
brass kettle mounted on trucks, which is rolled over an exceedingly hot 
fire and the gum melted. This causes a loss in weight of 10<^ to 20%. 



34 U.Y.Vf .//. TR.^IMXC M AG.A/.ISF. 

I'he iiieltiiiii iZiini toanis vigoiDvisl) anil must ci)iistaiitl\ he reduced by 
stirriiiii. 1 lie nieltiiiL: process lasts about ^5 to ,v^ minutes at a tem- 
perature from OOO to o30 deirrees Fahrenheit. l>inseed oil is heated in 
a separate vessel and when the iium is thoroly melted it is allowed to 
cool somewhat and the hot oil mailually added. The kettle is then 
moveil o\er the tire a.iiain and the mixture is cooked at a temperature 
var\in>: from 4(H) to bOll ijetrrees. After the cooking is properly com- 
pleted and the mixture sliiihth cooled, the proper percentage of 
turpentine is addeil. The \ ariush is then strained, purified and stored 
for a period of from 2 to 12 months. The a;j;inL!; or ripening of varnish 
is a very important factor. Kauri gum is used \ery largely in the 
manufacture of high graile xarnishes. It is the fossili/.eil rosin of the 
Kauri pine. It is fouiul in Auckland, a pro\ince in the northern part 
of New Zealand. The Kauri tree has a great spread of branches which 
are the main source of the gum. The sap rapidly exudes from any cut 
made in the bark and solidifies when exposed to the air. This falls to 
the ground to be buried and fossilized, coming only to light of day 
when it is ilug out by the gmn tliggers centuries later. The dealers in 
Auckland sort the gum and rescrape ami grade it. Most of it is then 
shipped to Lonilon and New ^ Drk. 

Zanzibar gum is of the very highest tjuality and is used only in the 
manufacture of the highest grade varnishes. It comes from Zanzibar 
and is also a fossilized gum of a long extinct species of tree. The cheap 
jjrades of vartush are made from cheaper gums or rosin. Quick rubbing 
varnishes are made from hard gums, and contain a low percentage of 
linseed oil. while in \arnishes where great durability is required, floor 
varnishes for example, a more elastic gum is used, and the percentage 
of oil is increased to the maximum. 

VARNISHING. 

1 he room in \shich \ariushing is done should be ;is free from dust 
as it is possible to make it and the temperature kept at 70 degrees. 
\'arnishing cannot be done successfully in a cold room. For large 
''urfaces and surfaces where the finest of finish is not re(|uired, the oval 
metal-bound varnish brush or the Hat varm'sh brush will give good 
results, but on first class work where it is necessary to put on a flov\ing 
coat, a fitch flowing brush should be used. 

Beff)re using a new variush brush, see that all dust is removed from 
it. This can be done b\ brushing it vigorously across the hand. Suf- 



riMSHLXa MATERIALS 35 

ficient varnish sliould be littcd with the brush to cover a fair amount 
of surface and be so spread with the brush that it will How out evenly. 
Care should be exercised in applying varnish that it does not sag. Sag- 
ging usually occurs when the varnish is not brushed out properly. 

Only sufficient varnish for the job on hand should be taken from the 
can. If you take more varnish from the can than is needed, dilute it 
w-ith turpentine and use it for keeping the varnish brush in, when not 
in use. Do not attempt to \arnish with anything but a perfectly clean 
brush. 

As to the number of coats of varnish to be applied, this depends 
entirely on the class of finish required. On a well filled surface, one 
coat of \arnish will give a fairly good job. In case something better is 
wanted, the first coat should be rubbed down with fine sandpaper or 
steel wool, dusted off thoroly clean, and after the dust has settled, the 
second coat of varnish can be applied. The rubbing with sandpaper or 
steel wool should always be in the direction of the grain of the wood. 
Two coats are usually suflficient for the ordinary class of work. The 
second coat can be left with natural gloss finish or rubbed to a dull 
finish with pulverized pumice stone and water. A piece of rubbing felt 
should be used. This can be dipped into the water and then into the 
pulverized pumice stone, lifting suf^cient quantity of that article to the 
surface about to be rubbed. After the rubbing is completed, the surface 
should be wiped thoroly clean with damp cotton waste or a damp cloth. 
Almost any hard drying varnish can be rubbed and polished but a 
regular rubbing and polishing varnish will give the best results. Let 
each coat of varnish dry thoroly before rubbing or applying another 
coat. Trouble is sure to follow if this is not done. The cheaper grades 
and the quick rubbing varnishes w^ill dry in about two days, while with 
the high grade piano polishing varnish, it takes from six to ten days to 
dry for rubbing. 

POLISHING. 

If a polished finish is required the last coat of varnish should be 
allowed to dry thoroly and then rubbed to a dead level surface with 
pulverized pumice stone and water. Then wipe thoroly clean with 
damp cloth or waste. If any of the pumice stone is allowed to remain 
it will scratch the surface during the polishing operation. 

Various materials and methods are used in polishing, rotten stone 
and water, rotten stone and oil, or rotten stone and furniture polish 



36 M.LM .^l. TRUMXG MAGAZISE 

can he usoii. Sonu'tmu's polishiiiii powder or tripoli is used instead of 
rotten stone. Furniture polishes are niatle primarily to clear up a sur- 
face that has heen ruhbed with pumice stone and water. They are 
usuallx composed of certain proportions of turpentine and benzine, to 
which is addetl some oils, such as neutral oils, or sometimes cup grease, 
thoroly mixed so as to be held in solution; and then in order to clear 
the surface, after the goods have been polished, a certain proportion of 
alcohol, vinegar, or anunonia ami such essential oils as cedar or cit- 
ronella is vised. This last operation is usually known as spiriting off. 
The proportion of equal amounts of spirits and oil will give satisfactory 
results. The more spirits that are useil, the more caution will have to 
be observed. Sometimes pure alcohol is used in spiriting off, but this 
requires extreme caution and is not safe to use except by those thoroly 
familiar with the action of alcohol. 

WAXING. 

Wax finish is useil \ery extensively in school work. The wax is 
\er\ easily applied. The best prepared wax is made from hard, high 
melting-point wax importeil to this country from Brazil. There is also 
a liquid wax on the market, which, if used according to directions, will 
give very good results. The cheapest wax finish is obtained by merely 
staining the wood the rei]uiretl shatle and then appUing the wax. A 
better finish can be obtained by filling the wood after it is stained and 
then waxing it, and if something still better is desired, a coat of shellac, 
underlac, or transparent surfacer can he applietl ()\er the paste filler, 
and allowed to dry th(jroly and then sanded lightly before the wax is 
applied. This will give a very satisfactory and desirable finish. Black 
v\ax will give the best results over a dark stained surface, altho the 
common prejiarcd floor wax can be used. 




FIG. 25. COMPLETED BASKET. 



inexpensivp: basketry, iv. 



\ViM.iA.\i S. Marten. 



WHEN handles are needed they must be spliced in where desired 
when the basket is beinj2; built up. They should stand any 
amount of hard pullinji. If ij;reat care is not taken they will 
in time pull out. They must be so well spliced that only by tearinji out 
the coils of the basket will it be possible to loosen them. For the large 
baskets a rope or heavy cord woven in with the rush runnin<; completely 
around the basket is sometimes desirable. 

When the basket is built up to the desired height simply let the rush 
run out without entering any new strands, and the top will be finished 
level. It is well to reinforce the top with a double stitch. 1 his is made 

' Cnp\riglit, 1912, h\ \\'illiam S. Marten. 

37 



3S 



M.^M IL TR.^IMXG MAGAZIXE 




INEXPENSIVE BASKETRY 



39 




40 



.1/.7A7V//. TR.^IMXG MAGAZINE 



b\ running an extra circle of stitches all the way around, backwards, 
that is in the direction opposite to that in which the basket was stitched 
up. This double stitch can be seen clearly in Fig. 25. The last end of 
the thread is fastened by simply running the thread back in and out 




FIG. 28. PART OF WORK OF ONE SCHOOL, THIRD TO SIXTH YEARS. 

again several times close to where the last stitch was taken. This makes 
a very secure tie. 

The polishing is the rubbing in with a stiff brush of one or two coats 
of ordinary varnish. Altho this is not necessary it is very desirable 
because it increases the strength and serviceability as well as greatly 
enhances the appearance of the basket. 



OLTI.IM. rOR THli COILED HASKIIT WORK. 

]. J'roblein for grades. 



Third Grade. 1 

3 

Fourth (Jradc. I 



'Fable mat. Fig. 26. 

'Fray for carrying glasses. Fig. 26. 

Work Basket. Fig. 26. 

Collar Basket or Box with lid. Fig. 26. 



INEXPENSIIE BASKETRY 41 

3. Nut Holder. Fig. 26. (Supplementary.) 

4. Fruit Tray. Fig. 26. (Supplementary.) 

5. Serving Tray. Fig. 26. 
Fifth Grade. 1. Trash Basket. Figs. 26, 27. 

2. Collar Box. Fig. 26. 

3. Jardiniere. Fig. 26. (Supplementary.) 

4. Paper Basket for desk. Fig. 26. (Supple- 

mentary.) 
Sixth Grade. 1. Hamper for soiled clothes. Fig. 25. 

2. Trinket or Jewelry- Basket. Fig. 26. (Sup- 

plementary. ) 

3. Collar Box. Fig. 26. (Supplementary.) 

4. Lunch Basket. Fig. 25. (Supplementary.) 

5. Hanging Flower Basket. (Supplementary.) 
n. Sizes of Problems. 

1. Clothes hamper or laundry basket. 18"x20" diam., 24"x26" 

high — Large coil. 

2. Work Basket. 9"xl0" diam., y^SW high— Medium coil. 

3. Fruit Tray. 10"xl2" diam., Xy/' high— Medium coil. 

4. Trash or waste paper basket. 10"xll" diam.. 12"xl3" high — 

Medium coil. 

5. Serving Tray. 14"xl5''' diam. l"xl 'j" high — Medium coil. 

6. Desk-paper basket. 8"xQ" diam., 5"x6" high — Medium coil. 

7. Table mat. 6"xl2" diam. — Fine coil. 

8. Tray for carrying glasses. 6"x7" diam., ^"x^j" high — Fine 

coil. 

9. Trinket or jewelry basket. 5"x6" diam., 2y2"\?<" high — Fine 

coil. 

10. Collar box with lid. 6"x7" diam., 3"x4" high — Fine coil. 

11. Lunch basket with lid. 7"xS" diam., 4"x5" high — Fine coil. 

12. Collection basket. 7"x8" diam.. 2"x2'//' high— Fine coil. 
HL Sizes of details and materials. 

1. Spacing. 

1" space between stitches with large coil. 

y^' space between stitches with medium coil. 

^"x^" space between stitches with fine coil. 

The size of the coil will regulate the space between the stitches. 

2. Coils. 

Large coils 9's"x^" diam. 



42 .U./.V( .//. TR.HMXa MAGAZISE 

Mediuiii coils ^'s"-"^'-'" d»am. 
Fine coils ^4"x/jy" diam. 
.V Materials. 

L se hiiniiiii: caiu' or material ot similar strength with large 

coils. 
I se meiiivini narrow cane or material of similar strength with 

medium coil. 
Use superfine cane or silkatine with fine coils. 

BIBLlOt.RAPHV 

.Andes, Loiii;. Kilgar, Prakti.u lir Hattdhncli fur Korhfli'cliter, 18S7. (Hart- 
lebcn's Cheinisch-tecliiiische Bibliothek.) 

Austin, M. Basket-Maker. Allan. 91:235-8, Feb., '03. 

Barber, Harriette K., Basketry. Edueatinna! Bi-Montlily, 3:304-10, April, '09. 

Barrett, Samuel Altieii, Pomn India)! Basketry. Berkeley, The University 
Press, 190S. ( l'niversit\' of CalitOriiia publications iti American archeology and 
ethnology, \'ol. 7, No. 3.) 

Basket Fraternity, The, The Basket. (Journal of the Basket Fraternity, for 
Uivcrs of Indian baskets and other good things; G. \\'. James, editor.) Pasa- 
dena, California: \'ols. 1. 2; Jan., "03 — Oct., '04. 

Bearii, .A. B., //'mc tn Weave a .Splint Basket. If'oman's Home Companion , 
31 :3o. 54. .Marcii, 'it4. 

May Baskets. Good Hoiisekeepintr, 4S : 586-9, May, '09. 

Boas, Franz, T/ie Deeorative .Arts of the Indians of the North Paeifie Coast. 
Bulletin, .American Museum of Natural History, Vol. IX, Part X, 1897. 

Brigham, I.., KiH(s and Baskets Which Cost Xothi/n;. Ladies' Home Jouru'tl, 
J": 51, .Aug., '10. 

Brigham, William 'F., .1/^;/ (.nd Basket Weavim; of the .Indent Haivaiians 
bfseriheJ and Compared ^cSith the Basketry of the Other Pacific Islanders. 
Honolulu, Bishop .Museum Press, 19(16; %1,.{)U. 

Brown, C. S., .Irt of Indian Basketry. Catholic World, 68:52-59, Oct., '98. 

Buchanen, C .M., Indian Basket Jf'ork .1 hout Puiret Sound. Overland, n. s., 
31:406-11, .May, '9X. 

Carpenter, Helen M., llon' Indian Baskets are Made. Cosmopolitan, 29:638- 
40, Oct., '00. 

Chamberlain, .Artliur Henry and Klia \'. Dobhs, Jane Langley, H. I). Gay- 
lord. Basketry, Clay, an,! Paper Wearini; lor the Elementary (trades. San 
Franciscf), Whitaker & Kay, 19o5, .'fn 50. 

Chestnut, V. K., Plants L'srd by Indians oj Mendoteno County. California 
\' . S. National Herbarium, 1902. 

Connor, J. T., Basket Weaver of .San Eernando. Overland, n. s., 31:28-32, 
Jan., ■9X. 

Dixon, Koland Burrage, Basketry iJesii^ns o/ the Indians of Northern Cali 
lornifi. Bulletin, .American Vluveiin of Natural Historv, Vol. XVII, Pari I, pp. 
I 32. 1902. 



INEXPENSU E liJSKETRY 43 

T/ir Sluistd. Bulletin, American Museum of Natural History, Vol 

XVII, Part V, 1907. 

The Northern Maidti. Bulletin, American Museum of Natural 

History, Vol. XVII, Part III, 1905. 

Dorsey, George A., Indians of the S o u t hives t. Puliiished li\ the A. T. & 
S. F. R. R., 1903. 

Emmons, G. T., Basketry of the Tlingit. Memoirs, American Museum of 
Natural History, Vol. Ill, Part II, 1908. 

Eppendorfl, Lina, IlanJivork ('onstruction. Brooklyn, N. \ ., 1908, $1.50. 

Farrand, Livingston, Basketry Designs of the Salish Indians. Memoirs, 
American Museum of Natural History, Vol. II, Part V, 1900. 

Firth, Annie, Cane Basket IVork. London, L. U. Ciill, 1901 ; New York, 
Scribners; $0.50. 

Goddard, P. E., Life and Culture of the IIuf>a. Universit\ of California 
Publications, Vol. I, No. I, 1903-04. 

Guthrie, J. W., Indian Basketry as Decoration. Mariner's Bazaar, 35:468-71, 
Sept., '01. 

Hasluck, Paul N., Basket Work of All Kinds. London, Cassell, 1902, $0.50. 

Haywood, Emma, Raffia Baskets. Harper's Bazaar, 39:874-5, Sept., '05. 

Henderson, M. E., .Ancient Art Modernized. Canad. M., 28:421-6, March, 
1907. 

Holton k Rollins, Industrial Jl'ork for Puhlie Schools. Rand, McNailv & 
Co., Chicago, $1.00. 

James, George Wharton, Indian Basketry, and How to Make Indian and 
Other Basketry. New York, Henry Malkan, 1902, $2.50. 

Indian Basketry. Outing, 38:177-86, May, '01. 

Ho'^u to Make Indian and Other Baskets. New \'ork, H. Malkan, 

$1.00. 

Indian Basketry in House Decoration. Chautauquan. 33:619-24., 

Sept., '01. 

Indian Basketry — Its Poetry and Symbolism. N. E. A., Journal of 

Proceedings and Addresses, 1903, pp. 644, 5. 

American Indian Basket Work. International Studio, 20:144-46, 

Aug., '03. Outing, 38:177-86, May, '01. 

The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. Boston, Little, Brown 

k Co. 

Johnson, Eleanor H., Basketry in Mexico. Outing, 54:214-20, Nov., '08. 
Kissel, Mary Lois, System of Basketry Technic. Science, 30:932-34, Dec. 
24, '09. 

African Basket Weaves. Science, n. s., 25:828, May 24, '07. 

Knapp, Elizabeth Sanborn, Raphia and Reed Weaving. Springfield, Mass., 

Milton Bradley, 1901, $0.50. 

Kroeber, Alfred Louis, Basket Designs of the Indians of Aorthicestern Cali- 
fornia. Berkeley, University Press, 1905. University of California publications 
in American archeology and ethnology. 

Ethnography of the Cahuilla Indians. University of California 

Publications, Vol. VIII, No. II, 1908. 



44 U /.Vr.Y/. r/v'.V/.\7.V(.' M.IG.IZISE 

Latter, l.vic\ K., C.uiii- Witiii/n; tor Childtfti. New York, Pitman and Sons, 

MacPowell. 1.. W'., .tlaskan huliaii Buskrlry. Alaskan Steainsliip Co., 
Seattle. 1906. 

.Mason, Otis T., Buski't Work of tlir Xort/i .Imcruan .1 horighics. Wash- 
ington, Smithsonian Institute, 1SS3, 1SS4, 1S9(). 

Types of .Irruruan Iruiian liiiskrtry. Scientitic .American, S3 : 57-5S, 

July JS, 'Oil. 

M<il(iy tiriJ Filii/<ino litiski/ry. Sdrna-, n. s., J!4: 779-80, Dec. 

14. Mb. 

Dircctious tor CoUcctars of 1 merit on litis ketry. Bulletin, American 

Museum of Natural History, No. .\X.\1.\, Fart P. 

hiJiaii Basketry Studies in a Textile Art ITitlidut Men liinery. 

New \'ork. Ooubleiiay, Page &' Co., 19(14, 2 \ols. 

Idjustahle Burden Baskets. Science, ii. s., 27; 350-51, Feb. 28, '08. 

htyam Gila (Mad Weave) : .V Malaysian Type of Basket If'nrk. U. S. 

National Museum, 1909. 

Mechlin, L,., Primiti-ve Arts and Crafts Illustrated in the Xational Museum 
Colleelion. International Studio, 35; sup. 61-63, Aug., '08. 

Morse, Mrs. T. \'ernette. Basket Makini;. Chicago, Art Craft Institute, '02. 

Navajo School of Iiuiiaii Hasketr\, Indian Basket Weavi/iy;. I.os Angeles, 
Wheclon & Spreng, 19(i3. 

Newton, B. E., Some Pretty May Baskets. Ladies' Home Journal, 27:73, 
\la>, 10. 

Pasch, Katharine, Basketry and Weavim; in the School. Chicago, A. 
Flanagan, 1904, $0.25. 

Pepper, CJeorge H., The .Indent Basket .Makers of Southeastern Utah. 
Bulletin, .American Museum of Natural Histor\, suppl., \'^^\. II, No. I\', April, 
I9(i2. 

Pruclclen, V. M., The Basket Makers. Harper's, 95; 56. 

Punly, Carl, Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Los Angeles, 1902. 

Rile>, Mary I.., Basketry .Imon^ the Indians. Era, 12:391-403, Nov., '03. 

Roth, Walter V.., String and Other Forms of Strand: Basketry-, If'n-ven 
Bat;-, and Set-Work. Queensland, Home Secretary's Hept., Bulletin No. 1. 

Sanford, Frank (i., Irt Crafts for Bei^nnners. Contains chapter on ''Bas- 
ketry," 1904, $1.00. 

Seegmiller, NN'ilhelmina, Clever Basketry for Summer Work. Ladies' Home 
Journal. 22:2'), Aug., "05. 

Shults, .Mar\ .A., Reed and liaflia Conslrut tion Work in Primary Schools. 
.American Kindergarten Suppl\ House, 19(i4. 

Stearns, Martha \\'., / Si/iool Without Books. Ke\iew i^- Herald i'uh. Co,. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

Slickley, (nistav, H'illoij Baskets That Shon.i- the Lriic Spirit of 1 1 aui/icraft. 
Crnilsmnn. IX: 262, .Ma>. I'l. 

Swaiuiell. .\L. Coiled Basketry i.nndon, (;. Phillip ."V Son, I9()V, $L(l(). 

rins!e>, .Mrs. Laura Kolliii--, Prtntnal and Irlistn Basketry. New ^'ork,^ 
Kellogjj, 1904, $1.00. 



INEXPENSU E H.ISKE TK Y 



45 



Turner, Liitlier \\'., T/ir Haski't Maker. Worcester, Mass., Davis Press, 
1909, $1.00. 

\\'alker, Louise, I'arifd ()i( upalio/is in If'ravi/ii;. New \'oriv, Macrnillan, 
1S95, $1.00. 

W^aiter, M. Louise, Lesson in Baskrl-Makin};. Ladies' Home Journal, 20:25, 
Aug., '03. 

White, Mary, llo^v To Make Baskets. New Yorii, Doulileday, Page & Co., 
1901, $L00. 

More Baskets and Uoiv to Make Them. New \'ori<, Doubleday, 

Page & Co., 1903, $1.00. 

Basket-Making at Home. London, C. A. Pearson, 1903, $0.50. 

Wooden and W^illow Ware Trade Review. Devoted to woodenware, wood- 
working, rattan, reed and willow-ware, baskets, brooms and broom-corn, etc. 
New York, Cordage Trade Journal, semi-monthly. 

Woods, L. B. S., //ow Indian Baskets are Made. Delineator, 63 : 1050-52, 
Feb., '04. 

Worst, Edward F., (assisted by Harriette Barber and Marian Seymour). 
Constructive Work: Its Relation to Number, Literature, History, and Nature 
Work. Chicago, A. W. Mumford, 1905, $L00. 




BOOKS BOUND IN SUMMER SCHOOL, BRADLEY IN'STITUTE. 



SAMUEL CUPPLES. 

C \ I VI \ M. W'donw A RD. 

(Address to gradiiatiiiii class, Saint Louis Manual Training School, Wash- 
ington Iniversity, at the unveiling of the portrait of Mr. Cupples, June 12, 
1912.) 

AS requested h\ the Boaril of Manai^ers, I am to speak, to you 
ot one of the noblest men I ever met: a man of whom personally 
you know \ er\ little, hut whom I knew intimately for thirty- 
tour \ears: I refer to Sanuiel Cupples whose portrait I am soon to 
umeil. 

It is tittini: that 1 should tell nou of him, and that his portrait 
-ihould alwa\s haniZ in this hall. 

It was Mr. Cupples who said 33 years aj:;() : "Let us organize a 
school and try the experiment of putting manual training into its course 
of study:' and he oitered a generous support till the value of a sys- 
tematic course of manual training could be practically shown. 

It was this offer, made without solicitation, which led to concerted 
action on the part of Mr. Cupples, Mr. Conzelman, Mr. Harrison, and 
Dr. Eliot. Dr. Eliot gave the lot of ground at the southwest corner 
of 18th and Washington Ave.: Mr. Harrison erected the building; Mr. 
Conzelman equipped the shops ami schoolrooms: and Mr. Cupples met 
for several years all the deficits in the expense accoimts. The school 
opened with a class of 58 on Sept. 6, 1880. 

Hut I must not fail to acknowledge the prompt assistance the men 
who under such leaders enlisted in the cause of the new educational 
mo\ement. To William Hrown, Willian L. Huse, Carlos S. Greeley, 
William A. Hargadine, Henry Hitchcock, Ethan Allen Hitchcock, 
Ralph Sellew. and William Barr, our gratitude will always be given; 
but it was to the unfailing support and constant advice of Mr. Cupples 
that our early success was largely due. The grounds, building, and 
capacit\ of the schools were doidiled at the end of two years thru the 
contributions of Ralph Sellew. (Jottlieh Conzelman, Dr. W. G. Eliot, 
and Mr. Cupples. 

It was .Mr. Cupples who proposed, and jointly with Messers. Sellew 
and Conzelman — -actually secured the first permanent endowment of 
the School, ,^7 S, 000.00. 

46 



SAMUEL CUPPLES 47 

Mr. Cupples was from the iirst a member of the mana}j;iii^ board 
of the school, and for over thirty \ears he rarely failed to attend Hoard 
meetings, public exhibitions, and ^raduatinji; exercises. It was largely 
thru his influence and personal effort that after twenty-five years of 
successful work at 18th and Washin^iton, the school moved to this 
fine building and these ample grounds. 

No sketch, however brief, of the relation which Mr. Cupples sus- 
tained to this school should omit a reference to the splendid w ay in w hich 
he endowed it with scholarships in the University, and his magnificent 
gifts to the higher technical departments. His interest in this school and 
its graduates led him naturally to the higher department for which this 
afifords a thoro preparation. 

Mr. Cupples believed in keeping all educational roads open at their 
upper ends. He saw that what he had expected was coming true every 
year in the demand which earnest youth, with cultivated minds and skilful 
hands, are bound to make as they receive the diploma of this school. 
They see an open door to the heights be^'ond, and they crave a chance 
to climb to higher fields and pastures new. So he joined to a princely 
gift to the School of Engineering and Architecture, the condition that 
twelve free scholarships should be given every year to graduates of this 
school, thus keeping the twelve simultaneously in use. 

These scholarships are appropriately named the 
"Samuel Cupples Scholarships" 
in the Department of Atts and Science. These scholarships are a great 
boon to the school, and they are of immeasurable worth to aspiring 
youth of superior attainments, and high character. 

But more than all else, more than all his gifts of money, unfailing 
the they were, we value our founder, helper, and friend for the record 
of his life and character. The example he set, and the broad moral 
influence of the man are a precious bequest. 

He was what we call a self-made man. He lacked the training of 
the higher schools, for technical schools and colleges were few and far 
between when he was a boy — but he made the best use of what op- 
portunities he had. He formed no bad habits, sowed no wild oats, for 
he had none to sow, and he had no worthless weeds and tares to reap 
when he became a man. He won promotion by good work, strict at- 
tention to business, and vmfailing industry. 

As a young merchant, he was wideawake to all questions of supply 
and demand, and by thrift, courage, and good judgment, he made ever\ 



48 M.LM'.H. TR.^LMXG MAGAZI\E 

venture a success. Every bargain he made was one in which both 
parties gained. His wealth was the fruit of energ}- and skill, with 
absolute fairness and integrity. He gave every one a "square deal," and 
his word was as good as his bond, and that was "gilt-edged." 

We often hear of men whose success seems based on the failures of 
other men : who grow rich, as and because others grow poor ; and we 
sometimes realize the dread prediction of Oliver Goldsmith: 

111 fares the land to hastening ills a prey 
Where wealth accumulates and men decay. 

Hut the case of Samuel Cupples leads us to sing a different song, for his 
wealth and his life were alike a blessing in many ways to the city of 
St. Louis in which he spent his active life. 

Those who knew Mr. Cupples best, know how ready he was to lend 
a helping haiul. riio he mixed judgment with generosity, he was at 
times, 

Careless their inerits or their fauhs to scan, 
His pity gave ere charity began. 

There is not time, nor is this the place, for me to tell of his labors 
in behalf of the public schools; of the assistance he gave to Central 
College in Missouri, and Vanderbilt University in Tennessee; of his 
work as president for many years of the Provident Association of this 
city; or of the aid he brought to struggling churches in and out of St. 
Louis. 

We can not count his benefactions, but you may be pleased to hear 
that he once told me, that of all his investments, none had been so 
satisfactory to him as what he had given to this school. 

For all he did and for all that he was, let us be forever thankful. 
and let us keep his memory green. 

To these young men I sa> , cherish the memory of Samuel Cupples. 
P^mulate his example. Remember his fidelity to duty, the absolute clean- 
ness of his life as boy and man, his lo\e of justice and fair play, his 
kindness and respect tor his fellow man, his re\erent attitude to our 
Heavenly Father, and his full recognition of the Sublime Order w^hich 
every thoughtful man must detect in all created things. 

As vou go forth, \ou favored \-outh, to meet your grow ing responsi- 
bilities. >ou who begin now \(>ur careers in spheres of activity where 
you find yourselves best able to succeed and you who climb still higher 
the (-(hicational ladder, to secure a training which shall fit you for more 



SAMUEL CVI'FLES 



49 



difficult and more responsible work, — do not forget the man whose 
portrait I am now to unveil. 



This fine portrait by Mr. Gustav von Schlegell, instructor in our 
own School of Fine Arts, is presented to the school by Mr. Cupples' 
daughter, Mrs. W. H. Scudder, to whom our heartiest thanks are due. 
It is to hang in this hall, so that we may often, as we look upon that 
benignant face, recall the gracious founder, and the constant friend. 




BY EIGHTH GRADE 
ROCHESTER, N. Y. 



EDITORIAL 

THK aim of the elementary school is not solely to prepare boys 
and girls for the high school. The real aim of the elementary 
school is still, as it has been, to give the fundamentals of educa- 
tion that are essential to intelligent citizenship, and it ought to be clear 
that a boy or girl in the elementary school who is not planning to go 
to the high school may be pursuing just as worthy an aim in life — 
even as high an aim — as his classmate who expects to graduate again 
after four years more in the higher studies. It is readily understood by 
one who makes a study of individual differences in children, as well 
as home and industrial conditions, that some pupils may do better 
than to go to the high school. If this is the case, why not estimate the 
efficiency of the elementary school in terms of the efficiency and number 
of its graduates who go out into industry as well as in terms of the 
number who go on to the high school ? Why not have school reports 
include a statement of what becomes of graduates who do not go to the 
high school, the character of the industries they enter, and their success 
in these industries? Why not be as proud of the fact that j'ou have 
helped Johnny to acquire practical, marketable efficiency, or that you 
have led him past the blind-ally occupations to one in which he is sure 
to rise and become a useful citizen, as that you have landed his classmate 
over the threshold of the next higher school in the series leading up to 
the University? Let us not admit by our records and reports that the 
elementary school has lost its common school ideal. 



i-mployer^ find fault because children lack seriousness, 

Bad Habits r ' • i u .1 ^ r .u 

application and accuracv when tnev come out of the 
lormed 

at School flementar\ schrjol. It is probable that men often expect 

more than is reasonable of immature children, but it is 

also more than probable that habits of inattention, lack of concentration, 

continuity of effort and thoroness are sometimes formed in the school. 

A monthly program so arranged as to merely touch a thousand bits of 

unrelated subject matter once, and this repeated month by month is not 

conductive to the formation of the best habits. A bit of this and a bit 

50 - 



EDITORIAL 51 

of that — constant change, and hurry to keep up vvitli a badly constructed 
outline is too characteristic of some subjects in many schools. It is es- 
pecially true of the newer subjects of the curriculum, because the time 
given to these is too short, and because there is a constant effort to 
"make a showing" at the end of the term. To illustrate what is meant 
by the badly constructed outline we have but to refer to the familiar 
method of constructing an outline for work in drawing for one of the 
grades in the elementary school. The procedure is about as follows: 
First it is decided to teach construction, representation and decoration, 
or some other three or more divisions of the subject of drawing. Then 
the school year is divided into months, and in each month is placed one 
or two problems under each of the sub-topics. Only one lesson a week 
is given, with the result that a child gets a start in construction, for 
example, about once a month but there is no continuity of effort in that 
division of the subject, and he gets nowhere in particular at the end 
of the 3'ear. The same is true of each of the other subdivisions. Far 
better results would come if each sub-topic were taught continuously 
for three months before a change were made. Then something definite 
might be accomplished in each division of the subject. 



An Another illustration is found in the usual method of teach- 

Illuniinating ing woodworking and drawing in the grammar grades. 
t^xperiment j^. j^,^^ j^^^^^ considered desirable by many teachers to keep 
mechanical drawing and woodworking running parallel in these grades. 
and so they have taken the first part of each lesson for drawing and the 
last part for woodworking. The result has usually been to dissipate 
energy both on the part of the teacher and the pupil. This is true even 
where two and one-half consecutive hours are given to the work, as has 
been clearly demonstrated in experiments covering two years at Oak 
Park, Illinois. 

Ira S. Griffith, until recently the director of manual training, became 
conscious of the fact that the boys liked the woodworking much better 
than drawing. During the drawing lessons he found it difficult to hold 
them to their work because they were constantly tempted to handle 
the woodworking tools which were at the benches where the drawing 
also was being done. Their minds seemed to be irresistibly wandering 
to the woodwork. As an experiment he took the first eleven weeks of 
the school year 1910-11 for drawing only. He put away the wood- 



52 M LM.II TR IIMSC M IC.iZIXE 

workini: tools aiul iiiaili- rho sliop appear as much likt." a drawing room 
:ls possible, llu' result was Lrreatly in favor of the new plan. Interest 
was easih maintained and the improvement in the technique of the 
ilrauini: was almost phenomenal. Hut this was not all. When the 
shopwork was taken up the pupils were ready for it. They had their 
drawini?; and their stock bills completed and they knew exactly what 
thoy wanted to do. From the beginning to the end of the year the work 
was so great an improvement over that of previous years that the result 
of the experiment was certain. A second year's experiment still further 
veritieil the conclusion that continuity of effort in one line of work is 
what brings the desired results. We ought to have learned this from 
our study of psychology- long ago, but some of us did not. 

Another experiment has emphasized the same fact. One hour a 
week was allowed for a grammar grade practice-teaching class in wood- 
working that came to Bradley Institute from one of the Peoria public 
schools. The time was so short that it was impossible to get the results 
desired in habit formation. The interest, too, lagged somewhat toward 
the end of the year. The experiment was tried of having the class come 
to the shop two hours a week for a half year. The results thru two 
\ears have been gratif\ing. 

In many cities and towns we believe far better results would obtain 
in grammar grade woodworking if twice as much time per week for a 
halt-year were given to the subject, or even three times as much time 
for a third of a year instead of the present sixty or ninety minutes once 
a week. The teacher of woodworking could then at least know all his 
pupils b\ name and perhaps even become acquainted with a few of their 
individual tendencies. Moreover, the pupils would then feel that they 
were accttmplishing something definite. As a result they would un- 
doubtcdK want to continue the work thruout the entire year. That 
need not deter us. Let them make known their desires to their parents 
and to the schortl board. Perhaps they would be the best possible agi- 
tators for reasonable time for shopwork instruction. 



An interesting experiment, the results of which are likely 
A Kfvolution-. ■ / iii iiti* 

, ,. to hcconie tar-reacnmg lias just been made by John A. 

izccJ County . . 

Institute Ha\<-^, superintendent of schools in I'eoria County, Illi- 

rioiN, and his assistant, (ieorge F. Kinv/ey. Instead of 

tarrying on the annual institute in the usual way it was decided to make 

an rntirciy new program this year — one in which the manual arts would 



EDITORIAL S3 

constitute a larj^e part of the work. Fortunatel\ this was easily possi- 
ble because for several years past the County Institute has been held in 
the main building of Bradley Polytechnic Institute. The change neces- 
sary to include the manual arts was not, therefore, one involving diffi 
culties of equipment. There were two fundamental ideas in the change: 
One was to do more intensive work in whatever subjects were taken up, 
and the other was to give work in the manual arts a fair trial. The 
daily program was therefore entirely revised. During the first hour and 
a half each morning all the 300 teachers were together receiving instruc- 
tion in history and music. For the next two hours they were divided 
into four sections. They were allowed to choose between drawing, 
agriculture, woodworking, or art metahvork. After luncheon one hour 
was given to history and music and the following two hours to one of 
the manual subjects, but not the same one taken in the morning. The 
program was continued for the five days of the institute, each member 
taking two manual subjects only. 

Among the results observed were the following: First, the teachers' 
interest in the institute was far greater than ever before. Heretofore 
many teachers have attended just as fe\^• sessions as possible, and they 
have left immediately at the close of the lectures. This year everybody 
was so interested in the work that they wanted to attend every session and 
were loth to leave at its end. Second, before the end of the week came 
many of the teachers were planning to introduce such work into their 
schools. This was so general among the teachers that the Superinten- 
dent says he shall have to caution them not to go too far in that direction 
the first year. Third, the Superintendent is already arranging for 
"follow-up work" to be done by special teachers who will go to some 
of the schools once a week to give instruction in woodworking to the 
larger bovs. This is an extension of the work that has been done in 
several schools in the country during the past year under the supervision 
of the originator of the circuit special teacher idea, Professor Clinton 
S. VanDeusen. Fourth, Superintendent Hayes has asked each of the 
instructors in this institute to write a report of his own work and has 
caused some photographs of the classes to be taken. These will be in- 
cluded in an official report which will be ready in October and will be 
distributed free to persons interested in the details of the plan. 

The total result is a thoro awakening of the teachers of the county 
to the possibilities of a new type of country school work. The Superin- 
tendent is enthusiastic and it is believed that the people will be glad to 



54 W.V.Vr./L TR.nXlXG MAGAZINE 

support him in this new departure. He is already planning a similar 
program tor next year. 



1 o our Knglish correspondent, H. W illiams Smith, we 
The Joy ■ , , , , ,i i •• , r- i- u 

of Work •"'^' "i*^'^'hted tor tiie tollowing clipping trom an Lnglisn 

new spaper : 

Sir Ciii.BKRr Parker, M. P., after presenting the prizes at tlie Leys School, 
Cambridge, yesterday, expressed the opinion that though boys were better equipped 
in general learning nowadays, yet as a nation he did not think wc were as 
thorough as we used to be. Steam and electricity, maciiinery and the product of 
machinery whidi imitated artistic liandicraft, liad cheapened taste and made cold 
the love of work for work's sake in tlie field of nearly all the arts and crafts. 
In the past even the unskilled worker had his share of the universal pride, but 
he too had receded as the man just above him had become more material and less 
craft-loving. If there was one cry which rose more often than any other in the 
minds of those wlio cared for the best in national life it was the renewing of the 
pride and joy of workmansliip. One loss aways brought another, and when pride 
of workmanship faded imagination failed. There were people who would 
consider tliis no loss, but it was because they associated imagination with romance, 
and tliat was childisli and erroneous. Imagination was the inspiration of all 
progress. All men who hail done big things had in the true sense been dreamers 
as well as workers. "Find a boy," he concluded, "that broods and dreams as well 
as works and plays and you must keep your eye on him. If you will not cultivate 
imagination you will not get beyond the belief that all that glitters is gold ; if 
you neglect it you may perhaps easily become a member of Parliament, you may 
even reach the giddy iieigiit of a Peerage, but you will not become a statesman 
or belong to tliat aristocracy which cannot be nominated, the aristocracy of the 
men who did things." 

In commenting on the above in The Sriiooh/uistcr Mr. Smith says: 

Sir Gilbert ranked himself with the true "seers" when he said, "If there 
was one or)- which rose more often tlian any other in the minds of those who cared 
for the best in national life, it was the renewing of the pride and joy of work- 
manship." Now, you cannot feel pride and take joy in slipshod work, or stereo- 
typed work, or sweated work ; pride and joy can only accrue when the work is 
of the best, and done under the best conditions. Surely the economic conditions 
for doing the best work exist in our scliools if anywhere; and if we make every 
just allowance for the product as being "boys' work" we still have a right to 
expect that that work shall be the very best that boys can do. If in school we 
make our boys faithful over the few things, we have done our share in preparing 
rhcm to become rulers over many things. 

No part of Sir CJilbert's address could be read with greater profit by manual 
teachers than that [)art where he pleaded for tlie cultivation of the imagination. 
He i* one of our great romancers, and it is good to liave sucli a man say that to 



EDITORIAL 55 

associate imagination only with romance is childish and erroneous. "Imagina- 
tion," he says, "is the inspiration of all progress. All men who do big things are 
in the true sense dreamers as well as workers." School handwork untouched by 
imagination is one of the most barren of rituals, one of the most formal of all 
formal studies. While we duly and properly grind away at the disciplinary work 
and the essential technique which form the indispensable basis of educational 
handwork, let us ourselves rise frequently and carry our pupils with us to a 
contemplation of the heights of human achievement, which in the arts and crafts 
have done greater things than war or politics have accomplished for the ad- 
vancement of mankind. 



An\one who has attempted to follow the progress of man- 

^. . ual traininfj events in Germany during the past few months 

Change in . 

Germany must have noticed especially the broadening of the activities 

of the German Society for the Promotion of Boy's Hand- 
work, and the consequent change in the name of its journal from the 
Blatter fur Kiiabcnhandarbcit to Die Arbeitsehule. After twenty-five 
3''ears of effort in behalf of manual training for boys the German Society 
finds that its field is too narrow. Girls must be taught handwork as 
well as boys, the manual training principle is affecting other school sub- 
jects and is influencing the instruction in schools of art and industry. 
The scope and aim of educational handwork has been constantly enlarg- 
mg until now it seems essential that the Society give recognition to all 
the factors in the complex development of which it has been an important 
part, and invite them all to cooperate in its journal. Die Arbeitsehule 
aims to cover all phases of education in which the child gains knowledge 
and skill thru work with his own hands. 

This change brings to the assistance of Dr. Pabst, the eidtor, several 
of the leading German educators who have had to do with the broader 
problems of handwork instruction. Among these we notice the name 
of Dr. Kerschensteiner of Munich. The new journal invites to its sup- 
port all men and women who have had experience from which they can 
speak. "We shall not fix narrow boundaries,'' says the editor. "Every 
standpoint will be represented and every new worthy idea will be given 
a hearing. The entire province of education thru practical work is our 
field." Americans will watch for the real significance of this action. 
Can it possibly be true that while we are trying to imitate Germany by 
making our education more vocational, Germany is trying to imitate 
us by making its education more broadly cultural? If so perhaps the 
ultimate results will be quite similar. 



56 MA.M.iL TR.^IMiS'G MAGAZINE 

\\\- an- sun- rcadt-rs of this magazine will be interested 
Professor 

Bawden "^ ^^^^' ^'^^^ '^'^'^^ '^^ manairini: editor. Professor William T. 

Goes to Hawden, has just completed plans which will enable him 

New^ork j,, spend two \ ears in post-graduate study at Teachers' 
Collciie. Columbia University, New ^'ork Cit>-. He has given up his 
desirable position as assistant dean of the College of Engineering at the 
Liiiversity of Illinois in order to take advantage of a long-desired 
opportunity for advanced stud\. Professor Bawden's power of organiza- 
tion, his mastery of details and his good comradeship have won for him an 
unique place among the manual arts people of the Central States. He 
will be greatly missed, even for a year, and especially so at the present 
time when he has just been made chairman of the new Council of the 
Western Drawing and Manual Training Association. But his decision 
to do post-graduate work in school administration and industrial edu- 
cation is quite in harmony with his past record. He was graduated 
from Dennison University in 18^6, receiving the A. B. degree in the 
classical course. He taught common branches a year in Iowa, and 
then went to the Mechanics Institute in Rochester where he took the 
special course for teachers of manual training. After teaching manual 
training at Elmira and Buffalo, N. Y., he spent the year 1902-1903 
at Teachers College. New \'ork. specializing in manual training and 
earning the B. S. degree. Now after seven years spent in building 
up the manual training department at the Illinois Staite Normal 
University and two years as assistant to Dean Goss of the University 
of Illinois he goes a third time from successful teaching to advanced 
■»tudy. (^ur only consolation is in the fact that the Manual Training 
Magazine will have an active representative in New York City for the 
next two vears. — C. A. Bennett. 



"Let him learn to take a straight s haling off a plank, or draiv 
a fine curve luithout faltering, or lay a hrick true in its mortar, 
and he has learnt a multitude of other things n.vhich no lips of 
man lould ever trarh him." — Rl'SKIK. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

WESTERN DRAWING AND MANUAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 

The nineteenth annual convention of the Western Drawing and Manual 
Training Association was held in the Woodward High School, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
May 1-4. There was a larger attendance than for several years past; much 
enthusiasm was shown in the discussions, and interest in the exhibits. 

As a result of ill-considered appropriations the previous year, the Asso- 
ciation faced the prospect of an indebtedness that would seriously cripple its 
activities. But the increased membership and economical management put 
affairs again on a good footing. The chief credit for the improvement in the 
financial situation is due the Program Committee, and especially its efficient 
Chairman, George F. Buxton, Menomonie, Wis. The experience of this Com- 
mittee in providing an exceptionally strong program at an expense to the As- 
sociation lower than any other for some five or six years past is worth careful 
study by other committees charged with similar responsibilities. 

One of the newer features of the convention, the annual banquet, presents 
numerous problems, both because of the number of guests to be accommodated 
and the variety of interests represented. It has been tried twice, and judging 
from the attendance the banquet has made good. With each year's experience 
the arrangements can be perfected, and all objectionable features eliminated. 

In addition to the opening session and the banquet, the plan of the program 
included the following: (1) General sessions: Vocational Aspects of Art and 
Manual Training; Art Applications; Commercial and Household Arts; Voca- 
tional Education; Address and Question-Box. (2) Round Table discussions: 
Art Education; Manual Training; Household Arts; Vocational Education. Fol- 
lowing are brief extracts from four of the addresses that attracted particular 
attention. 

"Experiments in Semi-Industrial Schools," by Wilhelmina Seegmiller, In- 
dianapolis. "The supervising principals of the eight semi-industrial schools 
which have been established in our city, and the directors of the departments 
of domestic art, manual training, and art, have been meeting in a series of 
conferences. We have formulated our views, and I speak for all in reading the 
general and specific statements which at our last meeting, a week ago, we 
decided represents our creed, in so far as we have one." 

GENERAL STATEMENT. 

The Semi-Industrial work in the grammar grades of our schools is an 
attempt to adjust the school activities more nearly than heretofore both to the 
child's individual interest and to his social needs. The problem is only in the 
process of solution and any statement of aims and methods at this time must 
be regarded as merely tentative. 

57 



58 M.l.Mrll. TR.HMXG MAG.^ZhSE 

1. Oux point of view is that the school should partake essentially of the 
nature of the small coiiinuinitx, a place where children may live together, and 
in living together, so far as possible acquire the social attitudes and make the 
social adjustments essential to a well organized society. To this end the aim 
should be to provide a large measure of cooperative activity and to promote 
at all times the real community spirit. 

1. It is not our belief that merely having the children do work with their 
hands is educative but that this manual activity should be the working out of 
the child's own interests, an expression of his own constructive thought, and a 
realization of a definite purpose which is his own. 

3. The aim is not to give trade training, but to provide a wide range of 
activities to the end of developing a degree of skill therein and an interest in, 
and insight into, a variety of materials and processes. This will afford an 
intelligent basis for taking up any one of a number of vocations, as well as 
for giving a sympathetic and broader vision of life as a whole. 

4. The thought is not tliat the semi-industrial activities shall be regarded 
as a substitute for the activities of the conventional school but rather as a means 
of vitalizing and liberalizing the curriculum. 

5. Altho books are held always subordinate and supplementary to ex- 
perience, the importance of book work is not lessened. Manual activity should 
aflFord a basis for the interpretation of the material of the book as well as for 
its application. The book on the other hand should illustrate the problem and 
supplement the experience of the extra-book activities. The one provides in- 
dividual experience, the other brings to the children a heritage of racial ex- 
perience. The two thus mutually reinforce each other. 

6. We believe that a wide range of manual activities and the initiation of 
a variety of mental processes provided for will enable children to find themselves 
and reveal to teachers and parents their individual powers or gifts. This is 
important as a factor in vocational guidance. 

SPECIFIC STATEMENTS. 

The maximum number of children in a class should be twenty-five. 

From one-third to one-half the time is devoted to semi-industrial activities, 
viz: shopwork, printing, mechanical drawing, design, houseiiold economics (cook- 
ing, sewing, etc.). 

Approximately one-half the time in these activities is given to individual 
projects, and one-half to group or class projects. 

The projects for both boys and girls should vary sufHciently to meet the 
individual interests of the children. 

The length of time required to complete a project is an important element. 
If the time is too prolonged, the interest of the child is likely to lag. 

The standard of the finished product is determiried by the capacity of the 
child rather than by that of the adult. 

The education of the child is the primary aim; the finished product is 
»€condarv 



ASSOCIATIONS 59 

Machinery and modern appliances are introduced for two reasons: first, to 
do the work which would otherwise become purely manual labor; second, to 
make possible a greater variety of projects. 

The nature of these semi-industrial activities should be determined by the 
interests of the community. 

Since the test of the value of all knowledge is its application at some time 
in the child's experience, he shall learn how to make the greatest possible use of 
his knowledge while he is with the teacher. Merely following directions is not 
real application of knowledge; the child must act upon his own initiative rather 
than upon that of some one else. 

Mere manipulation is subordinate to thinking; mere skill, secondary to 
intelligent doing. 

To make an intelligent consumer is no less important than to develop a 
capable producer. 

The social and civic values of these semi-industrial activities should not be 
over-shadowed by the economic values. 

These activities should be supplemented and enriched by a large amount of 
related informational reading. 

The education of the child consists in an organic unity of his experiences. 
The real cooperation of all teachers, academic and industrial, is vital to the 
accomplishment of this end. 

"Some Problems of Technical Education," by principal William J. Bogan, 
Lane Technical High School, Chicago. 

PLANS RECOMMENDED. 

To improve conditions one of the first recommendations usually made is 
that the compulsory school age be raised to 16 years. This is a reform that must 
come before many years. It is a reform that is vital to our school system, but 
unless there is a radical change in our school courses the increase of the school 
period will only add to our troubles. The essential thing at the present is to 
vitalize the course of study so that pupils and parents may see the necessity for 
more schooling. When that happy stage has been reached the lengthening of 
the school period will be hailed with joy by pupils, parents, and employers. * * * 

Another plan that is coming to be looked on with great favor in the West 
is expressed by the following resolution adopted at a recent conference of high 
schools in cooperation with the University of Chicago: 

"Resolz'ed, That the public secondary schools should admit to their courses 
pupils of high school age even when such pupils have not had all the require- 
ments usually imposed on secondary schools, provided that pupils can benefit by 
work given in these courses." ***** 

These and other plans depend for their fulfilment upon the intelligence, 
energy, and breadth of view of public school teachers of all ranks, bat as one 
surveys the field of technical education whether in elementary or secondary 
schools one cannot avoid the conclusion, much as it hurts professional pride, that 
one of the greatest obstacles to improvement is the conservatism of educators. 



60 



MrlM'rll TR^IMXG MAGAZISE 



This is a force to be reckoned with, tor as shown by the experience of Massachu- 
setts, vocational education cannot be carried on successfully by an educational 
system independent of the regular public school system. How to convert the 
great bodv of teachers and their leaders to a belief in education for all the 
children is a task whose bounds none can see, but whose importance every friend 
of vocational training must realize. 

The first step necessary in this process of conversion is to secure advice 




DESIGNED .\ND MADE BV PUPILS OF THE HIGH SCHOOLS, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

outside the schools from those best e(iuip|ied to give it. l)n the newer t\'pes of 
education we need advice from employees and employers. In the large cities of 
the East advisory councils are asked to assist in forming new courses and plan- 
ning new buildings, but in many of our western cities there is an aloofness on 
the part of educators that resents outside effort as unwarranted interference, 
more's the pity, for one of the splendid features of industrial education is its 
rejuvenating effect upon educators. ***** 

Why we, an agricultural and industrial people, living in an industrial age 
should scorn the means to our economic salvation while we pursue the will-o'- 
the-wisp known as conventional culture is one of the strangest of strange phe- 
nf)mena. The veneration in which book learning has been held has been partly 
due to its ass(K:iation with the holy men of God, and partly to the fact that the 
scholar has had entire control of the means for disseminating rumors of his own 
profundity. The advent of science and invention, however, has had a tendency 
fo glorify the man of brawn plus brain until now the demand for culture in its 
narrow sense is growing fainter and fainter. In fact, we are coming to believe 
that it is one of the duties of the schoiij to hasten the day when no man will be 
ronsideretl cultured who rarmot work efhciently with his hands. 

LESSONS FROM GERMANY. 



i-€SM>ns from (ierrnariy for Boys of High School Age," by Dr. Edwin G. 
Ciifiley. Edurational .Adviser for the (^hicago (Commercial Club. 



.-iSSOCL^TlONS 61 

It seems as tho people in America believe that when they have compelled 
the boy to attend the elementary school until he is fourteen, and then offered him 
an opportunity to continue his academic instruction, or possibly his mental training 
in the secondary school, they have done their full duty by him. Germany says 
that a system of compulsory schools that takes a boy up to fourteen, just to 
the time when new impulses and new interests are arising, just to the time when 
parental control is relaxing, just to the time when most can be done toward 
fixing his character, and then turns him loose in the world, in the streets, in the 
factory, is very illogical ; that if a compulsory system of attendance at school is 
logical at all it should extend over this period of adolescence up to the time 
when the boy is seventeen or eighteen years of age. We should then provide as 
Jiberally as possible for the training for such youth during the entire period 
from six to eighteen. The one who is able to go to the ordinary secondary school 
does not need our attention; he is already provided for. The one who must go 
to work at fourteen should also be taken care of as well as possible. ***** 

The German position is that the shop alone cannot teach a trade, but that 
both shop and school are necessary. I am inclined to think they are right in that 
contention. The master in the ordinary shop in Germany or America has too 
little time, and perhaps has not the qualifications necessary, to teach the theoretical 
side of the trade; to teach the things that the boy ought to know; the various 
subjects that the German includes in this examination. The German master is, 
therefore, very anxious for help. As a result the employing class are, as a rule, 
behind the movement to supplement the system of apprenticeship by the system of 
continuation schools. It would be a great mistake to forget that these schools are 
a supplement to apprenticeship, not an independent system that undertakes the 
whole vocational education of the boy. ***** 

There is no continuation school system that can long continue successful that 
relies on teachers whose main interest and business is teaching in another kind 
of school. The continuation school teacher must be a teacher whose whole life 
and purpose is to work in those special schools. Critics measure the success of a 
German city in its continuation school work first by the proportionate number of 
teachers who are teachers in the continuation school only, and, second, by the 
relative number of teachers who come directly from the trades. When they have 
a school running all the time, it is comparatively easy to secure a force of teachers 
to teach all the time, and to induce men from the industries to leave the industries 
and become teachers. Every teacher who comes in from the schools is required 
to learn something of the industry, and every teacher from the trades to learn 
something of pedagogy, certain subjects being invariably turned over to the 
practical men from the industry, and others being taught by the professional 
teacher. ***** 

It should be remembered that Germany has no national system of education, 
and this matter of the industrial schools is left largely to the communities. In 
Germany there is a general system of trade regulations but the matter of or- 
ganizing schools and determining the kind of school it shall be is left to the com- 
munity. All sorts of experiments, all kinds of schemes, have been tried, each of 
them being an attempt on the part of the community to satisfy its own needs, 
and all of them being based on the belief of the (ierman — that education pays. 



62 



M IM .11. IK^I.\l.\(; M.IC.i/.l.M- 




ASSOCIATIONS 63 

How tlioroly they believe this is shown by the fact that industrial schools are 
supported by twenty-two of the labor organizations in the city of Berlin. 

Dr. Kerschensteiner said: "I used to be greatly alarmed over the prospect 
of competition with America. It seemed to me that we could not resist American 
enterprizes, but I have carefully studied the matter and I have made up my 
mind that unless America changes her tactics Germany has nothing to fear from 
her. If America continues to capitalize her resources, skim off the cream of her 
soils, her forests, etc., instead of conserving them, and above all conserving her 
human energy, Germany has nothing to fear from lier as a competitor." 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING. 

"What Should Be Included in a Course of Instruction in Architectural Draw- 
ing for the High School?," by A. C. Newell, director of manual training, State 
Normal University, Normal, Illinois. In this address was given a careful analysis 
and a comprehensive outline of the subject matter that should prove especially 
helpful to teachers. The conclusions are as follows: 

The details of what to learn in a high school course in architectural drawing 
and the best methods of teaching it, are at present, in an unsettled condition. 
It will take a number of years of hard study on the part of a large number of 
teachers, with conferences and criticisms of each other's work, before a more 
uniform course in architectural drawing can be adopted by our teachers of 
mechanical drawing. 

The experience which manual training teachers have had in the past has led 
to some rather definite conclusions in reference to teaching shopwork. Neither the 
Sloyd system nor Russian joinery has proved to be the best method for teaching 
in our American schools. We are now beginning to have courses in shopwork 
that are more uniform in aim and method, altho different in details. We now 
see that shop courses should have a subject content of their own, that the work 
at the beginning and in the grades should be general in character and educational 
in purpose, and that further on it should be more ^wcational in nature. We also 
know that the teaching should be carried on according to good pedagogical 
principles, and all of us realize that we have been very slow in discovering 
methods of teaching that are psychologically sound. 

We should keep in mind the important discoveries already made in the shop 
and drafting rooms in connection with high schools. A course consisting largely 
of detail drawings of architectural parts corresponds to Russian joinery in the 
shop. A course in drawing classic types or buildings foreign to our American 
needs might correspond to the Swedish Sloyd of twenty years ago. Thinking 
teachers ought soon to agree that our courses should not be too technical, but 
ought to cover a rather wide scope, and should include as much of the educational 
as possible, at the same time leading strongly toward the vocational, and the 
methods and practice used by professionals. 

The emphasis should be placed on the drawings of buildings that are com- 
mon in the locality, with the thought of design, both structural and ornamental, 
constantly kept in mind. The greatest good will probably come to the student 
from working out the complete plans, elevations, details, specifications, bill of 



64 



M.LM.n. r/^.//.v/.v(; m u;.r/.i\K 



materials ami perspective drawing ot a house wliicli will interest him and 
members of his tamily at home. Such a course should he given in about two 
vcars" time, working one hour a day, or in one year with double time, if taught 
in the iunior or senior vear of the high school course. 




I'lCTlRK KRWIKS DKSIGNKD AMI M XHK l!V 1!()VS (U HIGH SCHOOLS, CINCINNATI, OHIO. 

BUSINESS SESSION. 

Much important work was done at the annual business meeting. The report 
of tlic Committee on Reorganization of the affairs of the Association was ap- 
proved, witli certain modifications, carrying with it the adoption of a new 
Constitution and By-Laws. The most important change is the formation of a 
permanent Boaril of Directors, to be known as the Council, which is specifically 
charged with the responsibility of studying such problems as cannot, in the nature 
of the case, be carried thru to satisfactory solution by one set of officers in a 
single Association year. 

The officers for tlie ensuing year are: president, Emma M. Church, School 
of Applied and Normal Art, Chicago; vice-president, Ira 8. Griffith, Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute, Peoria, Illinois; secretary, \\'ilson H. Henderson, director of 
vocational education, Hammond, Indiana; treasurer. Miss Charlotte Ulricli, 
Cincinnati, Ohio; auditor, Mott J. Sclierer, St. Louis, Mo. The members of the 
t"ouncil are the president and secretary, ex officio, and the following: Miss 
Florence I.. Kllis, supervisor of drawing, Cleveland, Ohio; Miss Lucy S. Silke, 
NUpcrvisor of drawing, Chicago; Fred D. Crawshaw, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison; Carl N. W'erntz, Chicago Academy of Fine Arts; William T. Bawden, 
New ^'ork. 

The next meeting of the Association will be iield in Des Moines, Iowa, in 
Mav. 1913. — Wii.i.iAM r. Bawdkn. 

NAIiONAL KDCCAIION ASSOCIATION. 



I he hftielli aniui.il coiin crition ot the \:itiorial !'',duc;ition Associati(tii was 
liel<J in Chicago, July 6tli to 12th, and its program coniained many papers ami 
ad(lre**c» of special interest to workers in the field of the manual arts. 

In the President's Address, Superintendeiu Pearse, Milwaukee, called at- 
tention to the fact that the organization of our public school system is based in 
large part on conditions that no lf)nger exist. I'Or example, there is no longer atiy 
coiitrollinK reav)n in the everyday living conditions in our cities and towns for 
a »rhfiol dav beginning at nine o'clock imd dosing at three-tliirtv or four, or for 



.^SSOCI.^TIONS 



65 




^t, U./.Vr.//. TRrllMXa MIC, IZISE 

a >cluHil vear begiiining in Septeiuher ;nul closing in June. The solution of the 
diiciilties presented by the insistent demand for the introduction of the newer 
and more practical lines of work into the school lies in the direction of lengthen- 
ing both the school day and the schwl year. 

Beginning at the fifth or sixth grade these special lines of work should be 
in the hands of specially trained teachers. During the time when the children 
arc under the direction of the special teachers the regular teachers should be 
re'ieved of all room duties in order that they may give attention to other work 
that they would ordinarily do at home in the evening. Thus the lengthened 
school day would not add anything to the burden of the regular grade teachers, 
which is alreadv heavy enough. The introduction of the proposed new forms of 
schixil activitv will make the program sufficiently varied and interesting to satisfy 
all requirements from the standpoint of the child. 

"Citizenship in Industrial Education," and "The Relation of the Elementary 
School to Subsequent Industrial Education" were the topics discussed at the first 
session of the Department of Manual Training and Art. The speakers were 
(.'. B. Connelley, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg; W. T. Bawden, 
I'niversity of Illinois; C. A. Bennett, Bradley Polytechnic Institute; Paul Kreuz- 
pointner, Altoona. Pa.; Emory Filbey, University of Chicago. A. L. VVilliston, 
Wentworth Institute, Boston, presented the Report of the Committee on College 
Entrance Requirements. In the discussion Mr. Kreuzpointner said: "We men of 
the industries who are under daily obligation to adjust to our work the material 
received from our schools, appreciate the willingness of the educators to have 
the elementary school take part in the work of preparing those who are destined 
to enter industrial life direct from the elementary school. 

"If we trace the effect of present day educational endeavor upon the various 
social forces of our national life, as these forces act and react upon each other, 
we find that the readjustment of the elementary school in the direction proposed 
would benefit societ>' at large even more tlian the industries would be benefited; 
because bv so doing industrial education would be raised to that higher level of 
ethical and intellectual efficiency and broader social usefulness which this form 
of education must eventually occupy in our national life. If we retain our 
present conception of the function of industrial education as simply an instrument 
to increase output and to furnish the means to a comfortable material existence, 
then we endanger our civilization by the appeal to tlie selfish instincts of the 
employer and the employe, eventually producing a state of mind which will react 
injuriously upon the industries and society alike." 

At the second session the papers were: "The Significance of the Industrial 
Art*, in the Schools," by C. A. .McMurry, State Normal School, DeKalb, Illinois, 
and "Sociological Phases of Industrial Education," by F. M. Leavitt, University 
of Chicago. Professor Leavitt said: "Today, when imiversal education is our 
aim, bread and butter' education for the masses of mankind will tend to bring 
the mas'tcs and the classes closer together, to secure unity in diversity by giving 
each a more genuine appreciation of and respect for the other. So far from 
heinK sordid and basely utilitarian, it represents one of the finest Ideals which 
the human mind has conceived, and sets forth a philosophy of life which can be 
fully realized under nr> fither conditions than complete solidarity. # • * » * 



.-ISSOCIATIONS 67 

INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION AND CRIME. 

"Another sociological phase of industrial education is its relation to crime. 
That industrial education is to have an immense influence in preventing juvenile 
delinquency is the belief of those who have studied faithfully the lessons taught 
by the reform schools and penitentiaries. Certainly nothing could be of greater 
social significance than the reduction of crime, and especially crime for which 
society, rather than the delinquent, is mainly responsible. ***** 

"If education learns to dignifj- all vocational life by giving it consideration 
in its various forms and relations, who shall say that this will not have a pro- 
found influence in helping us, as a nation, to develop a unity of purpose out of 
the wonderful opportunities which our countrj' affords, and of which we are 
justlv' proud, and which in a social democracy should somehow be made to ad- 
minister to the common good ?" 

The program for the third session included; "The Needed Changes in the 
Manual Arts," by F. D. Crawshaw, University of Wisconsin, and "Introduction 
of Technical Subjects in the Eighth Grade," by W. H. Henderson, Springfield, 
Illinois. 

Professor Crawshaw presented the results of a series of studies of the manual 
arts in the public schools extending over a number of years. The following is a 
brief summary of the conclusions reached: 

Considering some of the most important "differences between the traditional 
form of manual arts as it is usually conducted and the vocational form for 
similar grades and ages of individuals: (1) From two to five or six times as 
much time is devoted to the shopwork in vocational schools as to that in manual 
arts departments in regular schools. (2) The academic work of the vocational 
school is given less time than in the regular school and it always is of the applied 
type. (3) In the vocational school boys and girls are segregated in classes which 
consider only those branches of work which the members of the group may follow 
as an occupation. (4) Individuals of both sexes are given the advantage of 
vocational guidance, so that those wishing a specific training may receive it 
without loss of time and effort. (5) While different methods of doing work are 
used in the vocational schools, sometimes resembling closely those of the ordinary 
manual training shops and sometimes those of the apprentice shop in a factory, 
the general conduct of the work in the vocational schools follows closely com- 
mercial practice. *****" 

With particular reference to these points of difference the following "needed 
changes in the manual arts under ordinary public school conditions" were pro- 
posed: "(1) There should be an industrial significance given to the materials 
used in the lower grades. ***** (2) In the upper grades more time must 
be secured — not less than two and preferably three times what is now ordinarily 
given to manual training. (3) Besides the greater amount of time in these 
grades, there must be ultimately an opportunity in this period for a certain degree 
of specialization, or better an intensification, of effort upon handwork with 
possible future vocations serving as a guide for selection of subjects. (4) In 
this upper grammar grade specialization we must have much greater effort in 
the direction of adult standards. Bv this I mean that we should do things not 



6S .1/ /.vr.//. rR.H.\i.\(^ M.ni.t/.isE 

ill the "plaN-at-it' or amateiirisli %vay but in tlie way men dn similar tliinjis for 
\Nhich thev receive their daily wai^e. ***** (5) In the public hiiih school 
maiuiai arts departnieius there must be opportunits tor specialization from the 
first dav of the first year on. • * * * • (6) For those pupils who will con- 
tinue in high school thru the four years the specialization of the first two years 
is not desirable, at least not in svich great measure as for those who will leave 
lo go to work at the end of the freshman or sophomore year. For that portion of 
the class who are likely to go on into college work 1 should not recommend 
manual arts bevond the sophoinore year. For all others, however, those who will 
complete the high school but who will tiien enter some wage-earning occupation, 
the last two years at least must be specialization years. * * * * * 

"The theory advanced in this paper is simply this: Give sutiicient time to 
the manual arts from the beginning of the sixth grade on thru the high school 
to make it vocationally worth while. Introduce methods which will give pupils 
a real knowledge of work as it is actually done muler commercial conditions, 
when these conditions are good. Break down, to some extent at least, the 
pedagog's standard of sequence of models and iron-clad progression in tool ex- 
ercises, and likewise break down the standard of se()uence of subjects. * * * * * 
We need a change toward greater latitude in selection of subjects and closer 
application to commercial standards — a change which does not mean revolution, 
but evolution; a change likewise which does not mean discarding the good we 
know exists in manual training, but rather the retention of all this, and the 
addition of all that is good and practical in vocational education. Such a change 
means new and continued life for the public school manual arts, and extended 
opportunities for them to do what ma\ justly be exjiected of them." 

on.IECTIONS ANSWERED. 

In discussing tlie second topic Mr. Henderson outlined some of the ob 
jcctions to the introduction of technical subjects in the eighth grade and answered 
them. He said in part: 

'■I'ndcr the conditions that exist, it is obvious that to reach the children who 
are most in need of technical training, we must introduce it in the elementary 
Mrhool. But at once it is protested that we must not shorten the period of child- 
hiKxl, that childhood is a refuge and shoidd be guarded; that fourteen is too 
voung for specialization and a chilil at that age is not mature enough to choose 
his career; that it is child labor; that if the child is given skill the factory will 
claim him all the sooner; thai it is cciiurary to our .American principle of equal 
opportunity; that it is im|)ossii)lt' and impractical because 9S per cent, of the 
teacher«t in our schools arc women who have no knowledge of techniciil subjects; 
furthermore the preadr)lescent child has neither the judgment nor the physical 
Htrength necessary for this training. 

"Viewed superficially these may seem lo be valid objections, init with the idea 
in mind that the scluwds are maintained for the good of all the children of all the 
people, I should like \ou i<» consider them in the liulii of present conditions. 
First: 'W'c must not shorten the period of childhood; childhood is a refuge and 
should he v.\\3Ti\ei\.' Childhood f/inulJ lir a refu^e where, g\ii(led and protected. 



ASSOCIATIONS 69 

the child is taught to protect and care for himself, so that when the protection is 
withdrawn it will not be needed. Childhood is a period of helplessness, and 
during that period many a child comes to school hungry and half-clothed, while 
the mother washes or scrubs for a dollar a day. Is it right that we prolong tiiat 
period of helplessness, or should we teach the child something b\ which he may 
feed and clothe himself and so relieve the mother? 

"Then: 'Fourteen is too young for specialization, and a child at that age 
is not mature enough to choose his career.' This may be true, but we must meet 
a condition and not a theory. These children are now specializing when they go 
to work at fourteen, and they have no choice of careers. They must take the 
work they can get, liking it or disliking it, fitting or misfitting. The boy or the 
man with no skill or technical training has a hard time making a bare living, 
but a boy with proficiency in a skilled occupation can choose his own career. 

"Next: 'It is child labor.' Does labor cease to be child labor at 13 years, 
11 months, and 29 days of age? These children do go to work 9 hours a day, 
6 days a week, at 14; and what we are proposing is to have them work 3 hours 
a day, 5 days a week, under competent instructors, so that when they go to work 
their labor may be a little less irksome and the pay a little better. The term 
labor signifies work that is unpleasant or disagreeable to the worker. It gets its 
significance from the state of mind of the worker. With this idea in mind 
compare, from the boy's standpoint, the work that is now done in the eighth grade 
with what is proposed, and decide which is child labor! 

" 'If the child is given skill, the factory will claim him all the sooner.' Re- 
member that the factory is now getting him at 14, and the law will not allow it 
to get him anj' younger. A school which will take the child at 14 and give him 
a two years' course leading to skill and proficiency in some occupation, will 
keep the factory from getting him until he is 16, whereas it now claims him at 14. 

" 'It is contrary to our American principle of equal opportunity.' On the 
contrary, it is contributing toward giving every child an equal opportunity. At 
present the boy who must go to work at 14 has no opportunity to prepare for the 
work he is to do. The child who can remain in school long enough to prepare 
for a profession has every opportunity. The United States Government will 
board, clothe, and teach a trade to an Indian boy of 14, and some states and 
charitable organizations will do as much for a negro boy; but the only way for 
a 14 year old boy of poor white parents to get the opportunity to learn a trade 
is to commit a crime. 

"Finally: 'It is impractical and impossible because 9S per cent, of the 
teachers are women.' If, as some persons think, we have too few men in the 
elementary schools, this might be a good way to get more of them there. Our 
schools do not exist for the good of the teachers, and if the welfare of the 
children requires that there shall be more men teachers in the elementary schools, 
they will be there. To state that it is impossible to give technical training in 
the elementary school seems folly when it is noted that there are about fifty 
schools in the United States that are giving such training to children 14 years of 
age, when a majority of the pupils in the eighth grade are over 14." 

At the fourth session, in discussing "The Manufacturer's Viewpoint of In- 
dustrial Education," C. R. Dooley, secretary of the educational committee, West- 



70 M.IM .H. TR.llMXG M.iG.I/.lSE 

inghousc Electric and Mainifacturing Company, Pittslnirg, described the courses 
of traininc provided by this company in order to meet the demand for trained 
workers in tlie industry. These include: (1) A course open to graduates of 
technical schix^ls ; the time is two years, the hrst of which is spent in the 
manufacturing and testing departments, and the second in the particular branch 
the student expects to follow. (2) A trades apprentice course, open to boys 
from the grammar grades and higli school. (3) Technical night school classes, 
open to both men and women, without reference to previous education or 
employment. 

The two remaining sessions of the DepartnieiU were devoted to Household 
Economics and Art, respectively. The officers for the year 1912-13 were elected, 
as follows: President, Arthur I.. Williston, director, Wentworth Institute, 
Boston; Vice-President, Lillian S. C\ishman, University of Chicago; Secretary, 
R. W. Selvidge, professor of manual arts. University of Missouri, Columbia. 

BKM ANDS ON' SCHOOLS INCREASK. 

At the session of the nepartment of School Administration on Monday 
morning. Dr. E. CJ. Cooley gave an address on "Continuation Schools," in which 
he said: "A fundamental defect in our present school system results from our 
custom of terminating compulsory education at fourteen years of age. Every one 
will admit that this is too earl\. We are permitting our boys and girls to leave 
our public schools just at the time when the\ most need guidance and instruction, 
just at the time when character building really begins. Before the age of four- 
teen the youth is too immature to comprehend the training required by a citizen 
in a modern state. He has not the judgment anti the power of resistance to 
temptations necessary for an independent life in modern societ\. 

"The home has ceased to exercise the educational power which characterized 
it in the past. It has ceased to be the workshop of the parents; the father and 
often the mother are taken from the home b\ their daily work. The great cities 
and the great industries now take tiie \outh almost immediately after the com- 
pletion of the elementary school period. It is clear that great demoralization will 
take place if the care of society and the state does not take the place formerly 
occupied by the home, the parents, or the master in the trade. 

"The demands f>n school education are, therefore, increasing with the ad- 
vancing (Jeveh)pment of society. An increasing attention to the spiritual interests 
during these years of vouth mu>i be provided if tiie life of the modern laborer 
is not to be utterly demoralized and degraded li\ the sensual allurements of 
city life." 

IKMMVC IV I'RACTICM, \KIS. 

One se?tsion of the Department of I'^lementary lulucation was devoted to a 
(liM:uK<iioti of "The Place ui Training in the Practical Arts in the Upper (Jrades 
of the J-llcmeniary Sch<K>l as a Part of a Program of (jeneral Education and 
\'ricational (iuidanre," witli addresses bv C. A. Prosser, secretary of the National 
Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education, F. M. I.eaviit, Universily of 
Chicaico, and John C. Brodhead, assistant director of iii;iini:il .iits, Boston. Mr. 
Pr'HHer <taid, in part : 



ASSOCIATIONS 71 

"The practical arts in the elementary school must not be made up of small 
amounts of a large number of different lines of work on the theory that the boy 
mav thus test himself out in a number of different kinds of work and after two 
years, say at sixteen, make up his choice of vocation. The result of this polic\ 
is to give a smattering of knowledge in a number of lines, no one of which is 
worth anything at all to him in any occupation. Experience in Massachusetts 
has shown that 'testing out in series' is not only theoretically more sound but 
practically more efficient. The boy who takes up the work in the practical arts 
at fourteen should choose some definite line of work. If a few weeks or months 
of trial show that he and it are a misfit, let him change to some other. 

"In order to make vocational guidance accomplish what it should, two things 
must be done: (1) Make provision for more thoro study of boys and girls at 
fourteen, in order that we may know more definitely what the problems are and 
how to deal with them. (2) See to it that vocational counselors are surrounded 
and supported by efficient advisory committees, made up of men and women who 
have the necessary knowledge of the industries and the personal cjualities, 
sympathy, etc., to be of real help to the boys and girls. ***** 

"Something must be taken back into the schools, for the years between twelve 
and fourteen, to take the place of the 'chores' and other home duties of the old 
days, in order to enable boys and girls to try themselves out in various ways 
before thev reach the age of fourteen. The schools should avoid offering 'courses' 
in wood, metal, printing, bookbinding, etc. Instead there should be offered two 
vears of experiences in the practical arts, consisting of series of 'jobs' involving 
as many and as varied activities and processes as possible. 

"This program involves several changes from existing conditions: (1) 
Either a longer school day, or the elimination of a good deal of the work now- 
being done. (2)- The instructors who are to handle this v/ork must have a more 
varied training than is now common. (3) The equipment must be entirely re- 
organized in order to provide a varied assortment of appliances, instead of 
twenty-five lathes, twenty-five benches, etc. ***** 

"The dominant aim in all this work must be real life experience in the 
practical arts." — Wh-Li.am T. Bavvden. 

INLAND EMPIRE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

At the annual convention of the Inland Empire Teachers' Association, 
Spokane, Washington, in April, a "Manual Arts and Science Section" was 
organized, and an excellent program was carried out, with C. A. Steelsmith, of 
Lewiston, Idaho, as chairman. 

The speakers included: A. E. Winship, editor of the Journal of Education, 
Boston; Dr. G. Stanley Hall; Arthur H. Chamberlain, editor of the Sierra Edu- 
cational Nevis, San Francisco; Miss Josephine Berry, Pullman, Washington; 
Mrs. Grace M. Shepherd, Idaho; Professor E. J. Iddings, University of Idaho; 
State Superintendent L. R. Alderman, Salem, Oregon; State Superintendent 
Henry B. Dewey, Olympia, Washington ; and others. 

From the arguments brought forward one could easily believe with Superi/^ 
tendent Dewey that "hand training is the biggest thing in school work," and that 
"it is cultural as well as practical." 



M.LM.Il TRrll.MSa MAG.^ZISE 

"The hest crop> wliicli the farnier> raise," saiil Superiiiteiideiit Alderman, 
■'arc bovs aiui cirls. The boy needs to have sonietluiig; of his very own, a colt 
or a plot ot grovind tor raising sometlilng wortli while. Die girls must have some 
of the modern housekeeping improvements. Parents are anxious to cooperate 
with the teachers, and many a boy will swell with pride because of iiis father's 
praise. The fairs of Oregon have stimulated an acti\e interest in the raising of 
varied crops, and the $20,000 spent annually in every county in the state has 
produced remarkable results, tho it is still true that the farmer in the northwest 
has been buying what lie should be selling." 

Professor Chamberlain saiil ; "There is a strong movement back to the farm, 
and a stronger belief in the dignity of labor. The course of study must 'hitch 
up' with the work of life. Cjo to the business man to learn what is the trouble 
with the school. Kill otf nine-tenths of the present course; teach one-tenth, and 
emphasize it. Teach industrial and commercial geography and English with 
manual training. Employ special teachers; do not disregard accuracy; get 
thought power by stimulating thinking; and teach how to buy and how to spend." 

Dr. Ci. Stanley Hall emphasized the fact that teachers must find out what 
prospective employers want, also what the individual child is fitted for. There is 
no child, however dull, that cannot learn something well, and the school must 
help each child to find out what that thing is. Dr. Winship expressed a similar 
thought, when he said: "The school must fit the child so that he can easily 
learn any of the trades. Teach the boy for his sake; and along with the car- 
penter's trade, teach him to read and write good English, and good manners and 
morals." .Miss Berry took the girl's side of the question, and explained the real 
meaning of home-making, its relation to life, and the relation of other subjects 
to it. Many sciences — biology, chemistry, mycology, and bacteriology — are closely 
connected with it. Besides cooking and sewing, the pupils should study public 
and personal hygiene, proper combinations and costs of food and shelter, textiles, 
dyes, house furnishings and house construction. In the endeavor to supply to the 
child what the home does not, the teacher of household arts and science must be 
a woman of knowledge and experience. 

At the next meeting it is expected to secure the cooperation in this Section 
of the teachers of art and the cotnmercial branches. In the "Inland Empire" 
there arc about 250 teachers employed in the manual arts. The states represented 
arc giving University credit, as fo'Iows: Washington, two credits for industrial 
or manual training in high school, and one credit for work in agriculture; Idaho, 
two credits in manual training; Oregon is asking the University for three credits 
in manual training. Idaho has a committee of the State Teachers' Association at 
wi»rk on a standard course of study, which will probably ht- presented for dis- 
rn«»ioii at the next meeting of the Association. 

The ortiters elected for the year in the Manual Arts Section are: chairman, 
S. J. Work, director of manual training, State Normal School, Cheney, Wash- 
ington; <>crretar\, Miss jne/ St. [nliris, Stale Normal School, I.ewiston, Idaho. 

— C. A. Stkei.smith, 

I.ewiston, Idaho. 

At the April meeting ot the Manual Iraining Section r)t the Middle Tennes- 
srr Kdnr.ilion A»so( i.-itinn (lie name wa- rhanged to read "Art and Manual 



.^SSOCI.I TIONS 



73 



Training Section." Officers for the year were elected, as follows: Chairman, 
A. C. Webb, Nashville; Secretary, Miss Carrie E. Smith, Columbia. The special 
features of the meeting were three addresses: "The Application of Art to 
Manual Training," by A. C. Webb, Nashville; "The Function of the School in 
the Problem of Home-Making," by Miss Elizabeth Randall, Nashville; and "The 
Culture Element in the Manual Arts," by President C. B. C/ibson, Mechanics 
Institute, Rochester, N. V. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Connecticut Manual Arts Teachers' Asso- 
ciation was held at the Green Street School, New Haven, on Saturday, April 27th. 
The Art Section conducted a "Portfolio Exhibit," and the Shopwork Section a 
"Suit-Case Exhibit." Here is an idea worthy of emvdation in otiier organizations. 

During the Hrst week in April the thirty-first aiuuial convention of the 
Alabama Educational Association was held at Birmingham. The sessions in- 
cluded a splendid program conducted by the Manual Arts and Indvistrial Edu- 
cation Section. 




TABLK, HIGH SCHOOLS. CINCINNATI. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



CiEO. A. Sea TON, Editor. 



The taboret shown in the photograph was contributed by W. E. Hackett, 
ot the Boys' Higli Scliool, Reading, Pennsylvania. Tiie working drawing is 
complete enough to make furtiier comment unnecessary. 




LIBRARY TABLE. 

The design for the library table 
which is given in this issue is original 
witii one of the students working under 
Phillip S. Hasty, in the Newman Man- 
ual Training School, New Drleans. 
As the table was intended to be held 
together by dowels, the brackets used 
become exceedingly useful besides 
giving a touch of individuality to the 
project. 

MISSION CHAIR. 

riie working drawing of the 
mission chair, freiiuently designated 
Roman chair, is typical of a class of 
chairs strucfiiraily simple. The design 
is furnished by \V. E. Hackett, of 
Reading, PeimsyKania. 



COMBINATION TABLE AND DAVENPORT. 

While articles of furniture intended to serve more than one purpose are 
generally of <loubtful utility, the combination library table and davenport il- 
lu<iiratr*4 seems to have met a very definite need in tlie home where it i»ow is. 
The project has been worked out with considerable ingeiuiity bv a student of 
the San Jme Fligh School, working tinder tlie direction of P. 1). C'ronev. Possibly 
it may prove suggestive to others who are cramped for sjiace. In |>uttit^g it 
toKClher it should he imted that the washers cm tin- upper and lower arms should 
be «>f different thicknesses 



74 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



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M.I.M .^1. TR.^L\I\G M.4GA/.ISE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



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COMBINATION TABLE AND DAVENPORT. 



78 



MIMrtl TR.-II.MXC MAGAZINE 




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M IM.ll TR.IIMXC M IG.^ZIXE 



PUSH-STICK. 

The push-stick is iiiteiuied to he used in haiullinu material over the jointer. 
By vitilizing the hamile frotii a discarded jack-plane, an interesting problem in 
monisinc mav be introduced. If desired, two Hue brads, with sharpened points 
slightlv projectins. may be inserted near the front end. The design is submitted 
bv Frederick Ellis, instructor in pattern-making. College of Engineering, Uni- 
versirv of Illinois. 



Push St/ck 




nr)\\ FI.-KOl) CUTTKR. 



An excellent problem for the machine-shoi) is that of the dowel-rod cutter 
contributed by Eugene (,". Graham, of Ivvansville, Indiana. The drawing given 
preiicnt* the dimensions needed for a cutter turning out vg" dowels only. It is 
lURUC'c'l tbat other sizes could be made by changing the size of the hole in the 
face and the bo<Jy of the cutter. In fact Mr. Graham says they have made this 
culler in three different sizes, all working very well, turning out polished rods 
from rough ifjuare stock. Tin- tool will work better if the cutting edge of the 
HToririg cutler is set slightly in advance of tlie cut made by the shaving cutter. 
I'his may be done by setting a thin brass wedge under the inside end of the 
«rorinK culler, thus raiMiiig it slightly from the face of the main body of the tool. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



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83 



SHOE POLISH BOX. 

A handy piece of furniture which is very simple in its construction is the 
shoe polish box submitted to the department by J. J. Berilla, of Vineland, N. J. 
The sides are doweled to the legs with three y^" dowels, and the top may be 
either nailed or screwed down. In assembling the box, the two ends should be 
glued first and after this has hardened, the balance of the glueing may be com- 
pleted. The bottom of Vs" wood may be fastened in place upon J/4" strips as 
shown by the dotted lines of the drawing. The top of the box may be covered 
with carpet to prevent its being scratched. 




CIRRKN r ITEMS 

rnK chiiokkn's IURKAI'. 

A fhiliiren's Hiiieaii was establislieil as part ot tlie nepaitineiit ot C'oiiiinerce 
and Labor hv act of Congress in April, 191J. This enactment is the result of 
five or more years of vigorous campaigning and the miremitting devotion of 
the child welfare organizations of tlie oountr\, let! h\ the National Child I.ahor 
Committee. All educators will rejoice wiil> ilu'in in tiie establishment of the 
Bureau. 

rhe purpose and duties of this Bureau are these: to investigate and report 
to the (.iepartment upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children and 
child life among all classes of our people, and especially investigate the questions 
of infant mortality, the Wirth rate, juvenile courts, desertion, dangerous occupa- 
tions, accidents and diseases of children, employment and legislation affecting 
children in the several states and territories. 

The law provides for a diief of the Bureau, appointed b\ the Presiilent 
with the consent and approval of the Senate, whose annual compensation is to 
l>e five thousand dollars. 

Assistants, clerks, traineil investigators are also provided for. Miss Julia 
A. I.athrop has been appointed chief of the Bureau. Her appointment has met 
with >vide approval, her work along civic and public welfare lines being well 
known. .Miss Lathrop first became associated with Miss Jane Addams in her 
work at Hull House. She became a member of tiie Illinois State Board of Chari- 
ties and was one of the group who were acti\e in iiringing about the juvenile 
court in Illinois, the first in this country. Miss l.athiup is president of the Illinois 
Society for Mental Hygiene and is \ice president of the Chicago School of Civics 
and Philanthropy. She is an instructor in this school and has shown marked 
ability in guiding social workers. Thus Miss Lathrop brings to her work as 
chief of the Children's Bureau wide experience and special talents which well 
hi her for a position of such importance and inHuence. 

VACATION SCHOOLS. 

Vacation scluiols, with manual training and domestic science as leading 
subjects, provetl even more popidar this year than last. New \'nrk vacation 
>chfKils had a registration of 26,267, MiniieajMilis over 4,(101), St. Louis 2,351). 
At Portland, Oregon, vacation work was provided in thirteen schools. In New 
N'ork and Minneapolis registration was augmented l)\ pupils taking academic 
subjects to make up work lf>st during the school year. Numerous smaller cities 
report growing interest in vacation schools. Certain (juestions arise in noting 
this interest in such schools featuring the mainial arts. Does it iiulicate a deinand 
fe>r a longer sch<K)l year? Does it itidicate a demand for more time devoteil to 
manual activities in the regular school jirograin / Does ii poirii to a desire on 
the part of parents for more practical work for iheir children, or increlv to a 
gladness to have their children kept off the streets and out ot ilieii \va\ during 
the Irving summer mfuilhs? Possibly an in vestigalioii nl llicsc poinls would 
throw Mirne light on the elementary schf)ol prol)lem. 

84 



CLRRENr ITEMS 85 

EASTERN STATES. 

James Frederick Hopkins this fall enters on a new and important field of 
work as supervisor of art education for the state of Massachusetts. This position 
includes the directorship of the Massachusetts Normal Art School. Mr. Hopkins 
is eminently fitted for a position of such responsibility and wide influence, having 
had a large and varied experience in the work of art instruction. Mr. Hopkins 
has for the past few years been director of the Maryland Institute Schools of 
Art and Design. Probably Mr. Hopkins is most widely known in connection 
with his services during the international art congresses. He was chairman of 
the American committee for the recent Dresden Congress, and was indefatigable 
in his efforts to make the congress of interest to American art teachers. Mr. 
Hopkins takes into his new position the good wishes of a liost of friends and 
fellow-workers. 

The women manual training teachers of Boston have an organization, called 
the Manual Arts Club, of which Miss Florence O. Bean is president. The sewing 
teachers also have a club, known as the Boston Sewing Teachers' Association. 
Miss Esther C. Povah is president. These organizations have as aims professional 
and personal improvement, and social recreation. 

The manufacturers of CJreenfield, Massachusetts, have shown their interest 
in the schools by several gifts of machinery. One companv gave the manual 
training department a power drill, and a full set of taps, dies, and plumbers' 
tools. Another gave a power lathe. A third company donated a hand drill, a 
breast drill, a bench drill, a hack saw, a grinding head, and various small tools. 

Somerville, Massachusetts, has extended its manual training department 
this year to include another grade center and a machine shop at the Tufts rtreet 
school. Most of the work of constructing the machine shop will be done by the 
department. The school committee also voted to employ women teachers of 
manual training hereafter. Miss E. Christabel Ruggles was appointed as the 
first woman teacher of the subject. 

At Leominster, Massachusetts, in one grammar school, is maintained a prac- 
tical course of study for those seventh, eighth, and ninth grade pupils who wish 
to take it. Half of the school day is devoted to manual activities; household 
work, dressmaking, and millinery for the girls, and the usual forms of manual 
training for the boys. Boys of fourteen and over are allowed to get their indus- 
trial training by working half of the day in the local factories if thev wish to 

PENNSYLV.'WI.A. 

The Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, schools begin the year with a number of inter- 
esting new features. The supervision of industrial education is in the hands 
of Frank H. Ball, formerly of Cincinnati. Mr. Ball's effective work in Cincinnati 
is well-known and therefore his work in Pittsburg will be observed closelv. 

In the Fifth Avenue High School, a four years' course of industrial work 



86 .1/./.Vr.// TK.UMXC MIC.A/.ISE 

has hcen establisiieil. Tliis course offers two lines of study, one leading to en- 
trance into higher technical institutions, antl the other, with emphasis on the 
shop side, leading into the nulustries. In the five other high schools in the city 
one and two year courses in industrial work ha\e been established. Pittsburg 
has heretotore had no work ot the kinil in the high school, but has given some 
pattern-making, cabinet making, ami wood-turning in the grades. The planning 
of a higli school course which will not seem a repetition to these grade students is 
a difficult task. l"he work in the grades will be simplified in some respects. A 
dozen new manual training centers have been establisiieil thruout the city. 

The newest feature of al! is the establishment of two elementary industrial 
schools. These offer a two years' course for boys above fourteen years of age 
without regard to academic (jualihcations. The course the first year will allow 
a boy an opportvmity to work in a number of the departments until he "finds 
himself," and then he will specialize. The covuses offered are printing; metal- 
work, including copper, brass, sheet-iron, anil tin; elementary mechanics and 
practical electricity; mechanical drawing, closelx connected with all branches; 
cabinet making; wmnl-turning and jiatternmaking ; house framing, for a sufficient 
length of time and practical enough to enable the boys to make an application 
of the electrical work; and a simple course in the fundamentals of plumbing, 
including a study of drainage, vents, water pressure, etc. An enrollment of about 
four hundred is expected at the North Elementary Industrial School, and half 
that number at the Irwin Avenue school in Allegheny. 
do so. 

The school board of Homestead, Pittsburg, authorized Superintendent Def- 
fenbaugh to proceed with his proposed plans of arranging a special program for 
pupils found below the sevemii grade who are fourteen \ears of age or over. 
These pupils will be given a sciiool ila\ in whicii half of the time will be de- 
voteii to manual activities. 

A gomllv number of Pittsinirg grade teachers availed themselves of the 
opfx)rtunity which was offered this summer at the Margaret Morrison School, 
of the Carnegie Technical Schools. A course in manual arts for elementary 
grades was the subject chosen, and these teachers will this \'ear be much better 
prepared t() interpret the course of study in their schools and the directions of 
supervisors than heretofore. 

Scranton, Peiuisylvania, is the fortunate recipient of a beipiest for a manual 
training school left by the will of Orlanil S. Johnson, who died in May of this 
year. Altho the estate has not as vet been fully sell led it is estimated that $700,000 
will be available for the school. The Scranton Trust ("ompanv, the executor 
of the c«tfate, will be assisted in this matter iiy an ad\isor\ iionrd named bv Mr. 
Johnvin. The advisory board and the executor have comjilete control of the 
founding and maintenance of the school, being governed only by the testator's 
wi««h that the young people of Scranton and I.ackawaima CouiUy be taught in 
the srhcKil such usefid arts and trades as tnay enable them to make an honorable 
living and l>ecr»me useful members of society. 

The a«lviv»ry board have not decided, as \et, wlicihcr llics sliail proceed 
with the founding of the school or shall allf)w tlic fund to accumulate before 
building at a future time. 



CURRENT ITEMS 87 

The manual training department at Reading, Pennsylvania, is steadily grow- 
ing. This year the work has been extended to the sixth grade, a technical course 
has been arranged for the high school, and a machine shop has been opened. 

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has arranged for a manual training department 
this year. A large basement room has been fitted up for the course. It has 
been whitewashed, newly ceiled, and provided with ample ventilating and light- 
ing facilities. Twenty-one students' benches and one teacher's bench with full 
tool equipment have been installed. The benches are fitted with rapid-acting 
vises. Recitation benches have been supplied iin class instruction, and an adjoin- 
ing room has been arranged as the teacher's office. The equipment cost about 



Instruction in manual training will be given to the seventh and eighth 
grades and to the students of two years of the high school course. Onlv one 
and one-half hours per week have been planned for each class, but this time will 
doubtless be extended after tlie department has been in operation long enough 
to demonstrate the need for longer hours. E. J. Overfield is supervisor. 



A three-year course in household arts has been organized at the Farmington 
Normal School, in Maine, this fall. The course is designed to train teachers and 
supervisors of domestic science, domestic art, domestic economy, and kindred 
subjects. The establishment of this course is in accord with the legislative pro- 
vision enacted last year, which directed the organization of this course and also 
'a three-year course in manual training. The manual training course is conducted 
at the Gorham Normal School. 

At Farmington the household arts course is open to all students, but intensive 
study is provided for those who show special aptitude in the work and who 
desire to prepare for supervisorships. A cottage home near the normal school 
buildings has been prepared for the use of the department in teaching the various 
practical phases of homemaking. 

Miss Marion C. Ricker is at the head of the household arts department. 
Miss Ricker received her preparation at the Boston School of Domestic Science 
and at Teachers' College, Columbia University. 

The Nasson Institute, at Springvale, Maine, is a newh- established school, 
for girls and women, which specializes in domestic economy, and secretarial 
work. 

Manual training has been introduced this year in Dover, Delaware. Two 
large basement schoolrooms have been remodeled, at a cost of $1,500, for the 
use of this department. An equipment of 24 benches and the necessary tools 
has been furnished at a cost of $600. Woodwork will be given to grades six, 
seven, eight, nine, and ten ; cardboard construction will be taught in the lower 
grades; and lessons will be given in drawing and design. Fred C. Haegele, 
who has been an assistant in the Drexel Institute forge shops, in Philadelphia, 
is the director of the new course in Dover. 



SS U/.vr.Y/ TR.H.MXC MIGIZLXE 

ci: N TRAi. s rAriis. 

The Wisconsin State I'eadiers' Association is pushing the goiKi work of 
standardi/ation in special subjects. A uniform course of stutiy in (.loinestic science 
and art was arranged by a special committee and is being circulated among 
superintendents and principals of the state for criticism. The proposed course 
includes fixui-study, adulteration, dietaries, li\ giene, sanitation, and household 
management. The course is piainied to begin witli the htth grade. 

Kaukauna, \\'iscoiisin, iiuroduceii maiuuil irainiiig and domestic science into 
the public schools this fall. Mondori iiuroduced domestic science and agricul- 
ture. Baraboo has a course in domestic science new 1\ establislied. Menominee 
Falls also has domestic science. 

Women's clubs have been notably active in securing and aiding public school 
departments of manual training and domestic science. The Women's Club of 
Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, is responsible for the installation of these departinents 
in that cit\ and have contributed largely to the expense of e<iuipment. 



Superintendent W. (). Riddell, of Des Moines, Iowa, is determined that 
the sewing course in the high school shall be above the reproach of dilettanteism. 
Fo this end the girls taking the course this year will devote two hours a day to 
the subject, whicli will be given the same credit as other subjects of the curri- 
culum. 

Manual training work will be extended ddwii tliru tlie sixtli and fifth grades 
(if the schools in Hes Moines. 

Fhe Davenport, Iowa, higii scIkki! lias had maiuial training t(ir a number of 
vcars, but onlv within the last few years has a special four years' course been 
maintained in the manual arts. Fhis year the first class was grailuated from 
this special course. 

.\ wiirk-bench for rural schools lias Iteen de\ ised at Manhallan, Kansas, 
and manufactured at lola, which can be bougiit for .$2.50. WHien equipped 
with a steel vise the cost will be $3 or $4, but even this, it would seem, places 
^ll^h a bencli within the reach of e\er\ rural sclionl. 

Fhe Minneapolis bnard ot education lias appointed a committee to secure 
information as to the \alue ut tiie high school manual training to the bo\s who 
have taken it and as to the use made ot the coiiisc l)\ the hoys after ihe\' enter 
the working wf»rl(l. Fhe present occu|)atioiis of the graduates ot the manual 
training courne for the past tliree years will be investigated. 

,\l Spring \'alley, Mimicsoia, is located an "associated school system," one 
of rhc I'otriam act schinds. I-.spcci.-il attention is here given to adapting the 



CIRRHM' ITEMS 89 

work ill manual training to the interests and needs of rural school pupils. The 
boys of the department constructed three sixteen-foot j2;ates for the school farm 




GATES MADE BY MANUAL TRAINING STUDENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL, SPRING VALLEY, MINN. 

and two two-horse markers the latter part of last year. The iron work for the 
markers was also made by the boys. One of the gates is shown in the illustration. 
The other illustration shows an addition built on a rural school for use as a 
manual training room. This addition was built bv the boys of the department. 

Several of the boys hired out to carpenters of Spring Valley and adjoining 
towns for the summer months. Nearly all of the boys were occupied in some 
line of employment during the summer. 

S. A. Blackburn, director of manual training, has worked out a tentative 
course of models for the short-course class for this year, which will be of interest 
to teachers who have similar classes. The models proposed are a nail-box, saw- 
buck, saw-horse, hammer-handle, double and singletree, and portable hog houses 
and poultry houses. 

WESTERN STATES. 

CALIFORNIA. 

The organization of a state council of supervisors of the manual arts is being 
discussed in California. The time seems favorable for such an organization 
in which would be included supervisors of manual training, drawing, domestic 
science and home economics. Manual arts work in the public schools of the state 
has been developing rapidly in the last few years and a degree of standardization 
and mutual helpfulness should now be possible. C. A. Kineau, supervisor of 
manual training in Los Angeles, has sent a letter thruout the state, urging the 
matter of organization. This will serve as a starting point and we may expect 
to hear soon of an active association of manual arts teachers in California. 



90 



M i.\L II ikiimm: m n; i/.im: 



S\NT\ i;\RI!\K\ \OKM\I SClldOl 



Vhe new huiMings for tlie Santa Barbara Normal Siliuol of Manual Arts 
and Home Economics shown in our illustration are to be of the Spanish-American 
t\ pe of arcliiiecture ami will be of unusual interest on aocount of the ilevelopment 




wixtor's view of \rw buildings for st\it norm ai, scikioi. of manual arts 

WD IIOMF. ECOVOMICS, S\\l\ l!\KH\l{\, CAIIKORMA. 



of this stvie of architecture to tit sclmnl purposes, and because of the manner 
in which the Iniildinjis will harinoni/e witli their surrouiuliiifjs aiul the old mission 
exi>tin^ in Santa Barbara. Contracts for the buildings were let September 10th. 
The groiin<l flrK>r plans make jirovision for the followiiifi: Administration 
oftico, library, metalwork shop, machine shoji with connectiiifz; rofjins for turning 
and pattern making;, joinery, with display room and Ivunber room adjoining; 
elementary manual training department ; eturaiue hall, iliet kitchen, connected 
with dining r«>om and the other features of the domestic science de|iartment ; bi- 
ology laboratory, also fr)r chetiiistry experiments, and the household art depart- 
ment, with dressmaking and sewing rooms connecting. Huilt around a court, 
opening to the south — atxi Hi the sea — one room wide and with deep cloisters, 
each of the lahoratr»ries has a convenient location and all have the most desirable 
exp<»«Hre ai to light, etc. The cast and west wing will each be 250 feet in length 
ancj the north wing, connecting the fither two, will be 225 feet long. The various 
lahfiralory rcKim* are practically 30 feet wide, and vary from 23 to 36 feet in 
length. There i<» no provision for study rooms within the liuiiding, the courts, 
«loi«»er« and terraces being planne<l for the purpose. 



CURREiXT ITEMS 



91 




S 



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I 






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1 

, — . 1 


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. 



GROUND FLOOR PLAN OF STATE NORMAL SCHOOL OF MANUAL ARTS AND HOME 
ECONOMICS, SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNLX. 

While the buildings will be of fireproof construction, wood floors will be usetl 
in the laboratories, and more or less interior finish will be of wood. The adminis- 
tration rooms will be finished in birch, the library in oak, the crafts rooms and 
all shops in Oregon pine, the hallway in the north front in eucalyptus, and the 
millinery room in redwood. 

Every room is provided with a special office for the instructor. Storerooms 
are abundant, the shops having mezzanine floors giving upper and lower store 
rooms. Inclines are used thruout in place of stairways. 



92 



MI.M'.n. TR.IIMXC; M,IC,l/J.\t: 




■— • ■ 1 



^ . I J 



A' 



SKCdSn I LOOK I'l.W ()!■ NOR 111 WING. 



The cniirt, Mirroiinded 1)\ tlu- tliree winjis, will l)e I(i(ixl6(i feet; cloisters 
fifteen feet deep will ranjie on two sides, and acioss the center of tlie iiortli 
^ide there will he a two stf)ry hiiildinfi, tiie other win^s lieiiiy Init one stoi\ in 
height. Thix second floor has a larye loji^ia oxerlookinjz ilic couri, .ind will 
be used for a lecture room for art students. 

While the general design of tin- ixiildinji is S|);iiiisli, there will he no niteiiipl 
to adhere to the small witidows and low doorways characteristic of inanv palaces 
of the olden time, and every attention has hecn given to having as mudi light 
a» re<|uired. 'f"h«- prohlerii of veiitilatirm h;is hccti met hv working transoms 



(:URR/-:i\T ITEMS 93 

and a proper system of circulation. For roofing, the old-style Spanish tile, of a 
mossy green color, will be used. The south side of the court will be marked 
by an open pergola; and the designers have not decided as to the formal treat- 
ment of the court. As it will be used as a gathering place for students, ornate 
floral decoration will probably not be attempted. In all the work rooms the 
electric lighting will be by the indirect s\stem. 

In addition to the buildings around tlie court, a cafeteria will he constructed 
east of the main building. The cafeteria will be pavilion-like in structure and 
will contain a diningroom, reception room, laundry, kitchens and storerooms. 
The building will be placed on a hill slope, thus giving room for laundry and 
kitchens on the first floor. A roof garden will be an attractive feature of this 
building. The cafeteria will he inanaged, after it is in operation, by the home 
economics department. 

The state law provides that eejuipment such as de^ks, chairs, and all cabinet 
work shall be made at the San Quentin prison. The brushes and brooms will be 
made at the state school for the adult blind. Wall cases will be provided for 
the cloisters to contain student and loan exhibitions. 

Not the least of the attractions of this school will be its outlook. It com- 
mands a view of the Pacific, of the mountains, and of the surrounding valleys. 
Miss Ednah Rich, the president of the school, and both faculty and students are 
to be congratulated on their opportunity of pursuing their chosen work under 
such delightful conditions. 

The manual arts department of the California State Normal School at Los 
Angeles is growing rapidly under the supervision of C. \V. Kent. New buildings 
and an additional years' work are contemplated for the near future. The 
reaching force of this department has been augmented by the appointment of 
Carroll W. Angier, a graduate of Bradley Institute, who has been supervising 
manual training at Fort Worth, Texas. 

Two new departments have been added to the manual arts in the grammar 
grades of Los Angeles. Textiles are being studied under the direction of Charles 
Miller, and ceramics under the supervision of C. A. Kineau, who is director of 
manual arts for the city. 

COI.ORADO. 

The Colorado State Teachers' College at Greeley has fully organized de- 
partments of industrial arts, domestic science and art, art, and agriculture. The 
college is a four year professional school with four divisions, a junior college 
corresponding to the usual two-year normal school; the senior college which leads 
to the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Education; an elementary practice school; 
and a practice high school. 'Fhe courses in special subjects are arranged with 
regard to these divisions. 

The department of industrial arts is located in the Cniggeidieim Hall of 
Industrial Arts, a building with a floor space of 17,000 square feet. Parts of 
two other buildings are also used by this department. For junior college work 
courses are ofl^ered in wood-work, art metal, mechanical drawing, project design, 
wood turning, and wood carving. The following courses are open to both junior 
and senior college students, advanced woodwork, advanced woodcarving, a 



94 



UV.Vr.// TRrllMSG MAGAZISE 




S -J 






■S K 



55 "'$■ 



'r. H 



Q >'• 



o ^ 



a RRHXT ITEMS 95 

study of industrial work in elementary schools, advanced art nietal, advanced 
mechanical drawing, architectural drawing, advanced architectural drawing, 
elementary machine design. For senior college students these additional courses 
are offered; advanced machine design, study of industrial arts in secondary 
and trade schools, furniture design, pattern making. 

A complete course in printing is also given, occupying five hours a week for 
four terms. Fundamental principles of the printing art are studied, and hand 
composition, make-ready, press operating, designing, two ami three-color work, 
proofreading, operating the monotype keyboard and caster, ad composition, with 
other allied subjects. An etjually extensive course of four terms is gi\en in 
bookbinding. 

Students may take as a major subject the teaching of manual training, in 
elementary schools, in the junior college. The teaching of industrial arts in 
secondary schools is a senior major subject. Combinations with other departments 
are allowed. Three terms of teaching are required of junior college students 
for graduation and an additional three terms is required for senior college gradu- 
tion. 

The work in the department of domestic science and art co\'ers the usual 
subjects, and includes house sanitation, the evolution of the house, and house 
furnishing and decoration. 

The development of the manual arts in the normal schools from a single 
subject to a well-articulated professional course such as this of the Greeley College 
of Teachers is very encouraging and promises well for the future professional 
standards for teachers of manual arts. 

The Longfellow Technical High School of Denver last year had 160 pupils 
who completed the first year of work. About 185 will enter the school this fall. 
This school is preparatory to the three year's course of the manual training high 
school. 

The girls of the Denver manual training high school this last year learned 
the values and prices of various materials in actual shopping tours conducted 
by Mrs. W. S. Borst, head of the domestic economy department. 

M.ANU.AI. ARTS E.XHIBIT AT .MEDFORD, OREGON'. 

A number of excellent pieces of work were shown in the June exhibits of the 
departments of manual training and household arts at Medford, Oregon; \V. S. 
Collins, superintendent. The exhibits were carefully judged and prizes awarded 
in various classes of work for the grammar grades and high school. The accom- 
panying illustrations show portions of the exhibits, which included the graduating 
dresses made by the girls of the senior class, pieces of furniture made for the 
school, etc. The shopwork is under the supervision of C. \V. Frost, and Misses 
Mabel E. Mears, Bertha Welch, and Margaret Davidson have charge of the 
work in household arts. 

RURAL SCHOOL MANUAL TRAINING. 

The Oak Lake rural school, near Seattle, Washington, established a course 
in manual training last year. Benches and tools were purchased to the value 



96 



w./.vr.//. TR.n.Mxc mic.i/ixf 




CURRENT ITEMS 



97 



of $250. The equipment was sufficient for the use of sixteen boys at one time. 
The work was supervised by Ben W. Johnson, director of nnanual training in 
Seattle. Mr. Johnson sent a teacher to the Oak Lake school for half a day each 
week. The boys showed intense interest in the work, and made a number of 
good-sized pieces of furniture. They were allowed to put in all of their spare 
time at the benches. 

The manual training work will be continued this year with added equipment. 




ROCKING CHAIR AND PANELED CHEST AWARDED 1ST AND 2ND PRIZES, RESPECTIVELY, 
FOR HIGH SCHOOL SHOPVVORK, MEDFORD, OREGON. 

SOUTHERN STATES. 

Excavation was begun in August for the manual training building at George 
Peabod}' College for Teachers at Nashville, Tennessee. The domestic economy 
building will be the next to be constructed. Four buildings in all will be ready 
for the opening in September, 1913. 

George Peabody College is the outgrowth of Peabody Normal College, es- 
tablished thirty-seven years ago. The reorganized school is planned to develop 
into a professional school of the rank of Teachers College, Columbia University. 



Alabama shows a growing interest in the manual arts. The June number 
of the Educational Exchange, published at Birmingham, was devoted almost 
entirely to the manual arts and industrial education and gave much interesting 
information regarding the development of those subjects in the state. 

The normal schools of the state have departments of manual training and 
domestic science, the Florence normal being the first to introduce the work. The 
department at the Florence normal school has been recently enlarged and new 
equipment has been added. The Troy Normal School will have new departments 
of domestic science and domestic art this year. A department of manual train- 
ing has been in operation for some time under the supervision of Virgil P. 

9 



9s M.L\L .11 rR.n.\i.\c; mk^.i/jxh 

McKiiiIe>. Special attention is paid to the prohlenis of the rural schools. The 
Paphne State Normal School has niaiuial training luuler the direction of Miss 
Ethel F. Cortrivrht. The subjects of instruction are mechanical drawing, wood- 
work, basketry, cla\ modeling, tooled leather and metalwork. The work is 
required of all students taking the professional course. The manual training 
and domestic economy work at the Jacksonville Normal School is so directed 
as to be of special value to rural teachers, in each department a course suitable 
for use in rural schools has been outlined and eciuipnients planned. Miss Marion 
McMelan is in charge of domestic science and James L. Sibley directs manual 
training. Tlie Alabama Normal College at Livingston last year established a 
department of household arts \vhich includes plain sewing, dressmaking and 
dress designing, and the furnishing and care of the home. 

Domestic science is a very iinportant feature of the work at the Alabama 
Girls' Technical Institute at Montevallo. Miss Louesa Keys is in charge and 
has one assistant. W. N. Henderson teaches domestic and household chemistry. 
Two hundred girls at Monte\ alio are studying domestic science, half of them 
specializing in that subject. Miss Martha Patterson is in charge of domestic 
art and has four assistants. Art and manual training are supervised by Mrs. 
H. B. Howie, assisted by Miss Mary E. MacMillan. 

The district agricultural schools also are introducing the subject of manual 
training rapidly. The Fifth and Third Districts open departments of both 
manual training and domestic science this fall and the Albert District's new 
building contains shops for these subjects which will soon be equipped. 

Birmingham, Mobile, Boyles, Bessemer, Gadsen, Hartford, LaFayette, 
Florence, Selma, Dothan, Eufaula, ail have manual training in the schools, also 
Bibb and Lawrence county high schools. Bessemer adds wnod-turning to the 
high school course this fall. 

Fhe new W'est Tennessee State Normal School at Memjihis has departments 
of manual arts and domestic econom\ . C. H. Wilson is head of the manual 
arts department, and .Miss Helen Buciuo has charge of the department of domestic 
economy. 

Knoxville, Tennessee, is finding manual training valuable as evidenced by 
enlargement of the high school department and by the extension of the subject 
to three grade centers. Domestic science and art are being likewise extended. 
N. B. White has been appointed manual training instructor in the grades. 

.Manual training was introduced into the schools of Chattanooga last year. 
'The work, begun only in the high school, is being extended this year thru the 
sixth, seventh and eighth grades. Benchwurk and mechanical drawing are the 
subjects of instruction in these grades. 

At Crossct, a lumbe. -milling town in Arkansas, is foimd an ideal spirit of 
cooperation between emplf)yers and employed which lias resulted in a progressive 
«.rho*d syttcm. The employees raised a fund of $14,000 with which a new 
grammar school, and a manual training building were erected and the old 
building was repaired. In the manual training building are a room for bench- 
work and wfK)d-turning, a heating plant, and a lighting plant. Domestic science 



CURRENT ITEMS 



99 



is provided for in a cooking laboratory, a sewing room, a diningroom, and a 
laundry room. These are in the high school building. 

The mill owners cooperate by paying the salaries of the manual training 
and domestic science teachers and by furnishing supplies for these departments. 

The high school at Manatee, Florida, needed an industrial liuilding. As 
no funds for the purpose were availab'e, the high and grammar school pupils 
combined effort and provided the labor needed. The grammar grade pupils 
made the concrete blocks used in a building, one story high, 25 x 50 feet. The 
high school boys put up the walls and the roof, and the high school girls nailed 
on the laths for the plastering. It would appear from this that the need of 
industrial education is fully appreciated h\ the Manatee voung people. 




.'URNITURE AND RUGS M.^DE BY WOMEN 

STUDENTS AT THE SANTA BARBARA NOR- 

vIAL SCHOOL OF MANUAL \RTS AND HOME 

ECONOMICS. 



REVIEWS. 

fine <;«./ Indnstriul Arts in Elementary Education. By Walter Sargent. 
Ginn and Company. 8 x 5'4 in.; pp. 13J. Price $0.75. 

The teacher of drawing, as well as other teachers, finds eacli year among 
the varied titles on educational subjects books which inform, or stimulate, or 
which give practical aid, but seldom does one find a btwk like Mr. Sargent's 
which becomes a true book-frienJ at once. Modest in appearance, making no 
claim to exhaust its subject, heralding no new dwtrine, it yet combines within 
its pages the real essentials of the theory and practical pedagogy of the arts 
of which it treats. Its value can scarcely be analyzed or its helpfulness estimated. 
Probablv no class of teachers suffers more from discouragement and uncertainty 
than do teachers of drawing and construction. This is caused from seeing 
constant evidence in graphic form of the results of their work. For those who 
have thus become heart-sick from too closely viewing the crude efforts of children, 
Mr. Sargent's book has a most welcome message of good cheer. He points out 
the psychology of the matter and the folly of judging the work of children by 
adult standards. He understands children and is able to see the subject from 
their point of view. For instance, in speaking of the tendency of first graders 
to show all the details of interior arrangement in their pictures of houses, he 
savs, "The attitude of mind which leads the children to do this is not a fault 
to l>e overcome by instruction, but a stage to be lived thru and one which con- 
tributes directly to further development." 

The first chapter discusses the educational and practical values of the fine 
and industrial ans. The second describes the progress of the subjects thru the 
grades, giving the reader a grasp of the sclieine as a whole. In the succeeding 
chapters the work of each grade is taken up more in detail. Each chapter 
concludes with a statement of the standard of accomplishment which can reason- 
ably be expected from that grade. Thruout, the author's purpose has been to 
present for consideration these questions; what are the distinctive functions of 
the subjects taught under the head of manual arts in elementary education; 
how shall instruction be organized so that progressive attainment shall be 
evident from year to year; what are reasonable standards of attainment at any 
given stage ? 

Each of the chajners on the wnik nf the grades is iilustriued with well 
selected examples of children's work. 

As a serious effort at standardi/ation, as a practical teacher's guide, and 
as a MHirce of inspiration, Mr. Sargent's liook will take rank at once among the 
few indispensable. — V. E. WniiKV. 

Thr Social Moliir in Srfiool Work. Yearbook of tiie Francis W. Parker 
SchfKjl, 330 Webster Avenue, Chicago, \'ol. 1, June, 1912. Published annually 
b\ rhe Faculty. f> x V in.; 140 pp. Price, 3 5 cents. 

The b<K(k attempts tf) "strike the keynote upon whicli tlit- wnik of the school 
i« ha«e<l." the srhrKil holding tiie belief tli.it (■ducalinn is csscnliailv a social 

100 



REVIEWS 101 

process. It is made up of a number of articles dealing with handwork, dramatics, 
music, and outdoor construction work, — "activities in which the controlling aim 
is the development of community interest, responsibility, and initiative on the part 
of the pupil." The contributors are Mrs. Emmons Hlaine and members of the 
faculty of the school. 

The book, with its numerous illustrations, was printed in the school print 
shop, and is an excellent piece of printing. The planning and production of 
such a book must have a wonderfully fine effect upon the spirit of a school. 
Teachers and pupils collaborating on a piece of work represent a schwil situation 
somewhat unique. This piece of work was well worth doing, and has been done 
well. — William T. Bawdf.n'. 

Ifoodtvorking Safeguards. By David Van Schaack, Aetna Life Insurance 
Co., Hartford, Connecticut. 6% x 9^ in.; pp. 217. Price $1.00. 

The safeguarding of machinery in manual training shops is a subject of 
wide discussion at the present time. With the broadening of the manual train- 
ing course and the attempt to vocationalize the conduct of shops comes the demand 
that everything possible should be done to prevent accident and injury to the 
immature students using machinery. This book covers the whole field of wood- 
working machine safeguards, but beginning with the chapter on planing-mill 
safeguards, the usual manual training equipment machines are easily located. 
The book is fully illustrated by half-tones, and gives a variety of safeguards for 
each machine, in some cases home made ones. The accompanying text is clear 
and forceful. It is fully indexed. — V. E. W. 

Leaf Key to the Trees of the Northern States and Canada. By Romeyn B. 
Hough, published by the author at Lowville, New York. 4J/2 x 6 in.; pp. 63. 
Price $0.75. 

Field excursions for the purpose of first-hand study of our native trees is a 
commendable feature of manual training work for it is one means of showing 
students the broad relations of their subject. For such excursions a guide-book 
of some sort is an essential. Mr. Hough's pocket-guide is to be thoroly recom- 
mended for this use, as it is convenient in size and arrangement. The botanical 
glossary in connection with the leaf key will prove of great assistance to the 
unscientific observer while the key itself is arranged in strict botanical order for 
the benefit of the practical botanist. Being intended, however, as a compact 
manual of identification the book is as free of technicalities as is consistent with 
Its purpose. The author is a recognized authority on the subject of trees. 

—V. E. W. 

The Handicraft Book. By Anne L. Jessup and Annie E. Logue. A. S. 
Barnes Company, New York. 6^ x 9]/^ in.; pp. 128. Price $1.00. 

This book gives handwork for the first three primary grades. For the first 
year and part of the second instructions are given in cord looping and knotting. 
Weaving is begun in the second year and continued in the third, including 
basket-making and chair-caning. With the exception of the preface, introduction, 
and list of supplies, the book is made up of directions, lesson by lesson, each 



102 M i.\L u TR iimm: M.IC,l/.l\t: 

t\ill> illu^tra^el.^ bv drawings. The work on cord loopuiii and knotting is very 
voinpletc and all is given ot the other topics tliat is suitable for the second and 
third vears. The directions for diair caning will prove very valuable as the 
directions combined with the diagrams make the work easily understood. 

The btxik is especially to be commended for this clearness of directions and 
the siinplicitv of the models. The work outlined is such as can be successfully 
handled with large classes in city school systems. It is equally appropriate, 
however, for other conditions. There has be°n a demand for just such a book, 
giving definite directions for simple yet interesting work for primary children 
which can be carried on under adverse conditions, at little expense, and a 
minimum of supervision. The problems of this book have been successfully 
worked out in the crowded school rooms of New York City by the author. 

—V. E. W. 

7V;<- hiJustrial Pririuiry Rithlrr. By Mary B. tirubb and Frances Lillian 
Taylor. D. C. Heath and Co. 6 x 7'j in.; pp. IJS. Price $(l.3U. 

The last decade has seen a steady growth in the feeling that the best is 
none too good for a primary reader, and a corresponding improvement in the 
artistic make-up and the subject-matter of sucli readers. 

The subject-matter of this new reader concerns inilustrial activities of 
children. Kach story is about things the children can make; tiuis each thought- 
impression may be followed by immediate expression in paper, cla>, or sand. 
The topics will indicate the grouping of activities: "Our Home," "Paper Town," 
"The Farm," "The Park." At the bottom of each page is a note, suggesting the 
cKCupation which shoidd accomjiany that portion of text. A few rhymes and 
poems, to be read to the chihlren, are found in the pages, and at the close of 
the book are alphabet rhymes and suggestions to teachers. 

The chief value of the book lies, we i^elieve, in the fact that, in using It, the 
regular teacher and the sujiervisor of tlie elementar\ manual training can get 
together and find a practical basis of correlation. We may talk correlation 
endlessly without accomplishing the thing itself unless some such basis is found 
for making handwork a vital part of each day's activities. I'he trouble has 
always been that, with se<|uences worked out separately, the combination destroys 
one sequence or the other. 'I"his reader grades the lessons in thought, reading- 
growth, and handwork iechni(jue, e<]ually. Its use will do much in the elimina- 
tion of the fragmentary and unrelated character of primarv manual training. 

The illustrations, in silhouette, half-tone, and pen and ink, are really artistic 
and will certainly appeal to children. — V. K. Wither'. 

FoU Ifstivtils. Ii> ,\larv .Master Needliam. H. W. Hucbsch, New York. 
5 X IW in.; pp. 244. Price $1.25 net. 

The incrca«ting interest in festivals and pageants will insure a wide aiulience 
for fhi* bfH)k, which discusseN the problems in connection with festival-giving in 
a broad and helpful way. The chapter on "I'he Pioneer Festival" cannot fail 
of having a Mimulating effect on all those who realize the office of the festival 
in v-hfwd and rommunitv life. 



REIIEJVS 103 

That the preparation and giving of a festival furnishes an unrivaled means 
of cooperation between the various departments of a school, including the manual 
arts, is a truth, which, we fear as yet, has not come home to teachers as it should. 
In this possibility will lie the interest of this book for teachers and students of 
the manual arts. — V. E. \\. 

Experimental Physics for Secondary Schools. By Smith, Tower, and Turton. 
Ginn and Company. 7;.> x 5 in.; pp. 324. Ill illustrations. Price 80 cents. 

This manual by three instructors in the high schools of Chicago contains 
directions for 123 experiments in elementary physics. It is rendered verv adapt- 
able by references to seven leading texts at the beginning of each experiment. 
The directions are explicit, systematically arranged, and stimulate thought by 
frequent questions. A pleasing feature of the book is that emphasis is laid on 
fundamental principles rather than exhaustive and confusing quantitative de- 
terminations. — F. J. BOHL. 

Methods of Teaching. By W. W. Charters. Row, Peterson and Company, 
Chicago. 514 X 7^ in.; pp. 255. 

This is a treatise on the technique of teaching. The methods, as stated in 
the sub-title, are developed from a functional standpoint. Values, motives, and 
control of values all are discussed with psychological minuteness. The ordinary 
reader would soon be lost in a maze of unfamiliar terms, but the book will find 
a place on the book-shelf of the student of education and the teacher of pedagogy. 

—V. E. W. 

Art and Industry in Education, published by the Arts and Crafts Club of 
Teachers' College, Columbia University. Price, 50 cents in paper; $1.00 in half 
cloth. 

This is a collection of brief articles by members of the Arts and Crafts 
Club of Teachers' College and by members of the faculty of the department of 
fine and industrial arts. Arthur Wesley Dow and Frederick G. Bonser are 
represented by characteristic statements. The aim of the publication has been 
to put into definite form and statement, if possible, the ideas and ideals of the 
departments of fine and industrial arts, and to show the inter-relations of the two 
departments. The topics cover a wide range and are interesting contributions 
to the literature on these subjects. The book is very attractively illustrated and 
printed. —V. E. W. 

The Stout Institute Bulletin, March, Outline and Bibliography of Food Study. 
Stout Institute, Menominie, Wisconsin, 6x9 in.; pp. 63. Price, quarterly Bul- 
letin, $0.50 per 3ear. 

The March, 1912, number of the Stout Institute Bulletin presents an outline 
of food study as taught in the domestic science work at Stout Institute. Its 
convenient arrangement and the full reference lists for each topic make it very 
valuable for suggestive and comparative purposes. 

Drafting Instruments and Hoiu to Use Them. By Ralph F. Windoes, director 
of manual training. South Haven, Mich. Published by the author. 7J/2 x 105^ 
in. oblong; pp. 64. Price SO cents. 



UH M.4M riL TR.HMXG MAG A /ASK 

This bixik is unlike other text-books on mechanical drawing in that it contains 
no problems. It can be used with any course of instruction. As is indicated by 
its title, it is a bixik describing and illustrating drawing instruments and, to 
some extent, their use. In addition to describing the usual instruments of the 
classroom it presents the special and unusual instruments and appliances of the 
completely equipped commercial drafting room. It contains a chapter on pro- 
cesses of duplicating drawings, one on definitions of geometric terms, and, at 
the end of the book, several ruled pages for lettering practice, two for time cards 
and twelve for notes and dippings to be added by the student. 

RECEIVED 

I'sfs of Commercial If'ooJs of the United States: 1. Cedars, Cypresses, and 
Sequoias. II. Pines. By William L. Hall and H. W. Maxwell. Two Bulletins 
issued by the Forestry Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washing- 
ton. 

From Wool to Cloth. A little book brieHy describing the process of inaking 
worsteds and woolens, issued by the American Woolen Co., Boston, Mass. 

Proceedings of the Department of Superintendence of the National Education 
Association. St. Louis Meeting. 25 cents a copy. Dr. Irwin Shepard, Winona, 
Minn. 

Bibliography of Education in .Agriculture and Home Economics. A bulletin 
issued by the U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C. 

The Montessori System of Education. By Anna Tolman Smith. Bulletin 
No. 17, 1912, issued by the U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington. 

Emory Oak in Southern .Irizona. By Frank J. Phillips. Circular 201 of the 
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. 

H'ood-Using Industries of California. By Andrew K. Armstrong, Engineer 
in Timber Tests. Bulletin No. 3, of the California State Board of Forestry, 
Sacramento, Calif. Contains 114 pages of text and ten full page illustrations. 

Strength of Materials. By Mansfield Merriman. A sixth edition of a well- 
known text-book, revised and reset. 

Mechanical Draiiing, Part III. Machine Details. By Oscar E. Perrigo. 
.Number 87 of "Machinery's" Reference Series. 

Mechanical Draiving, Part //'. Cam Design. By Oscar E. Perrigo. Number 
88 same series. 




U M I.. S A Y K E 



VOLUME XIV NUMBER 2 



Manual training Magazine 



DECEMBER, 1912 



THE FUTURE OF THE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH 
SCHOOL IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION. 

Charles B. Howe. 

A QUARTER of a century aji;o the advocates of manual training 
were waging a determined and an aggressive campaign for the 
adoption of their principles. Eventualh', the fight was won 
and for the past ten years the recognition and application of those prin- 
ciples has been all but universal. Now a situation has developed which 
puts the friends of manual training on the defensive and the indications 
are that some of the fighting must be done over again. 

In the argument for the vocational school it has been pointed out 
that the manual training school is a failure from the standpoint of vo- 
cational training. Before conceding this statement and suggesting any 
plan for meeting the objections, let us review the origin and purpose of 
the manual training high school. 

In the spread and development of the manual training idea, first and 
foremost in the ranks of the pioneers was Calvin M. Woodward of 
St. Louis. In an address before the National Teachers' Association 
at Saratoga, July 1883, Dr. Woodward said: "The word 'manual' 
must, for the present, be the best word to distinguish that peculiar 
system of liberal education which recognizes the manual as well as the 
intellectual. I advocate manual training for all children as an element 
in general education. I care little what tools are used, so long as 
proper habits (morals) are formed, and provided the windows of the 
mind are kept open toward the world of things and forces, physical as 

105 



106 



Ml. Mil. TR.IIMM: M.!a.l/.I.\E 



well as spiritual." Aiul aiiain in an aiUln-ss iK'li\ imc\1 before tlu" 
SiKial Science Association ot Phihulelphia in Doconibcr, 1S83, he said, 
"We believe that mental acri\it\ and ^ro\\ rh are elosel\ allied to phy- 
sical activit) and iirnwth. and that each is seeuretl more readil> ami 
more tull\ in connection with the otlu r than hy itself. 

'I'he philosopliN ot nianual trainiiiii has ne\er been more clearl\ 
expounded than in a paper read at the meetinii of the American Institute 
ot Instruction b\ Dr. Nicholas Murra\ Butler in Juh, 1888 at New- 
port. Dr. Butler said: "The nianual trainiiiij; movement is based on 
a sound pedaiioiiic principle and manual traininij; must be introduced 
into schools of e\er\ iirade. * * Manual rrainini: is mental training 
throuLih the hand and eye. just as the study of history is mental training 
throuiih the memory and other powers. * * It is trul\ and strictly 
psNchoioiiical. In \ iew of the prevalent misconception on this point, 
too much stress cannot be laid upon the fact that manual trainin^i, as 
we use the term, is mental trainini:. * * It is the mind that feels 
and fashions, and the mind that sees: the hand and the eye are the 
instruments which it uses. The arjzvnnent for manual training returns 
to this point ajiain and ajrain. * *" 

Dr. Kelix Adler expressed his opinion thus: "Among those who 
have jjiven most thoughtful attention to the subject, the following 
points are accepted, namel\-, that manual training means the training 
of the intellect as well ;us the hand ; that its chief recommendation is 
that it oti'ers a new instrumentalit\ for training the mind." 

Superintendent C F. Carroll of Worcester, Mass. said: "'' * 
Manual training is from the beginning an indispensable part of a 
liberal education." 

In an address delivered before the Present Day Club of Dayton, 
()hi«). Superintendent Hailman said, "From these considerations it 
appear> that manual training as an educational factor has deeper routs 
than the transient industrial needs of our time. Fhese roots lie in the 
innate nature oi man, in the demand tor lu\ lull, all sided develop- 
ment in individual and social relations." 

The m<jst complete and comprehensive exposition ot the psychological 
principles of manual training ever made were set torth in an address 
<lcliver<'d b\ Dr. I. M. Halliet bctore the Massachusetts Feachers 
A-ssfjciation at Worcester, .Nov.. 18'^S. 'Fhe whole tenor of Dr. Halliet's 
address was for the purpose of demonstrating "that manual training 
is but another fr)rm of im-ntal training, and that the li.ind is but a sixth 



THE MANUAL TRAINING HIGH SCAIOOL 107 

sense, — an additional avenue to the mind." And "whilst the manual 
training school does not aim to teach a hoy a trade, it gives him a 
training which will enable him at once, on leaving school, to earn from 
$1 to $2 a day." 

Regarding the vocational aspect of the subject in his "Argument 
for Manual Training," Dr. Butler said: "No one witli any ap- 
preciation of what our public school system is and why it exists, would 
for a moment suggest that it be used to train apprentices for any 
trade or for all trades." 

Dr. Woodward stated his position as follows: "The object of the 
introduction of manual training is not to make mechanics. * * Our 
great object is educational: other objects are secondary. * * A public 
school must put no bar to a boy's development ; the upward roads are 
always to be left open. A public trade school in America would be out 
of place. * * The hrst reascjn why 1 think we shall not wisely 
attempt to teach the details of actual trades is, that the scope of a trade 
is far too narrow for general educational purposes. * * Should we 
not abstract all the mechanical processes and manual arts and typical 
tools of the trades and occupations of men, and arrange a systematic 
course of instruction in the same, and then incorporate it into our 
system of education? Thus, without teaching any one trade, we teach 
the essential mechanical principles of all." 

Similar expressions upon the purpose and character of manual 
training from the late Superintendent Seaver, Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
and many others might be cited. It must he understood that in quoting 
the opinions expressed above it is not the purpose to maintain that these 
are necessarily the views held and advocated by these parties at the 
present time, neither is it desired to justify the continuation of the 
manual training school prototype in the future, nor to maintain that 
vocational training is not a rational and logical development. But 
from the historical standpoint and in the light of its origin and purpose 
is not the manual training school as an educational product exactly 
what it was intended to become? 

As Dr. Woodward said again: "The prevailing motive in the 
organization of the first manual training school was to furnish op- 
portunity and stimulus for the growth of certain powers of the mind 
through the instrumentality of the hand and material things." Or, in 
the words of his famous aphorism, "Put the whole hoy to school." 

In view of the educational principles out of which the manual 



108 M.IXL.Il TR.ii\i\a M.iaiziM-: 

traiiiiiiii idea .mow aiul iic\ clopi-d it nia\ be tU'inoiistrarccl that the 
manual trainiiiii school has achicM-d its purpose. Kvidence is at hand 
to support this statcnu-nt. troni coUefje and uni\i'rsity presidents, 
superintendents, and other educational experts. The prevailinji con- 
sensus ot opinion was well expressed by the late president of Johns 
Hopkins. Dr. Daniel C. Oilman, who said: "Manual training is 
an essential part of ^rood education, whether that eilucation is restricted 
to the common school or carried on to the hij^hest discipline of technical 
schools and universities." Whate\er ma\' be offered in the way of 
criticism of the manual trainini: school is certainly not justified from 
the point of \ iew of its ori.i:;in and purpose and in all fairness the educa- 
tional critics should refrain from pulling down the foundation of what 
is destined to become the finest structure in our education. 

In his "Argument for Manual Training" the words of warning 
which Dr. Hutler uttered to those who would pull everything to 
pieces were never more appropriate than now. He said : 

It would be a gross error for tliose wlio attacli themselves to a new educational 
mo\ement, to denoinice preceding systems and conditions as misleading, worthless, 
bad. Tlie most beautiful flower depends for its existence upon a clumsy and 
unattractive root. The flower loses its beauty and attractiveness if torn from the 
source of its life and strength. So it is with educational systems. The last makes 
the next possible; and tlie newest lias (iiiite enough to do without undertaking 
the prohtless task of pointing out how all earlier systems would have failed had 
they been called upon to ilo something which in the nature of the case it was not 
possible for them to be called upon to do. Growth is continuous. Each stage 
is necessary; and it is worse than useless to attempt to exalt any one at the expense 
of that which laid the basis for it. Each system and each theory of education 
iray have been the best for its own time. 

The evolution of the manual training school as a type has broadened 
and enriched the whole school curriculum educationally and has made 
po.ssible another type; the former was its chief end and aim; the lat- 
ter an inevitable result. 



WHAT IS I Hi: lUVCTIOX OF Tin- TIICH SCHOOL. 

The character ot the luaiuial traiiu'ng school of the future depends 
almf*st whrilly upon the purpose rjf secondary education. Here, again, 
our perspeetive is rf)rrected and widened in the light of the historical 
development oi tlic high s( liool. It is well known that the initial 



THE MANUAL TRAIMXG HIGH SCHOOL lov 

purpose of the first hi^h school or "academy" was to furnish a better 
preparation for youn^ men who were destined to stud\ for the ministry. 
The original purpose of secondary education was, therefore, vocational, 
and up to the present time this idea has persisted. 1 he chief aim and 
end of the high school has been to prepare pupils for college, whether 
they wished to go there or not. The result of this policy as affecting 
present economic conditions is apparent. The boys of the country 
have been educated away from their natural environment and vocation 
into other business and professional channels. In the midst of the 
greatest material for educational wealth which the nation possesses, 
the country boy has been faced away from his <jpportunities and made to 
look upon the competition and strife of the so-called "learned profes- 
sions" and encouraged to achieve a possible success at the expense of 
a free and independent life full of material and spiritual richness. If 
the same amount of time and energy had been spent by the schools in 
the ccuntr}- upon agricultural education, and if the results had been 
applied to the extent that has been done in other directions, there 
probably would be no problem of the high cost of living today. 

The first differentiation in the high school course recognizing the 
necessity for vocational training other than preparation for college 
came in the form of the commercial course. Other and various changes 
and modifications of the traditional course of study have been accomp- 
lished by always keeping in sight the fact that the purpose of secondary 
training is vocational. Turn in whatever direction we may, we are 
face to face with the fact that the end and aim of the high school 
always has been and is now, largely vocational. As a problem of educa- 
tional policy, therefore, it is as to content and not as to kind. 

There is only one possible answTr to our question, then, namely, 
the manual training high school of the future must be a vocational 
school, pure and simple, as all high schools are now and probably will 
be in the future. 

The immediate educational problem of the manual training school 
is the determination of its particular vocational function. Should it 
continue as a general utility school and devote three-fourths of its ener- 
gies to college preparation or should it be a technical secondary school 
intended primarily to furnish a definite vocational training to the far 
greater number who do not go to college or the professional schools, 
or should it do both ? 



110 .v./.vr.//. TRriiMxa m.-iga/.ixe 

In answoriiiL: this qucsrion lot us first consider the matter of college 
preparation. For a luiniher of years the professional and enj^ineerlng 
scht)ols have been otieriiiii six-year courses comhininii; arts and profes- 
sional subjects with a \ iew oi inducuiLT the student to secure a broad, 
liberal education in the humanities ami Economics in addition to his 
strictl\ professional trainiiiii. This policy does not seem to have met 
with izreat success and as far as eiiL^ineerinLi is concerned it has been 
a failure. The reason for this is not necessarily a lack of interest but 
nia\ be attributed to the fact that the strictly cultural period in the career 
of the student has passed ami his chief interest is now centered upon 
his professional studies. RecogniziiiLi;, as we must, the cultural value 
of the humanities to the en.iiineerini: ami other professions it would 
seem that the ine\itable policy of these schools and colleges will be 
to maintain their requirements in the humanitarian branches. Not only 
is this true but we must expect to find increasingly rigid requirements 
in the matter of thoroness, particularly in English expression and mathe- 
matics. The engineering profession appreciates ami will support this 
point of view . 

It can reailil\ be seen that if the manual training high school is 
to continue as a preparatory school it can not place much emphasis 
upon the mechanic arts side of its program and under those conditions 
it ceases to be a manual training high school and becomes again a pre- 
paratory school \\ ith a manual training annex. 

The value of the mechanic arts as a preparation for engineering and 
technical courses is precisely the same as their value in the prepara- 
tion for other professional schools, arts, and sciences. H\" the "stand- 
patter" of the traditional manual training school this statement will no 
doubt be ctjndemned as radical, but it is amply supported by pedagog- 
ical analysis, as well as by those who are responsible for the educa- 
tional policies of our engineering schools. 

That manual training has a \alue which demands that it be in- 
cliuied in all high school courses has been established atid rcijuires 
nfi further demonstration. Manual training was acKocated and 
adopted upon sf)und educational and economic grounds, and the re- 
sults have ampl\ justihed tlit- picdutKins of those who supported it. 
Dr. Manus sa\s: "In addition to the puicl\ intellettual courses of the 
scIhjoI we should mantain in miy sifOiu/firy sriirjdl , whether public 
or private, courses in manual training, which together with their gen- 
eral eciucational auiis luimster dirertK to \ ocatioiial and soci.al aims." 



THE MANUAL TRAIMXG HIGH SCAIOOI. Ill 

In the readjustment of relations between the preparatory scliool and 
college which seems to be imminent, provision should be made for 
manual training in all courses of every high school. The amount of 
time to be devoted to this subject will, of course, have to be somewhat 
less than that of the present manual training high school, but if two 
periods per week were devoted to drawing and three to shop, making 
a total of five, it would not affect other subjects unfavorably but 
would establish the educational balance for which we are striving. 

REASONS FOR MODIFICATION OF AIM. 

That the manual training high school is about to abandon the field 
of college preparation and address itself solely to the ends and aims 
of secondary technical education is inc%'itable. The reasons for this 
statement are as follows: (a) Preparation for engineering and pro- 
fessional schools should be of the liberal type which can best be sup- 
plied by the general high school with manual training as a part of 
its curriculum; (b) The large and expensive plant equipment of the 
manual training high school is not requisite or desirable for college 
preparation and can be justified only for the needs of vocational 
training; (c) The demand for secondary vocational training is great 
and must be satisfied by the establishment of the technical high school. 

The only valid objection to the establishment of the technical 
high school as a secondary vocational school is that a choice of occupa- 
tion to a certain extent must be made by the boy at too young an 
age. But the same objection might be urged against the commercial 
high school and others, and while it is true that "we should keep open 
toward the top," yet it is also true that the great majority of children 
of that age must of necessity choose an occupation. We committed 
ourselves to this policy when we began the establishment of differen- 
tiated high schools. 

The choice of an occupation is a ver^- serious matter and is one 
of the four most important epochs in the life of the individual. A 
great deal more could and should be done by those in the administra- 
tion of the secondary schools in assisting pupils in this matter. The 
taste, ability, and natural adaptability of the pupils should be discov- 
ered as far as possible, and they should be informed as to the char- 
acter and emoluments of the various trades and professions. It is a 
common thing to hear a boy say that he intends to study this or that 



li: M ISL.ll TR IIMXC MIC l/.l\E 

br;inv:h of ciiiziiu-orini: witlunit h:i\iii>: the sli^iitcsr conception of what 
it is like or w hotlier his abilities lie in that direction. 

It \\i>uKl he a iicuid plan in this respect if the iirst \ ear in all hi^h 
schiH)l courses were identical, thus postponing:: the choice of an occupa- 
tion tor a vear. The more feasible plan howexer, would be the adop- 
tion of the "six and six" scheme — six \ears of elenientar\ scln)ol, three 
years of junior hi.ij;h school, or trade school, anil three \ ears of senior 
hiiih school. It is possible that rlu- dexelopnient of the trade school 
may eventualh force the adoption ot this plan. 

As evidence of the fact that the secoiulary technical or xocational 
school is about to succeed the niaiuial trainiui: hii:;h school it should 
be noted tiiat both Hoston and Chicaizo ha\e taken this step and that 
it is soon to be done in other cities. In Chicago there are provided 
eleven four-year courses of which se\en are strictl\ \ocational, and 
ten two-\ear vocational courses. 

As a matter of fact the seconilar\ technical school iilea is not a 
new one. For man\ \ears Pratt Institute, the California School of 
Mechanic Arts and others have been workini^; on this plan and the 
success t)f these institutions leaves no room to doubt either their prac- 
ticabilitx or the demanil for this t\ pe of school. 

The immediate field of the secondary technical school is found to 
lie in traininir for positions of responsibility such as, foremen, super- 
intendents, operators, inspectors, draftsmen and ilesiL:;ners in various 
manufacturing and industrial pursuits, engineers and superintendents 
of (jffice buildimis and institutions, and civil service positions requiring 
technical education in municipal, state, and government departments. 

Cl RRICl I.IM OF THI' S^CO^'I)AR^• SCHOOL. 

It is not (lifHcult to predict what the character and scope of the 
curriculum is nolnn to be in the secondarN technical school. riie work 
falls naturally into the follow in^ groups: 

I. KhkI'*-!!, .Arncncaii liisturv iiiid (•i\ics, iiiilusiii.il liisiory and l)usiiiess econdin 

II. Mathematics — praelical, ajiplied rne(li;nii( ^, business s\stt'ni and accijuntinj:;. 

Ill Science — (general fcience, physics and ( licniistr}, and eleclivc. 

I\'. Drawing aiul desi^i). 

\'. Shfip practice. 

\ I. l.ahoratfir> practice rnrcliaiiics, materials, steam, electricit\-, etc. 



THE MANUAL TRAIMiXG HIGH S(A/()<)L 113 

\II. Specialization group. At least one year of major study in one of tlie follow- 
ing: 

1. Architectural drafting. 

2. Building construction. 

3. Industrial chemistry. 

4. Art and design. 

5. Machine drafting. 

6. Electricity. 

7. Machinery and manufacturing. 

8. Mechanic arts. 

9. Power plant. 

10. Surveying and topography. 

In the teaching of English the most important result will be to 
secure the correct speaking and writing of ordinary ever^-daj' English 
together with facility in thought expression. Emphasis should be 
placed upon civics, particularly municipal. Industrial history will 
include the development of the steam-engine from Banca's wheel to 
the modern turbine, electrical discovery and invention, and the evolution 
of iron, steel, and the other principal manufacturing industries, together 
with a history of trade and commerce and their influence upon the 
progress of civilization. The study of business economics will 
include correspondence, ordinary business and legal forms and prac- 
tice, legal tender and bills of exchange, banking methods and office 
systems, transportation, specifications and contracts. 

The fundamental principles of algebra, geometry, and trigonom- 
etry must be studied together with plenty of practical problems. The 
field of applied mechanics provides a wealth of material for this kind 
of teaching. Calculations, estimates, stock and cost accounting, and 
a study of efficiency are of the greatest importance. 

The sciences should also be studied with particular reference to 
their value and application to industry. But in these as in all other 
.'subjects breadth must not be sacrificed too much for immediate utility. 
Here is a splendid opportunity for the practical science man. 

The remaining groups of studies constitute the backbone of the 
utilitarian side of the secondary technical school and shoidd be char- 
acterized b}- thoroness as well as comprehensiveness, and more espec- 
ially by their being up-to-date in conventions, technic, and methods. 

The personnel of the teaching force in the technical high school 
is a matter which should be considered second to none in importance. 
The manual training school as conceived and developed is an academic 
institution under academic administration, and with its entire teach- 



114 



Ml. Ml I TR.IIMXC: M.n:.i/.i.\E 



imz torce, incliulinii a larLic prdpiutioii ^ti tin- tcaclu'is in mechanic 
arts, chioriv academic in traininij; anil character. The products of 
such a school are essentialh academic and are responsihle for most of 
the criticism that has emanated from the practical man. It is self- 
evident that tile comiuL: technical hi.Lih school must he uiuler the ad- 
ministration of, and as far as practicahle inchule in its teachinti: force, 
men of technical training and experience, while the teacher of me- 
chanic arts in these schools will he requircil to possess traininj^ m and 
experience at the trade which is fundamental to his particular line 
of work. C)pportunit\' must he afforiled, also, for the teachimi: force 
to keep in touch with modern practice and methods, otherwise the 
results in the future will not he much herter than the academic 
products of the past. 

Durinii the past decaile the efHciency cur\e of the manual training 
school in its relation to eilucationai proirress has risen little. How- 
ever, it is pointinii in the riirht direction and durinii: the next decade 
it will undouhtedly rise rapidl\. 10 justify its existence as a type 
of vocational school, the technical hi;j:h school nuist occupy its field in 
a forceful and efficient manner and \ leld results commensurate with its 
opportunities and in proportion to the expense of its maintenance. 




oak i vim v\ km ik oi-sk made for tuf, 
sl'pkristkndi-nt's okkice by mi;viiii:r3 
of sfmor ci.\ss of tmk vikdford, ori> 
(Ats, Mioii sciioni., 1912. 



THE THEATER: A SECOND GRADE PROBLEM. 

Mary C. Scovel. 

THE problem of the theater in the second grade gives a construc- 
tive problem of many possibilities. The doll house in the first 
grade retains for the little child just entering school his love 
and knowledge of home. In the second grade his love for stories 
develops. He begins to feel his own power to do things. His imagina- 
tion peoples the world with beautiful fairies, who accomplish such 
wonderful things. Then the mythical stories have so much pleasure for 
him. The theater fills the need of making more interesting some of 
these stories — stories that are alive and real, and yet give scope for the 
imagination. O! that beautiful, wonderful imagination, — even in con- 
structive problems we must consider it. 

The theater gives many problems of educational value and the 
interest of the child is so great when working them out that the element 
of joy and happiness is seen in his every movement. 

THE THREE BEARS. 

The story selected for this problem was that of "The Three Bears." 
For a moment before proceeding to the making of things, let us con- 
sider the knowledge that is necessary to underlie this construction. It 
is well to know how the world appears, for this story tells of a wood- 
land scene. Here is a chance for the observation and study of nature. 
It may be a woodland of the old gnarled oak trees — perhaps of the- 
graceful maple. What does the idea of woodland convey to the child ? 
— one tree or many? When man}- trees grow close together, note how 
tall and slender the trunks become. The leaves must have sunlight so 
the branches grow high. Thus the perspective of trees must be studied. 
Those trees near b\' are larger and more distinct than those far away. 
Near trees are taller than those at a distance. And what a good lesson 
in water color could precede or be connected with this problem! 
Glorious spring-time with its blue sky and velvety shades of green for 
grass and leaves. Then those strong dark purple tree trunks standing 
close together with branches intertwined. Then, winding in and out. 
seen here and there, that crooked little yellow path leading at last to 
the bear's house — so far away that it looks almost purple. 

115 



116 



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118 M.IM .11. TK.lI.\l.\t; M.I(J.I/.l.\E. 

Now the picture is much more interestinii; if the hears are in it. 
This iiives an opportvuiit\ tor the study of animals. Hc)\v docs the 
bear differ frt)m a cat. a doii. or lion? Note the hir;j;e pt)inted head. 
short leiis. and hisj; hea\>. sluiiiiZN' bod\. What is the coU)r of the hear? 
In the story are all the hears the same si/e? Another landscape could 
be tried showing the three hears just lea\ im:; their house in the woods. 
After a sufficient number of lessons are !:;i\en to make the story clear — 
bejiin the makiiiir of a few thinszs. 

For the theater itself aii\ orilinary wooilcn box niiszht be used or 
even made. The one used for this special problem was a soap box, 
17'.>" lonii. 14" hiiih, anil 7" deep. Flie construcri\e problems in this 
article wdl be izi\en in accorilance w ith these measurements. 

The box, as shown, is turneil on one of its Ioul: sides, so that the 
opening, or front, of the theater is 17'.." lon;^ ami 14" liiizh. The 
Hrst thintj to do to make this look like a real theater is to exoKe the 
scenery at the back of the stajje. For this story a landscape of colored 
paper was pasted upon the back of the inside of the box. This con- 
sisted of green forejrround, blue sk\ , aiul tlistant purple mountains. 
The proportions of sky, Lrrouml, etc., could of course be as desired. 
Here very little sky anil low line of mountains was shown so as to 
jlive distance to the scener\. Next a platform was built to brin*:; the 
stage itself forwartl ami outside of the box. A bo.ird extending d" out 
be>ond the front of the box was fastetu'd to the box b\ cleats. The 
box being 7" deep with 6" added gave a izood stage Hoor space of 13". 

The curtain was the second thing to work out. And the fun of the 
wh«)le problem was to see the curtain rise and tall, just like a real 
curtain at an\ theater. How man\ surprises that curtain can reveal! 
A wjxjden brace 3'/4" long and V;" wide was fastened on each side of 
the box near the top. See A and H, Fig. 1. One end of the brace 
extends about I'x" be\ond the front of the box. Near this end is 
bored a hr»lf ^^^" in diameter. Thru rlie holes in each biace is drawn 
a rod of '4" diameter, 21" long. ( )n the right vnd might be fastened 
a spfK)l to make it easier to turn the rod, when raising or lowering the 
curtain. 

For the curtain a pirce of green book linen was used, 16;^" wide 
and 10'.." long. This latter measurement allows -j/f" to turn up for 
a hem. 'l"he curtain was tacked on the rod with small tacks, just as 
any curtain is attached. For decoration, a border design of trees was 
made, see C, Fig. I. 'Fhis gave an opportunity to ajiply nature lessons 



THE THEATER 



119 




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THE THE.^TER 121 

to design. The trees were made of dark colored book linen and pasted 
on the curtain. 

In order to hide the box and make a larger stage, two large pieces 
of dark green paper, forming wings, were cut out, see B, Fig. 2. These 
were fastened one to each side of the box. Another piece, A, Fig. 2, was 
cut and fastened to the top of the box. These wings slant out and 
give distance to the stage. A paper of the same color was fitted to cover 
the floor of the theater, and this extends as far forward as is desired, 
C, Fig. 2. 

PLANNING THE SCENERY. 

In planning the staging of the story of "The Three Bears," three 
acts were decided upon : 

I. Woodland scene — home of the bears. Three bears leaving the 
house for a walk. 
II. The dining-room — the table set, and three chairs ready for the 
bears. 
III. The bed-room — the beds, and Golden Hair asleep on the wee 
bear's bed. 

For the larger scenery of the stage, pictures of woodland trees were 
made and then reduced to simple poster style. A, Fig. 3. The size of 
paper used was a little larger than the opening of the box, or 18'/" >^ 
15". This allows ^" on each side, also top and bottom, to fold back 
and fit the scenery into the opening. As noted here, the corners marked 
"X" are to be cut out. When finished the scenery should fit easily into 
the opening of the box or be 17j/2" x 14". 

Single trees with standards were made to fill in the stage and give 
the appearance of woods. These were made small to give distance to 
the scenery. The size of paper used for these trees was 9" x 4", see B, 
Fig. 3. The standard bent backward on line E-F is 3'//' x 1^4"- 
The standard is included in the measurement 9" x 4". A heavy weight 
of green cover paper was used. Colored crayon or water color wash of 
purple was added for trunks of trees. 

Next came the making of the bears' house. Fig. 4. A heavy piece 
of brown cover paper was used, 33" x 11". As will be seen from the 
pattern. Fig. 4, the paper is divided or folded into 12 squares of S'/" 
each. The parts marked "X" are to be cut off. Dash lines indicate 
folds, and heavy lines are to be cut. The remaining half of the upoef 



M.IM.^L TRJIMXC MACA/ASE 




THE THE. ITER 123 

squares is folded as shown by lon^ dash h'nes. Also the low er rij^ht and 
lower left half square. As shown in drawing, fold 1 upon 2, and paste; 
then 3 upon 4, and paste. A piece of red cover paper, 13'/" x 3", is 
pasted on top of the brown house for the roof. Fold on dotted line, 
which fits on ridge of house. See B, Fig. 4. 

Surely the "Three Bears" must appear upon the scene. "Fhcy were 
made from brown paper, three sizes of paper being us?d. The large 
bear was 5" tall, with standard added of 1 l4" x 2y^" \ C, Fig. 3. The 
medium sized bear was -iy^' tall, with standard of 1'4" x 2-y\" added. 
The small bear was ?>yy tall, with standard 1'4 x 2 inches. The 
standard of the bear is folded back on the line M-N. 

THE DINING-ROOM. 

The Second Act presents the dining-room, with table set ready for 
the return of the bears. The pattern for the room is shown in Fig. 6. 
Heavy brown paper was also used for this room, size 25" x IQ'/j". In 
this drawing mark off 34" from the bottom of the paper. This is to 
be bent backward for the standard of the walls of the room. Divide 
the paper into two unequal parts 1234" ^'id b'/j" by a horizontal fold. 
The fold is \2}i" above the first 14" fold. Divide this part 1234" 
high into three vertical oblongs, two of 7^" wide, and the center oblong 
of 9j/" wide. Oblong D is the back of the room; C and V. are the 
sides of the room ; G is the ceiling. After cutting A from G as in- 
dicated by heavy line, move A over to dash line, or fold at B and paste. 
Repeat same process at F and H. 'Jhe corners of paper, a^ marked 
"X", are to be cut off. For the color scheme of the room any colored 
paper to suit a given color scheme could be used, also any furnishings 
that would fit the story. A mantle-piece could be fitt'd into the spac ■ 
D. Windows or doors are drawn or cut in sides C and E. 

For the furniture brown paper was used. For patterns see Fig. 7. 
The dining-room table was made from a 12" square; the table-cloth of 
white tissue paper; the doilies of circles of white tissue paper fringed. 
The plates were circles of heavy manila paper, as were the bowls. 
Three different sizes of doilies, plates, and bowls were made. The 
bowls were made by drawing one circle within another, the space be- 
tween circles being the depth of the bowl. The inside of the smaller 
circle was cut out. A separate circle the size of this one just cut out was 
cut with four Baps added. This was pasted into the bowl to form the 



1_M 



U /.Vr./Z. TR.ilXING MAGAZINE 




THE THEATER 



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THE THEATER 



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128 M.tM.II. TR.IIMXC M.ld/.IXE 

bottom. A section nearly a quarter is cut out ot the side of the two 
^-ircle^; — so when tliis is pasted together the howl Hares out and is round. 

The size paper tor the chairs — for the hij; hear, medium hear, and 
little hear was ^^'\ O", and 4". respectively. A rug can he made of 
paper to suit the color of the room. 

The Third Act shows us tiie hed-room. The same pattern of room 
was used for this as tin- tliiiiiig-room. Tius was worked out in soft 
blues :uid cream colors. A border of cream colored paper — a cut design 
— was worked out and pasted around the sides of the room near the 
ceiling. 

The bureau, three beds, and chairs were made out of medium weight 
nianila paper: for patterns see Fig. 7. Windows were drawn on sides 
of room. C and K. 4'j" \ 2'_>" about 2" from the floor. The bed- 
room rug was made of cream paper with blue border of paper pasted 
on it. The rug was finished at both ends ; that is, the paper was 
snipped. The size of paper for the furniture was as follows: Large 
bed. a b" square; medium bed. a 5" square: small beil, a 4" square; the 
bureau, 7" square. Tin-foil was used for the looking glass of the 
bureau. Bed spreads and pillows were made of white tissue paper. 

( )f course the story would not he complete without (jolden Hair. 
This doll was a real paper doll, the size of paper used being 2^" x 
l->4". Therefore, when the curtain rolls up for the Third Act, great 
is the delight of the children to see Golden Hair fast asleep on the wee 
bear's bed. And the window is right by the side of the bed, thru which 
in imagination the child sees Golden Hair jump — then breathes a sigh 
of contentment as he knows she goes safely home to her mother! 

-Many other stories lend themselves to the enchantment of the 
theater, as Red Riding Hood, Cinderella, The Ugly Duckling, and 
others. 



^^ 



THE COST OF MATERIALS FOR MANUAL TRAINING 
IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES. 

Leon F. A. Hein. 

THE cost of maintaining manual training is necessarily an im- 
portant factor. Where manual training is taught, the per capita 
cost of maintainance can be readily ascertained, but even after 
this cost has been found it is often of practical value to the supervisor 
to know how this amount compares with the average cost of maintaining 
similar work in other cities. Questions which may come to him are 
"Does manual training cost too much in my school — more than in other 
schools?" "Have the schools which are recognized as successful schools 
low-cost courses?" "If I introduce desirable but more costly problems, 
will the cost be more than is usual for this work?" Perhaps other 
questions along this same line of thought will suggest themselves. Again, 
when manual training is desired in the course of study, as a new subject, 
one of the important questions before the superintendent and especially 
the school board is, "What will it cost to keep up this course after it has 
been established?" 

Up to the present time it is believed that such questions could be 
answered only by direct communication with the various schools. 
Believing that data on the cost of the materials used in the several 
manual arts subjects, collected from various cities thruout the country, 
would be of help to the profession, I have undertaken an investigation 
of this problem in connection with my w^ork at Bradley Polytechnic 
Institute. 

In order to get costs which might be termed representative, forty- 
one letters were sent to supervisors in fifteen states and the District 
of Columbia. The states to which these letters were sent, and the 
number of letters to each follows: 

Colorado ... 1 Massachusetts . . .2 New York 2 Washington, D. C. . . 1 

Illinois 11 Michigan 3 Ohio 4 Wisconsin 5 

Indiana .... 4 Minnesota 2 Pennsylvania .... 1 Washington 1 

Iowa 1 New Jersey 1 Texas 2 Virginia 1 

The data which I have been able to make use of was received from 
fourteen of the above mentioned states. 

129 



130 



M.LM.H. TR.HMXC M.ICIZIXE 



The blank sheets which were sent w ith the letters to the various 
supervisors upon which to record their data, were arranged in vertical 
and horizontal columns. Table I. This arranijement made it possible 
to ijet all questions toiietlier in \ciy compact form, and as a result 
easy to handle. Chance tor error or misunderstanding was thereby 
eliminated and each item kept separate. All doubtful material was 
excludeil. 

Data on the Cost of Maintaining Manual Training. 
Table I. 





i;KAnrs ok awing woodwork 


cooking 


sewing 


ELEMENTARY 
HANDWORK 


Time 


5-6 
1-4 
7-8 


i 








Devoted 
to Each 
























In Which 


1-4 ^ 
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(Jrades 
Taught 








7-8 


1 
1 














I 
Number 1-4 




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7-8 






1 




















Cost 1 -4 

of 
Materials 5-6 

7., 






1 
1 










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NoTf : — It Will cannoi j^i\f details, jjive summaries. Perhaps you can give 
cf»«i» per capita. 



COST OF MATERIAL FOR MAM'AL TRAIMNC 

Table II. 

WOODWORK 





Cost 

Per 

Capita 


Grade 


Time 

Per 

Week 

2:00 


Cost Per 

Cap. la 

Reduced to 

iVi Hours 

Per Week 


Taueht 

in 
Grades 

6, 7, 8 


Number 

of 
Pupils 


Boston, Mass 


$ .72 




$ .54 


13,658 






5, 6 


1 :00 








St. Paul, Minn 


.47 


7, 8 
5, 6 


1 :30 
1:00 


.49 


5, 6, 7, 8 


4,700 


Columbus, Ohio . . . 


.48 


7, 8 


1:30 


.58 


5, 6, 7, 8 


4,193 


Seattle, Wash 


.50 


5, 6 


1:15 

1:00 


.60 


6, 7, 8 


3,912 


Newark, N. J 


.58 


7, 8 


1:30 


.70 


5, 6, 7, 8 


3,700* 


Washington, D. C. . 


1.34 




1:30 


1.34 


7, 8 


3,574 


Buffalo, N. Y 


1.65 


5 
6 


1:30 

1:00 
2:00 


1.65 


7, 8 


3,000 


Grand Rapids, Mich. 


1.82 


7, 8 
7 


2:15 
1:30 


1.35 


5, 6, 7, 8 


2,235 


Springfield, Mass. . . 


.68 


8 


1 :00 


.86 


7, 8 


1,915 


El Paso, Texas 


1.29 


5, 6 

7 


1:30 

1:00 
1:30 


1.29 


5, 6, 7, 8 


775 


Madison, Wis 


.26 


8 
5, 6 


2:15 

1:00 


.25 


5, 6, 7, 8 


690 


Quincy, 111 


.98 


7, 8 


1:30 


1.09 


5, 6, 7, 8 


633 


Oak Park, 111 


.75 




3:00 


.38 


7, 8 


3 50 


Rock Island, 111. . . 


.18 




1:30 


.18 


7, 8 


273 


Bloomington, 111. . . . 


.30 




1:15 


.36 


7, 8 


200 


Evansville, Ind. . . 


.75 




1:30 


.75 


8 


190 


Ironwood, Mich. . . . 


.24 




3:00 
Avera 


.12 

ge .75 


7, 8 


106 




44,104 



*Estifnated. 



152 



M.^M.ll. TR.IIMXG M.IC.I/IXE 



T.^BLE III. 

WOODWORK KOR THE SEVENTH AND EIGHTH 
GRADES ONLY 





Cwt 

1 cr 

Capita 

$ .SO 


Grauc 


Tii-.c 
Wnk 


Cost Per 

Capii i 

Keducol to 

1'.. H iirs 

Per \\ .ok 

.60 


TauKhl 

in 
Grades 




Number 

of 
Pupils 


Boston, Mass 




2:l!0 


7, 


8 


8,656 


Newark. N. J 


.S5 




i::o 


.S5 


7, 


8 


3,700 


WaNliiiisrtoii, n. C. 


1 .34 




i::o 


1.34 


7, 


8 


3,571 


Buffalo, N. V 


1.65 




i::o 


1.63 


7, 


8 


3,000 


Saint Paul, Miiri. .. 


.66 


7 


1 ::o 

1 :30 


.65 


7, 


8 


2,000 


Springfield, Mass... 


.68 


S 


1 :00 


.i'/j 


7, 


8 


1,915 


Ciraiiil Rapiil^, Midi. 


2.3S 




2:'. 5 


l.[4 


7, 


8 


911 


Oak Park. Ill 


.75 




3 :(U) 


.:.i 


7, 


8 


350 


Quincv. Ill 


1.50 




i::o 


1 . 50 


7, 


8 


300 


Rock Island. Ill 


.18 




i::o 


.IS 


7, 


8 


273 


BlfK)minjnon, III. . . 


.30 




1:15 


.36 


7, 


8 


200 


Ironwood, Mich. . . . 


.24 




3:0!) 
A \ era 


.12 
KC .S4 


7, 


8 


106 




24,98 5 



COST OF MATERIAL FOR MAM'AI. TRAINING 



in 



Table IV. 

COOKING 





Cost 

Per 

C pi la 


C rade 


Time 

Pr 

\ . cek 


C si Per 

(.' ipita 

Ri uced to 

I's Hours 

Per Week 


Taught 

in 
C rades 


Nniiber 

of 
Pi.pils 


Cleveland, O 


S .80 




1:30 


$ .80 


7, 8 


5 000 


Washington, D. C . 


.45 




1:30 


.45 


7, 8 


-!,!-55 


Buflfalo, N. Y 


.67 




1:30 


.67 


8 


3 )00 


Columbus, O 


.72 




1:30 


.72 


7, 8 


1,525 


Seattle, Wash 


.50 




1:15 


.60 


8 


1 , 1 1 3 


Grand Rapids, Mich. 


1.20 




2:15 


.80 


7, 8 


977 


Madison, Wis 


.49 




1:00 


.74 


7, 8 


.'77 


Quincy, III 


.95 




! :30 


.95 


7, 8 


306 


El Paso, Tex 


1.20 




1:30 


1.20 


5, 6, 8 


250 


Ironwood, Mich. . . . 


1.14 




3:00 


.57 


7, 8 


173 


Newark, N. J 


.90 




1:30 


.90 


7, 8 










Avera 


ge .76 




17.476 



1S4 



M.^.\L .^l. TRrilMXG .U.VG.VZ/.V/-: 



Table V. 
SEWINC; 





Cost 

Per 

Capita 


Grade 


Time 

Per 

Week 

0:45 


Cost Per 

Capita 

Reduced lo 

I's Hours 

Per Week 


Tautfht 

in 
Grades 


Number 

of 
Pupils 






3 












4, 5 


1 :60 








Washincioii, D. C. 


$ .12^ 


6 


1 :30 


$ .IS 


3, 4, 5. 6 


19.343 


Cleveland. O 


.45 


5. 6 


1 :00 
1 :00 


.68 


5, 6 


7,000 


Buffalo, N. V 


.So 


7, S 


1:3(1 


.60 


5, 6, 7, 8 


6,000 


Seattle, Wash 


.56 




1 :15 


.67 


6, 7, 8 


4,210 


Saint Paul, Minn.. . 


* 


5 


1 :00 
:45 




5, 6 


3,300 


Columbus, U 


.30 


6 


1 :00 


.53 


5, 6 


2,525 


Springfield, Mass.. . . 


• 


5 


1 :00 
1 :0() 




5, 6, 8 


1,650 


Grand Rapids, Mich. 


.12 


6 
6, 7 


2:00 
1:30 


.12 


5, 6 


1,216 


Kl Paso, Texas .... 


.04 


4, 5 


1 :0(i 


.05 


4. 5. 6, 7 


800 


Madison, Wis 


« 




1 :00 




5, 6 


328 


Quincv, III 


.07 




1 :()() 


. 10 


5, 6 


327 


Kvansville, Ind 


.25 




1:30 


.25 


S 


210 


IronvvfKxl, .Mich. . . . 


.80 


5, 6 


3 :00 
1 :00 


.40 


5, 6 


200 


.Newark, .\. J 


.25 


7, 8 


1:30 
A\ era 


.30 
lie .35 


5, 6, 7, 8 






47,109 



'Mirtiished hs Student. 



COST OF MATERIAL FOR AFIM'AL TRAINING 

T.XBLE VI. 

ELEMENTARY HANDWORK 



135 





Cost 

Per 

Capita 


Grade 

2, 3 


Time 

Per 

Week 


Cost Per 

Capita 

Reduced to 

1 '-3 Hours 

Per Week 


Taugln 

in 
(Trades 


Number 

of 
Pupils 






0:30 








Boston, Mass 


$ .21 


■+, 5 


2:00 


$ .25 


2-5 


32,317 


Seattle, Wash 


.10 




1:00 


.15 


1-5 


19,328 


Saint Paul, Minn.. . 


. 1 




1 :00 


.15 


1-4 


15,000 


Buffalo, N. Y 


.08 




1:30 


.08 


1-6 


12,000 


Springfield, Mass.. . 


.15 




1 :00 


.23 


1-4 


5,900 


El Paso, Texas .... 


.23 




2:00 


.17 


1-4 


3,500 


Allegheny, Pa 


. 1 




0:30 


.30 


1-3 


2,507 


Rock Island, 111 


.02 








1-6 


2,351 


Newark, N. J 


.10 




1 :00 
Avera 


.15 
;e .19 


1-4 






92,905 



CONCLUSIONS. 



The data compared shows a rather wide range in cost especially in 
woodwork. Here the cost ranges from 12 cents, the lowest, to $1.65 
the highest. The average of the entire number is 75 cents. A grouping 
of costs will here probably be interesting (similar grouping will also 
be made in the other subjects) : of the number seventeen, eleven figure 
at or below the average cost, while but one comes between 75 cents 
and $1 the other five being above $1. 

The reason for this variation in costs lies in the kind of models or 
problems with which the pupils work. It is probable, however, that 
where the very low costs are shown the lumber fees returned by the 
pupils have been deducted. It should be kept in mind that the figures 
presented do not include salaries of teachers. 



13t) 



M.IM .11. TR.n.\l.\C .M.ia.l/IXE 

Table Vll. 

DRAWING 





Cost 

P-r 
Ca ita 


G rade 


Time 

I'er 

\\ ick 


1 

Cosl Per 

C pita 

Reduced to 

1'... Houis 

I'ei Week 


Tau«lU 

in 
Grades 


N u ;n be r 

. f 
Prpils 






1. 3 


1 :40 








Bi)>toii, Mass 


$ .08 


4-S 
1-6 


1 :30 
1 :00 


$ .OS 


1-8 


79,776 


Saint Paul, Minn. . . 


J. 


7, 8 


1 ;30 




1-8 


24,000 


Buffalo, N. V 


.17 


1-4 

5, 6 


1:30 

1 15 
1 +0 


.17 


1-8 


24,000 


Columbus, (* 


.10 


/ , S 


i .10 


. 12 


1-8 


20 297 


Springfield, Mass.. . 


.ro 


1-4 


1 ;30 
I ;30 


.20 


7, 8* 


1,915}: 


Maiiison, Wis 


.(IS 


i-S 


.1 :40 


.OS 


1-S 


2,566 


Iroii\v(H)ii, .Mich.. . . 


.:o 




1 :3(i 
A vera 


. 1 
^^e .12 


7, 8 


171 




152,725 



''■: I-'urnisheil by Students. 

• Also taufilit in first six grades but cost data as it was {iiven could not be 
used here. 

$ Total in eight Cirades in, 165. 

Because of the fact of variations in cost per capita where the sixth, 
or fifth and sixth tirades are incliuied a separate sheet has heen pre- 
pared supplementary to the main woodworkinii; tallies, and includes 
finh costs per capita for the seventh and eighth jj;rades, Table III. 
Only thfjse were selected which had definite data ^^iven for these grades. 
In this way, it was possible to reduce all costs more dclinitely on the 
I ' J hour time basis and reach more accurate results tor these f^rades. 
This yroiipiny, which eliminates the fifth and sixth ^.^radc costs, shows 
the averaye cost per capita for the scxctuh and cijjjhth j^radcs in wood- 
work to be S4 cents. 



COST OF MATERIAL FOR MANUAL TRAINING 137 

Table IV shows that in cooking the costs range from 45 cents to 
$1.20, the average cost per capita being 76 cents. 

In sewing, Table V, the cost ranges from nothing, at several places 
where the pupils furnish their own materials, to 68 cents. The average 
cost per capita is 35 cents. 

In elementary hand\\'ork. Table VI, the highest cost is 30 cents, 
and the lowest 8 cents; the average cost per capita being 19 cents. 

In drawing, Table VII, the highest cost is 20 cents, the lowest 8 
cents. At one school the pupils furnish their own materials. Very 
few reported for drawing, several stating that records for this subject 
were not kept. 

The result of my investigations shows the average cost of woodwork 
to be 84 cents per capita; drawing, 12 cents; cooking, 76 cents; sewing, 
35 cents; and elementary handwork, 19 cents. 

From the data received five tables have been prepared, one each 
for drawing, woodwork, cooking, sewing, elementary handwork. These 
include all information regarding the cost per capita, time per week, 
grades taught in, number of pupils, and also the cost per capita figured 
at the uniform time of 1^^ hours per week. 

The time per week, which these subjects occupy at the various 
schools is not in all cases the same. The reports, however, show that 
a majority prefer 1^ hours for this work, excepting elementary hand- 
work, the average time of which is somewhat less. For this reason 
the costs per capita were all reduced to 1^ hours per week to get 
accurate comparative results at the most popular time. 

Another difference to be noted in this particular is that of the grade 
groupings for woodwork and elementary handwork. In some, the fifth 
and sixth grades are included under elementary handwork while in 
others these same grades have woodwork in shops. The result of this 
is that where these grades are given shopwork in wood the average 
cost per capita for that course is lower. The raising of the cost per 
capita is not so noticeable where these grades are included under 
elementary handwork. 

In figuring these costs the materials actually used including the 
waste were added together. This cost does not all, however, fall upon 
the schools as many get most of the cost back by having the pupils 
pay for the material used in the articles taken home. 



HOW FORESTRY CAN HELP THE MANUAL TRAINING 

TEACHER. 

E Dwi N R. Jackson. 

MANl AL training contributes in two ways to the solution of 
the educational problems which confront each individual. It 
L:i\ es power to do ; and it gives an ability to appreciate what 
is done by others. An apprenticeship teaches the boy to do, but to do 
only one thing and that in a limited sphere. The trade schools empha- 
size the power to do and minimize the second element, — the ability to 
appreciate what is done by others. It seems to me, however, that this 
latter element should be given chief place in shaping the course in 
manual training. It should be the object of the manual training teacher 
not only to give the pupil the benefit of first-hand experience, but he 
should also direct and revise this according to the experience of others. 
In order to profit by the experience of others, the student must be 
familiar with the industrial processes which are in daily operation in 
the world about him. These industrial processes are so important that 
one who is not fairly familiar with them can hardly be said to be 
educated. The natural question, when one comes across a new product 
of man's ingenuity, is "How is this made?" There is considerable 
satisfaction in being able to answer this question out of one's own 
knowledge, or at least in being able to comprehend readily the processes 
of manufacture when they are explained to one. 

It can readily be seen, then, that one important purpose of manual 
training is the civic, or social, development of the student. This it 
does, first, by making him better prepared to occupy a useful, productive 
place in the commimity; and second, by making the student feel his 
relation to and dependence upon other individuals and upon the com- 
munity of which he is a part. 

It is my purpose to attempt to point out some of the ways in which 
a knowledge of forestry can be useful to the teacher of manual training 
in his efiforts to achieve these ends. First of all, it must be very ap- 
parent that m\ich of the industrial life of the Nation is based upon the 
manufacture and utilization oi the products of the forest. In the days 
of the pioneers, when the logs for building the cabin, the wood for fuel, 
the hickory sapling for the ax handle, and all the other wood that was 

138 



FORESTRY AND MANUAL TRAINING 



139 



used in or about the home came directly from the forest that stood just 
beyond the clearing, the boy of the household knew all about the 
processes connected with getting out and manufacturing the wood of the 
forest, Fig. 1. Now, however, the timber used in the dwelling or in the 




FIG. 1. "pit-sawing" — PRIMITIVE LUMBERING. 

school house may come from a dozen different sources, some of them 
hundreds or thousands of miles away. Each board and each shingle has 
a different story as to its transportation and manufacture. So here is 
an opportunity and a duty which the teacher of woodworking should not 
overlook, — the chance to consider the sources and distribution of the 
raw materials upon which the students are working and the place that 
these materials play in the industrial and economic life of the Nation. 
There is another lesson which should be brought out in this connection. 
A vast army of people is engaged in the work of getting out and working 
up the products of the forest. Among the great occupations in which 
the people of the United States are engaged in a business way, lumbering 
ranks fourth. If the boy in the manual training shop can be made to 
catch a glimpse of the long, complicated industrial and economic 
problems which arise in this industry; can be made to feel that upon 
him has devolved the final act in a great process in which hundreds 
of his fellow men have been engaged, perhaps for years, then he will 
begin to feel his relation to society a little stronger and to realize that 
he occupies, even while yet in school, an important place in the social 
and economic fabric, and to appreciate his duties and his privileges as 
a citizen a little more clearly. 



140 



M.IM .n. TR.HMXC M.IC.IZIXE 



Here conies in the element which brini2>^ the student of manual 
training into closest touch with the forester. The prosperity of the 




flG. 2. "OLR RKMAINING HARDWOOD F()KIS1> ARC CONKINED TO THE SOUTHERN 
APPALACHIAN REGION." 

Nation is dependent to a large degree upon its forest resources. Waste 
■fjf these resources is a civic wrong. This wrong it is the work of the 
forester to prevent by eliminating waste or carelessness in the manage- 
inent of the forest and in forest utilization. The wood user should be 
the first to feel the importance of right methods on the part of the 
>\ood producer. Whether it be by the practice of better methods of 
forest management, so as to provide for the continued growtii of the 
forest and the production of a sustained yield ; or by devising improved 
methods of manufacture, which guard against undue loss of material; 
«)r by the adoption of systems of preservative treatment of timbers, 
the forester's work is, above all, to safeguard the welfare of the Nation 
in so far as it depends upon the forest. With all these problems of 
f«>rr>tr\' the inaiuial training student should he familiar, not only be- 
cause they are s(» important that ignorance of them would be inex- 
cusable on the part of any well-informed citizen, but also because by 
becoming familiar with the aims and piirjioses of forestry, he will learn 
a h-ssfjn of civic betterment, which can not fail to impress upon his mind 
a dutv he owes to his fellow men and the Nation. 



FORESTRY AND MANUAL TRAINING 141 

HOW THESE LESSONS MAY BE TAUGHT. 

It is easier to generalize on such subjects as this than it is to point 
out specifically how the lessons suggested may be imparted to the pupils. 
1 cannot, of course, discuss in detail all the topics that might be con- 
sidered, but I wish to point out some of the interesting stories and useful 
facts which forestry may add to a course in manual training. 

In considering the relation which exists between the study of manual 
training and forestry we may begin with a study of the sources from 
which our supply of commercial timber is derived. Suppose the student 
is working on a piece of white oak or some other hardwood. It will 
be well to connect his manual training with a little geography by point- 
ing out the fact that our present hardwood forests of commercial im- 
portance are confined practically to the Southern Appalachian region, 
Fig. 2. If he is using pine in his work, he will be interested in knowing 
the story of the vanishing white pine forests of Michigan and the other 
Lake States; or in learning that what the lumberman calls "yellow pine" 
may be one of several species of the Southern pines, probably the longleaf 
species. So we might study each species of wood which comes to the 
shop, tracing it back to the forest from which it came, — the Douglas 
fir to the dense forests of Washington or Oregon ; the redwood to the 
sunny slopes of California ; the cypress to the swampy flats of Louisiana 
or Georgia. All this will serve to bring to the mind of the student a 
sense of the dependency of each part of our great land upon every other 
part, and to prepare him for the next step — the study of the processes 
thru which the logs from the forest have gone, and the numerous hands 
thru which they have passed before reaching the school shop. 

First there came the lumberman — perhaps the sturdy, roistering 
woodsman of the North, Fig. 3, with his double-bitted ax, or perhaps 
a dusky-skinned laborer of the Southland — who felled the tree and cut it 
up into logs. Then the haulers took it out to river or railroad. If the 
scene was in the North woods, probably the logs were piled high on 
sleds hauled by horses; if in the South where there is no snow, the logs 
were dragged out at the end of a cable wound up by a donkey engine 
or swung between a pair of high wheels. Then if a stream of water 
afforded an easy means to transportation to the sawmill, the "drivers" 
took charge of the logs, Fig. 4, guiding them down swift currents, risk- 
ing life and limb continually in the effort to avoid a "jam" and to keep 
the logs in motion until they finally arrived at the mill pond or sorting 



142 



.V.v.vr.vz. TR.nxixG magazixe 




FORESTRY AND MANUAL TRAINING 



143 




FIG. 4. RIVER MEN RIDING A LOG DOWN STREAM. 



boom where they were sorted over, and stored until their turn at the 
saw came. If there was no river down which the logs could be floated 
to the mill, a railroad was built out to the forest, the logs were picked 
up by steam cranes, piled on flat cars and hauled by puffing engines to 
the mill yard or pond. 

Then came the sawmill with its tearing saws, its buzzing, groaning 
edgers and planes, Fig. 5. The logs were fairly nipped asunder and 
what was "timber" became "lumber." ready for the builder or wood 



144 



M.IM'.IL TR.UMXC MAGAZINE 




FORESTRY .IXD MANUAL TRAINING 



145 




FIG. 6. PART OF THE PRICE OF LUMBER MUST BE CHARGED TO FREIGHT. 



146 M.^M .IL TR.llMSG MAGAZINE 

worker. It tho hoards were still green, there was the dry kihi which 
seasoned them. 

Leaving the mill, the lumher must be shipped to the wholesale or 
retail dealers in various parts of the countr)-. The student will get a 
glimpse into one of the big economic problems of the Nation — that of 
transportation — if it is pointed out to him that when he buys a board, 
part of the price he pays is generally to be charged up to freight. Fig. 
6. So it has happened that some of tiiis lumber has at last found its 
wav to the shop where the manual training student now waits the op- 
portunity to shape it into table, bookcase, or some other useful article. 
The board, as it comes to his hand, is the product of the labor, the 
thought, and the skill of perhaps a dozen individuals in widely separated 
parts of the land. 

ELIMIXATIOX OF WASTE. 

Thru all the processes of wood utilization, from the forest to the 
workshop there exists an element of waste. This should be eliminated, 
and it is part of the work of the forester to seek means of correcting 
this evil so far as may be. To begin with, there is waste in the forest 
itself, thru the fact that Nature is by no means a good forester. The 
forest, if left to its natural conditions, will never reach its best state. 
There will be spaces which are empty, which should be filled up with 
growing trees; there will be tracts on which the trees are over-crowded 
and in consequence grow hut slowly and become liable, thru their 
weakened condition, to the attacks of their natural enemies. Then 
thousands of feet of lumber are estimated to be wasted each year because 
trees that are fully mature — ripe for cutting — are not utilized but left 
to occupy land which should be given over to younger, more rapidly 
growing trees. These and other bad conditions in the forest, the forester 
aims to correct by applying to the forest rational systems of silvicultural 
management. 

Again, when the forest tree is lefr to its natural development it does 
not always produce the best grade o{ lumber, an>- more than corn, un- 
cultivated, will produce large, faultless ears. The wood-worker wants 
lumber free from knots, decay, shakes, or other defects. So the forester 
aims, by keeping the trees crowded together in youth and gradually 
opening up the stand as the trees grow, to produce tall, straight, clean 
trunks; and by protection against hre. injects, ainl tiingi, as far as 



FORESTRY AND MANUAL TRAINING 147 

possible to prevent the trees from becoming defective. It is, of course, 
apparent, that because of the long time required to grow a crop of 
trees, it is not practicable to breed better types of lumber trees in a 
particular species or to produce new forms or hybrids of better quality, 
as is done with annual agricultural crops, such as corn or small grains. 
For his results in developing a desirable form of timber tree, the forester 
must rely chiefly upon his ability to manipulate the light supply by 
scientific cuttings in the forest. 

When the tree has been cut and removed by one means or another 
to the sawmill the waste does not cease, by any means. Fig. 7. The 
manual training student cannot fail to be interested in the improved 
methods and machinery now being used to manufacture the log into 
lumber. First we may note the change in the style of saw which has 
taken place to a large extent of recent years. The circular buzz-saw 
which used to be universally used is giving way to the more practical 
and economical band-saw, which enables the millman to cut up larger 
logs and causes less waste in sawdust than if the circular saw is used. 
Of course, every manual training student will know the difference 
between quarter-sawed and plain sawed lumber, and the difference in 
the values of the two grades. They should be made to see that some of 
this difference in value is due to the greater loss due to waste resulting 
from quarter-sawing the log, and the consequently greater cost of pro- 
duction. 

But we must not stop here. There is still another way in which the 
forester is brought into touch with the wood user, and that is thru the 
practice of preservative treatment of woods. Wooden structures are 
not the most durable to be had. Beams, ties, posts or other wooden 
elements of construction are soon more or less affected by decay. It is 
part of the work of the forester to discover and put into practice means 
of treating timbers with preservatives so as to prolong their periods of 
usefulness, Fig. 8, thus effecting a saving in the quantity of wood needed 
each year for construction and repair. The subject is one with which 
the manual training student ought to be more or less familiar, at least 
in a general way. 

As I see it, then, the chief importance of forestry in its relation to 
manual training, lies in the opportunity it affords to awaken the student 
to a sense of his duty as a citizen to help in the great work of eliminating 
waste from our industrial world, to broaden his mind until he sees 
himself not alone but as a part of a great social syst?m composed of 



14S 



M.lXr.n. TR.Il.MXG M.iG.lZIXE 




FORESTRY AND MANUAL TRAINING 



149 




FIG. 8. TREATING POLES WITH PRESERVATIVE. 



150 



M.^M.n. TR.n.\l.\(J M.ia.l/L\E 



individuals like himself, but each one dependent upon the other. These 
are the lessons which, it riizhtly learned, will i^o farther than anything 
else toward the fulhhnent of the real work of our public schools in 
preparing our boys for the greatest duty and the greatest privilege offered 
to the men of today — citizenship in a great republic. 




SEAMED SILVER PITCHER 

From Kalo Shop. 



MANUAL TRAINING IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF 
VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. 

Howard R. Heath. 

IN Australia, as in England, America, and Europe, diversity of 
opinion seems to exist as to what should be the main object of 
handwork in the primary stages. Here, as there, we find one 
section of our teachers advocating the training, or educational side of 
the question, and another section putting forward the claims of the 
technical or vocational aspect. 

But in the mind of the writer, it is emphatically the province of the 
primary school to work on broad, general, and educational principles, 
leaving the specializing and vocational development to the high and 
technical schools. 

And I think this object should obtain more particularly in Australia 
with its scattered population made up largely of those engaged in 
agricultural, pastoral, and mining pursuits. 

In the year 1901, as a result of a forward movement in education 
generally, it was decided that manual occupations should be added to 
the curriculum of the state (or primary) schools, and with this object 
in view, John Byatt, an English expert in the subject, was appointed 
the organizing inspector of this particular branch of work, and from 
that time to the present it has continued to spread steadily but surely, 
until it has become a free and compulsory subject wherever there are 
the conveniences for teaching it. 

In the cities and large towns the center system is in vogue. In 
smaller country towns two or three places will have a teacher between 
them, and in the rural schools, if the teacher of the school is competent 
to do so, he is allowed to teach sloyd work as the manual occupation. 

There are at present about thirty-five centers in Victoria, see Fig. 1, 
and in addition to these from fifty to sixty rural schools are receiving 
the instruction from the ordinary teacher. 

As has been indicated, the system introduced by Mr. Byatt was the 
Swedish sloyd ; but this has been rearranged and altered so as to be 
adapted to local needs and circumstances. 

The course consists of the usual woodwork exercises which are in- 
cluded in about forty models, each of which is a useful article, see Fig. 
2. 

151 



152 



M.IM.Il TR.UMXG MAGAZINE 




MANUAL TRAINING IN AUSTRALIA 



153 




FIG. 2. THE TYPE MODELS OF THE SLOYD COURSE. 



154 



M.iM .11. TR.n.M.wa .\i.u;.i/.i\E 




HG. 3. SOMR AI.TKRN' ATK MODKI.S. 



I he principUs of (irtlio^raphic and isometric projection are taii^Iit> 
and as a rule each article is drawn to scale bt-fore beini^ made. 

I.,essr>ns CHI timber C^ro\\■th, seasoning, preserving:, etc.) and tlie 
names, constriicti(»n, and uses ot all the tools used, make iiji the theo- 
rrtical portion of the proj^ram. 

Both teachers and scholars arc iTU()nra;:c(l h\ the I );'|);irtincnt to 
s^l^^;e^t and introchice new models, and as a result of this, we have at 
this center at least one alternative to each of the t\ pe models, Fif^. ^, and 
a set of larKer articles for advanced boys to make for their homes, j^i^. 4. 



MANUAL TRAINING IN AUSTRALIA 



155 




156 



M.L\L II. TR.llSlSC M.n;.i/.i\E 



In a mmibcr of cases these alternati\e and special articles are the 
outconie oi suiijrestions made hy the boys theniseKes, 

In addition to the drawings made by the pupils, blue-prints are 
iKcasionally used. A irreat deal of difficult} has been experienced In 
givinj; the right amount of attention to instruction in the correct holding 
and manipulation of tools owing to the fact that no restraint is placed 
upon the smarter boys, and no effort is made to keep all the members 
of a class working at the same stage. At this center we have met the 
difficulty by arranging a very complete and thoro series of tool-drills. 

In addition to his ordinary model each boy has a "practising piece," 
and ten minutes of every lesson are ilevoted to a tool-exercise on this 
piece, the whole class working together anil the exercise being most 
carefully demonstrated and supervised h\ the teacher. There are four 
series of these drills during the year, one for each quarter. The 
"practising piece" grailually de\elops into a simple useful article by 
the end of the quarter, e\ ery boy having had definite class instruction 
in about twenty-five of the most general and oft-recurring tool exercises, 
ami every member of the class making just what progress he is able 
with his ordinary models, without being retarded by the slower boys. 

In conclusion it might be mentioned that the teachers employed in 
the primar\ course are certificated teachers who ha\'e receixed a course 
of training in manual work, it having been decided (and wisely) that 
at this primary educational stage, it is the influence of the teacher rather 
than that of the trailesman that is productixe of the highest results in 
the boys' character and development. 




f r ■ ■ 




iv 



SflKKT-MKTM. UORK DOM- ItV IIOVS IS STATI- Kl.l OK M \ I IlK V, 
AT I'dMT \C, ILLINOIS. 




WRINKLING PROCESS AND TOOLS. 



METALWORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS, X: 

Arthur F. Payne. 

IN the December, 1911, issue instructions were given for "raising" 
bowls, etc., by the simplest method, that of beating into a hollow 
in a block. In the April, 1912, issue a description and illustration? 
were given of the method of raising pitchers, etc., by the "coursing" 
method. The first illustration of this article shows the two main points 
of the third method of raising, which is called the "wrinkling" method. 
This is the fastest method of raising any large and deep object, such as 
a vase, without seaming. This is a fast method but at the same time it 
requires considerable practice and a higher degree of skill than the other 
methods. 

The first photograph shows a piece of work that has been "wrinkled" 
for the first hammering, with the hammer and the wrinkling block that 

'Copyright by Arthur F. Payne, 1912. 

157 



15S 



.i/./.vr.//. TR.iiMxa M.n;.i/.i\E 




was iisfd. riu' step•^ takoti arc as tolK)\vs: Cut out a piece of metal 
( IS H-S iiatze) the size and shape required, and with the pencil compass 
mark a circle the si/e of the base. The ilhistration shows a circular 
piece of metal, but the method is the same tor square or oval objects. 
Cut a piece ot hard wood, about 2" x 2" x 8", and 
make a wrinkliiiLi block ot it by lilinii; a crease in 
the end, as shown in the phott)^raph. Place the 
block in the \ise anil with the thin neck hammer 
shown beat the metal into the crease. There are 
two points to be carefid of, the first one is to allow 
the metal to bend in freel\ when hammering the 
wrinkles, that is ilo not try to stretch the metal 
when drivini: it into the wrinkling block. The 
second point is. to be sure to have the wrinkles 
e\enly spaceil autl straight. The next step is to 
beat down the wrinkles with a raising hammer, 
holding the piece of work upon a tee-stake the same 
as when "raising by coursing" as illustrated on 
page .•!1'' in the April number. By looking closelj' 
at the right hand siile of the piece of work shown in 
the first photograph it can be seen where the first 
course has been started. Care must be taken not 
to allow the wrinkles to fold over when beating 
them down as this would result in the metal crack- 
ing. When the metal gets hard and stiff soften it 
by "annealing" as described before. 

I he second photograph is of an unfinished vase, 
'f" high, that was raised entirely by the "wrinkling process." It will 
be seen, however, that the courting process w ill ha\ e to be used to carry 
it to completion. 

The third and fourth photographs are of other vases raised into 
>hape frfim a Hat circular disk by the same methods. 

The three kettles were raised into shape by the same methods, the 
patt(Tn> for the spouts and handles being drawn and laid out, in the 
manner described ff)r hollow pitcher handles, and soldered on to the 
b<i(ly with silver solder. The knobs on the covers are hollow, being 
part of the cover hammered out to form the knob. 

Art metal work divides itself into four large divisions, namely — 
flat wf*rk. such as the paper knife; bent and riveted work, such as the 



UNFINISHED VASE 
NMVE INCHES HIGH, 
RXISED B V THE 
"WRIVKMNC PRO- 
CESS." 



METALJf'ORK IflTII IS'EXI'ENSIl'E EQUIPMENT 



159 



clock and the lantern ; raised work, such as bowls and vases ; seamed 
work, such as pitchers and vases that are not beaten up from a flat disk, 
but have a seam or joint that is soldered together with silver solder. 
It is this last division "seamed work" that we are now to deal with. 





COPPER VASE RAISED FROM FLAT 
PIECE OF METAL. 



COPPER VASE RAISED FROM FLAT PIECE OF 
METAL — UNFINISHED. 



We will take the "seamed and fluted vase" for a description of the 
simplest kind of seamed work. It is first necessary to obtain a pattern 
that will, when it is cut out of metal and the seam soldered together, 
be the approximate size and form of the vase that we wish to make. The 
method of obtaining this pattern is shown in the accompanying sketches. 
We must first have an accurately drawn outline of the size and shape of 
the finished vase, as show^n in the first sketch. It will be noticed that 
the vase approximates in shape the form of a cone. We can easily 
develop a pattern of a cone, so we proceed as tho the vase were a cone, 
as in sketch No. 2. It can readily be seen that if we can obtain a cone 
of metal the shape of the heavy lines, it will be a comparatively simple 
matter to hammer out the top and hammer in the bottom, to produce 
the form of the vase. 

To obtain the pattern of the flat piece of metal that will roll up 



160 



M.^M'.^L JR.llMXG MAGAZISE 




METALJf'ORK UITII ISEXPENSIIE EQIIPMENT 



161 




into a cone of the desired shape and size, we proceed as follows: — extend 
the general lines of the vase in a straight line upward until thc\- meet 
at B. In extending these lines we 
disregard any slight curves as may 
be seen in the sketch. The heavy 
lines show the cone that we wish 
to obtain. Draw a half circle the 
size of the base of the cone, and 
divide it into eight equal parts. 
Lay off the line A-B, as shown in 
3, also the distance C-B. Draw an 
are with A-B as the radius, and 
another with B-C as the radius. 
With the dividers carefully meas- 
ure one of the eight equal parts of 
the half circle drawn at the base 
of 2, and lay off sixteen of them on 
the arc A-D, in 3. Where the 

KETTLE. 

sixteenth space ends draw the line 

D-B. The space enclosed by A-D, D-E, E-C, C-A. is the pattern that 

will roll up into the cone desired. Patterns may be developed in the 

same way for any vase or pitcher 

form. A few suggestions are given 

at 4. 

To make the vase, first cut a 
piece of metal (copper, brass, or 
silver) the size and shape of the 
pattern, and prepare the edges of 
the seam for soldering by striking 
them with a file, thus making them 
rough so that the solder will hold 
the seam firmly. Roll the metal 
so that the edges come together, 
being sure that they fit perfectly, 
and hold them in place by binding 
them together with soft iron wire 
in the manner shown in the sketch. 
The vase is now ready for solder- 
ing with silver solder by the 
method described in the April issue. 




KETTLE AND TRW. 



16 i 



M.LM .11. tr.h.m.m; .M.ia.l/I\H 




SEAMED WD FLUTED VASE. 




SF.AMED SILVER I'lTCHKR. 

From Kalo Shop, (.'/liraj^o. 



After it is soKlert'd and has 
been cleaned b\ "picklinii;" in the 
sulphuric acid si)lutit)n, it should 
be made true ami nniml with a 
mallet on a tee-stake, anil the top 
shoulil be hammered out and the 
bottom beaten in to conform to the 
outline desired. It will probably 
be necessary to soften it by "an- 
nealiny;" duriniz; this process; if so, 
care must be taken not to get the 
seam so hot that the solder will 
melt. After it has been brought 
to the desireil shape, the bottom 
edge shouhl be filed Hat and a 
piece of metal the right size 
soldered on for the bottom. 

I'he \ase is now ready for 
"planishing." It would be rather 
difficult to planish a \ase such as 
is illustrated by the method of 
planishing pre\'iously described in 
this series. In the first place, it 
would be no easy matter to find a 
tool that would go inside the vase 
and fit the \arious curves, and it 
would also be difficult to hold the 
\ase on the tool in the proper 
position to do good planishing. 
We avoid these difficulties by fill- 
ing the vase with pitch, allowing 
it to harden, and planishing on the 
pitch, 'i'lu- pitch mixture is made 
up of (-([ual amounts of Burgundy 
pitch and plaster of Paris measured 
b\ bulk. The Burgundy pitch 
should be melted first in a common 
saucepan and the plaster of Paris 
stirred in sl(n\l\. He careful that 
the pitch does not get afire. When 



METALJVORK ff'ITH lA'EXPENSIlE EQUIPMEXT 



163 



the pitch and plaster are thoruly mixed, pour into the vase and aUow it 
to get hard. Then the vase may be phmished, and if it is desired it mav 
be fluted as shown in the photograph. 

This fluting is done in the same manner and wirli the same tools as 
described for the process of "chasing" in the June, l^Ml, issue, the 
only difference being that the tool is a little thicker and blunter, and 
instead of being done on a board the fluting is tlonc while the \ase is 
full of pitch. If the fluting is to be rather deep it is advisable to do 
the work while the pitch is slightly warm. 






SEA VI ED VASES. 



After the vase is planished smooth the pitch may be melted out by 
tying some wire around it, suspending it bottom upwards and turning 
the flame from the blowpipe on the pitch at the mouth of the vase. Do 
not turn the flame on any part of the vase except where the pitch is 
exposed to the heat as it would be likely to explode if the pitch in the 
upper part got melted first and could not get out easily. 

The silver pitcher was made by the seaming method, as described in 
this article excepting that it was planished on a stake, the mouth of the 
pitcher being wider than those of the vases. The handle of the pitcher 



164 



M.lM.n. TR.IIMXG M.IC.I/IXE 



is made of thick Hat silver bent and tiled to shape. The wire around 
the mouth is half-round w ire soldered on. 

The writer of this series is often asked the commercial value of 
this kind of work. The answer to tiiis question depends entirely upon 
the design, and the care with which the object is made and Hnished. A 
value is placed upon a piece that is of good design, well made, and 
carefully finished, in the same way that a value is placed upon a fine 
picture or any other work of art. It is not \alued by weight of metal 
or the time it took to make it, but as a piece of art work. If a piece is 
of poor design, crudeh" made, anil carelessly finished, it is worth nine 
cents a pound, because that is the market price of scrap copper and 
brass. The work used to illustrate this series is, with one or two 
exceptions, the work of students and it will give some idea of the com- 
mercial \alue of such work if the prices they were sold, or are held at, 
are known. The price of the first kettle shown was $35.00; of the 
seamed and Huted vase, $25.00: of the three seamed vases, $8.00, $12.00, 
and 518.00. Hut the commercial \alue of the work cannot be compared 
to the value gained b\ the student in recognizing and controlling the 
man\ factors that make for success — the new experiences and knowledge 
accumulated — the gain in appreciation and, best of all, the joy of 
creating. 

{To Bf Co 11 tinned.) 




ROOMS IN PAPER. 
PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN/ 

IV. 

Nama a. Lathe and Esther Szold. 
TALL STAND. 

ORDER OF CONSTRUCTION. 

See Fig. 27, and Fig. 27A. 

FOR drawing the wide curves provide a circle marker. This 
may be a narrow strip of strong heavy paper 15'' long. 
Draw a line thru the middle, extending the entire length of 
the strip. 

Mark a point on the line 34" from one end. Letter the point O. 

Ten inches from O mark a point X. 

Four and one-half inches farther from O mark a point Y. 

Prick holes at X and Y to admit the insertion of a sharp pencil point. 

FRAME. 

See Fig. 27. 
Paper:— ly." x 16". 

Mark a point O half-way across the narrow width of the paper, 
and y^" from one end. 

Thrust a pin thru the circle marker at O. Hold the pin upright 
as a pivot on point O of the paper for the frame. 

Thrust a pencil thru the circle marker at X and draw the arc X. 

Similarly draw arc Y. 

On arc X mark a point l]/j" from the edge of the paper. With 
the compasses set at a radius of 1", begin at this point and lay off four 
V spaces on arc X. 

Draw lines connecting these points with O. Extend each to cross 
Y. Letter these radii A, B, C, D, and E. 

Draw a straight line between the points where A and B cross X, 
also similar chords between B and C, C and D, D and E. 

Draw similar chords along Y. 

^ Copyright by Nama A. Lathe and Esther Szold. 

165 



166 



.i/./.vr.// TR ii.Mxc; m.k; I/.IM-: 







Pattern for 
lALL St/^nd 



Y 






! K*^ 



-Y 



X ^ 




FRRME IS 



HG. 27. 



ROOMS IN PAPER 



167 



The placing of the braces gives opportunity for individual choice in 
design — so the braces may be drawn as chords along other arcs spaced 
as desired between X and \. Or, points may be marked on each long 
radius by measurement. 

In the more elaborate middle brace the arc lines 
may prove confusing. 

]\Ieasure on the chords for the widths of the 
top and bottom of the legs. Draw the legs. Add 
pasting laps^ — see Fig. 27. 

Shelf: — Construct lines A and X at right angles. 
Span the compasses between two of the radii at the 
upper edge of the lowest brace. 

With the intersection of A and X as a center 
and with the brace span as a radius, swing short 
strokes across A and X to mark the location of B 
and Y. 

The dotted arcs in the drawing (Fig. 27) de- 
note only the relation of the shelf dimension to the 
brace. They are not construction lines. 
Order of Pasting: — Paste the short side of the 
frame under the long leg of the opposite side. 

Lay the square for the top flat, the laps turning upward, 
the frame upside down on the top. 

The square of the frame should fit the inner square on the top. The 
laps of the frame should spread outward. 

Paste in position. 

Paste the laps of the top down over the frame laps. 

Spread glue on the inside of the lowest brace strips. Turn the 
stand right side up. Hold the shelf with the laps turning downw^ard 
and push it into place from below. 




FIG. 27A. 



Ti 



ROUND DINING TABLE. 



ORDER OF CONSTRUCTION. 

See Figs. 28. 28A, and 28B. 
Place and test main structural lines and add details. 



168 



M.IM.II. TK.i:.\I.\C M U;j/.ISE 




1 
J 


'-/- 


— ^ 1 


rCt 


1 


......iri 


' 


^T 


^i 


t-r 








jl 


' — V 




1 : : n 



>- 



ROOMS L\ PAPER 



169 



SPECIAL FEATURES. 

Brackets: — Four brackets will be needed. 

These ma\' be constructed on one piece of paper, using a continuation 
of either the horizontal or the vertical lines as a basis for all. 

When the points R and P have been located, use these points as 
centers and with a radius of 2j4" draw arcs to intersect. With their 
point of intersection as a center and with the same radius draw the arcs 
forming the curves of the bracket wings. These arcs will pass thru R 
and P. If preferred a freehand curve may be drawn and a paper 
pattern cut out and traced to make the curves uniform. 




FIG. 28a. 



Circulai- Opening: — The scoring for the circular opening in the base is 
done just outside (less than iV") o^ the line marking the real circum- 
ference of the shaft. Otherwise the folding of the flanges would reduce 
the opening too much to admit the shaft. The flanges are cut all 
around the circle. 

Circular Rail: — It will be found easier to fold on the scoring line of 
the circular rail before notching. The fold will serve to prevent 
notching too far. The notches may be cut free-hand. First make cuts 
at right angles to the fold and along the whole length of the strip. 
These should be just close enough together to permit the rail to curve 
smoothly along the edge of the table top. They may be at least J4" 
apart. Then cut out the little wedge-shaped pieces to prevent overlap- 
ping of the flanges when pasted. 

Circumferences : — In this work it is sufficient to multiply the diameter 
of a circle by 3-1/7 to find the circumference. Compare the width of 
the pattern for the shaft with the diameter of the center circle of the 
table top. Make comparisons of similar relations. 



170 



.u./.v( .// 77.' //.v/.vt; M.u;,izi.\h: 
See Fiizs. 28A and 28B. 



Ordtr of l\;stini[: — La\ the table top with the lined side up. The 
pastini: h'ne tor the rail is the circle ,',.," in from the ethj;e. A strip of 
paper curving like this shoidd he provided to use in pasting the rail in 
place. Tt) paste the rail w i)rk from riirht to left aloni: the edi2;e of the 
circle nearest \ovi. Spreaii the iihie thin aloiiiz the inner side of the 
pasting: line for a distance of about 2". 




?SU. TABLE INVKRTKD TO SHOW C()\'- 
STRfCTION 



Hold the rail with the Han^es at the lower edji;e folding away from 
>oii. Place the rij^ht end on the izhied section, adjusting it carefully on 
the line. La\ the curved strip of jiaper over the Hanges while pressing 
rhem in place. 

Before the glue dries fast, push inwartl the free part of the rim at 
the left of the glue and spread another stretch of glue, starting just 
where the last ended. Replace the rim and press. Repeat the process 
until the circle is completed. If the generous length of the strip for the 
rail allows too long a lap. trim off before pasting the final section. 

¥k the free end inside of the pasted one, mark the lapping line on 
the inside of the pasted end, and spread the glue on the space to be 
covered by the lap, also along the last stretch of the circle. Paste in 
place. 

Shaft: — Paste the strip at the right side of the shaft pattern under the 
left edge. The Hanges should fold outward. Turn the shaft with the 
f)an{!ed end against the center of the table top. See Fig. 28 H. The 
edge f)f the shaft should fall on the center circle and the outer edges of 
the flanges touch the second circle. Paste in this position. 



ROOMS IN r.IPER 171 

Brackets: — While the table top is still reversed fit a bracket into the 
angle between the shaft and top just where one of the cross lines of the 
table top touches the shaft. 

T\w center rib of a bracket should rest against the shaft, 'riie side 
wings will extend toward the rim and should lie parallel with and on 
either side of a cross line of the table top. See Fig. 28H for placing of 
laps. 

See that the center rib is vertical. Mark its position on the shaft. 
Paste in place. Repeat with the remaining brackets. 

7V/(' Base: — See Fig. 28B. Lay the base, lined side up. Adjust the 
half-inch rim in a vertical position around the broad cross form in the 
center. 7 he narrow laps will slip flat over the cut edges of the cross 
form and the square laps at the corners should fold against the inner 
side of the adjacent section of the standing rim. Paste in place. 

Turn the base right side up. The center flanges should fold down- 
ward. Carefully push the shaft of the table down thru the circular 
opening of the base. If the opening is too narrow snip the flanges a 
trifle deeper. If the opening is too wide to fit neatly, slip of^ the base, 
laj' it upside down on another piece of paper. Trace around the cross 
form and along the folded edges of the flanges of the circle. Cut out 
the pattern traced, trimming the circle to form a neat but not tight 
collar around the shaft. Fit this shape on top of the base and paste. 

Slip the base back in position on the shaft. The bottom of the 
flanges should come just to the lower edge of the shaft. Adjust so that 
the brackets stand exactly over the centers of the four arms of the base. 
Paste in place. 

{To be continued.) 



EDITORIAL 

OK all our institutiDiis none has been so little affected by rapidly 
i.haiiLrin<: social conditions as our system of education. For 
centuries education has been rej:!:arded first and foremost as an 
eml in itselt. The niaster\ of arbitrarily iixed amounts of kno\vled52;e 
in certain departments of learning: has constituted what we term an 
education, and ovir methods and instruction have been directed toward 
the accomplishment of this end. Our public schools are based upon the 
assumption that knowledge is the end of education. This is at least a 
legitimate inference from a study of the subjects taught, the methods 
of teaching ami the results, and in spite of the earnest claims that the 
schools prepare our children to meet the exigencies of life. The subjects 
are unrelated — to each other, to the immediate life of the pupil, and to 
his later life experiences; the methods are analytic and abstract; the 
results in the majority of cases are minds confused by abstract and un- 
related ideas, and lacking in initiative and power to meet the conditions 
imposed by actual life. 

Education: I he interpretation which limits education to acquired 
Knowledge knowledge hardl\ meets the demands of today. Efficiency 
^"" is coming more and more to be recogni/A'd as one of the 

ideals of education, and with the acceptance of this new 
meaning of its purpose, the end of education becomes the realization of 
efficiency as well as acquisition of knowledge, and we must change not 
«)nly our conception of the meaning of education, but our methods as 
well. There must be a recognition of the fact that the very large 
measure of efficiency is expressed in terms of action, and that provision 
must be made in our school work for concrete expression as well as for 
abstract thinking. 

One of the most surprising facts in connection with the history of 
education is the almost universal failure of educators to recognize the 
significance of activity as a factor in educational work. Three truths 
incident to human advancement stand out with perfect distinctness: 
First, that the progress of civilization has paralleled the development of 
certain activities, or occupations in which hand expression is the dominant 

172 



EDITORIAL 173 

factor; second, that the significant, effective advance of society tochiy is 
expressed very largely in terms of action — thru nientall>- directed bodily 
activity, and third, that the natural tendency of the child is to express 
himself concretely — by doing. And \et, despite these truths, our public 
school courses and methods fail almost universally to recognize the great 
factor of activity in the development of the child. 

Activity should have an important place in the \v(jrk of the schools, 
not as a separate course added to, and apart from other subjects, as 
drawing and manual training have largely been, but as the unifying 
element, the basis of other school work. The term activity also should 
have a broader significance than that which comes within the confines 
of the occupational work of the schools alone. The actual life of the 
child should be brought into the service of the schools, and every day 
of the pupil's life, in school and out, should naturally present problems, 
the solution of which will demand a knowledge of what is essential in 
the so-called academic subjects. School work thus will be vitalized, for 
the pupil will find knowledge desirable because immediately necessary 
to success in affairs that appeal to his interests. 

— W. E. Roberts. 

Safeguarding- When a community is considering the installation of a 
Dangerous manual training equipment involving the use of so-called 
ac inery dangerous machinery, one of the first questions which 
arises in the mind of thoughtful, as well as timid men. 
of those in favor, as well as those opposed to manual training is, "Is it 
dangerous to install machinery in the public schools?" 

When this question arises it usually has as its basis one of five reasons. 

(a) The person asking it is unfamiliar with the fact that many 
schools in the country- have been equipped for a score of years with 
band-saws, circular saws, lathes, and other machine tools. 

(b) The inquirer has an idea that the labor laws of his particular 
state forbid children under sixteen years of age to operate such machinery. 

(c) The man has a natural adversity to machinery and has always 
considered it dangerous and will prove to you that sooner or later every 
woodworker loses one or more fingers. 

(d) Another is opposed to the use of machinery because he says 
that all things should be made by hand in these schools; i. e.. that these 
days are "too well known as machine days. Let us return to crafts- 
manship." 



174 M.^.\L^.^L TR.IIMXG MAGAZISE 

(e) Then there is the type of man who is a natural-born objector, 
who sees a good opportunity for knifing any extension of manual training 
by objecting to additional machinery, which is a necessary part of the 
advanced courses. 

The man wiio does not w ant to extend the manual training work, 
will hnd what he thinks is a good excuse, and he might as well fasten 
objection upon the use of machinery as anything else. The man who is 
ignorant of the fact that machinery has been used in these schools for a 
score of years, ought to be convinced w hen he is made aware of the fact. 
The man who is opposed to the use of machinery because it takes the 
place of handwork must be shown how the use of machinery supplements 
handwork and makes it possible to do advanced cabinet making and 
pattern-making as well as saving time from mere duplication of manual 
effort when the student has already learned the hand processes involved 
and has become skilled at them. 

Circular saws, band-saws, jig-saws and other machinery are not the 
onh dangerous things in high schools. The basement contains a steam 
boiler: the third Hoor may contain a chemical laboratory; the wooden 
stairs may be so worn that nails project in places; a sleet storm may 
make the sidewalk and the steps slippery. Pupils have been seriously 
burneil in a chemical laboratory ; girls have tripped over nails sticking 
up throutjh worn boards ; teachers have fallen on slippery steps ; children 
have been burned to death because of the lack of fire escapes, but these 
incidents do not constitute reasons for doing aw a\ with chemical labora- 
tories or stairs or sidewalks or school houses. 

The school ought to provide every protection possible in order that 
they may not be held responsible if an accident does happen. Schools 
ought to be as careful in protecting machinery as the best factories. 
They should be more careful in protecting human life. Obviously 
machinery should be guarded according to the very best of factory 
practice. 

School authorities that intend to allow pupils to use machinery in 
school hours should keep in mind four points in order that they may 
protect themselves if an accident occurs and the case Is taken into the 
courts. 

(a) 'I'hat only trained m<'n arc to be engaged as instructors. If 
the school authorities engage amateurs as teachers tlu-\ ought to be 
h'ablc for damages. 

(b) They should be able to show rliat this instructor had given 
proper instruction in the use of such machinery through demonstrations 



EDITORIAL 175 

to the classes, by the recording in note-books of points which need to be 
considered and such other evidence as makes clear in the court of law 
or of public opinion that the instructor had done his best to teach correct 
methods. 

(c) The machinery should be carefully guarded. Every school 
should do as well in this respect as the best factory. It can even go 
further and still be well within the line of protection. 

(d) Typewritten notices under glass and properly framed should 
be posted near every machine, and should give specific directions relative 
to the conditions under which this machine is to be run. If, for example, 
the boy is not expected to use a circular saw until he has gained permis- 
sion from the instructor, the notice should make that fact very plain. 
It is readily seen that such a notice will serve as good evidence in time 
of trouble. And finally, the watchword must be one of eternal vigilance 
on the part of the instructor. 

—A. D. Deax. 

For a frontispiece in this issue we are glad to be able to 
William L. present the portrait of William L. Sayre recently elected 

principal of the new West Philadelphia High School for 
Boys. It is not, how^ever, because this recent honor has come to him 
that we present his portrait, but because of the service he has done 
to his city and the nation as a pioneer in the field of manual training. 
When the first Manual Training School was opened in Philadelphia 
in 1885 Mr. Sayre was the vice-principal, under Lieutenant Robert 
Crawford of the United States Navy. When Lieutenant Crawford 
was recalled to the navy on the first of January, 1887, Mr. Sayre 
became the principal of the school, and ever since that time, even 
up to the present year, Mr. Sayre has been principal of the Central 
Manual Training School. His school was the first public manual 
training high school in the United States, if we except the Baltimore 
Polytechnic School started about two years earlier. Thruout the 
full quarter of a century the Philadelphia school under his skillful 
guidance has done a noble work. It has been the mother of several 
other manual training schools in and near Philadelphia and it has sent 
out hundreds of graduates who have served the community efficiently 
and who look with affection upon the old Central School and their 
friend at its head. 

Mr. Sayre was born in 1840 in Byberry in the upper part of 
Philadelphia County. He received his education in the public schools 



17t, M.lM.n. TR.UMXC M.IC.IZIXE 

of Philadelphia, aiul was admitti-il to the Central High School in 1854. 
In 1858 he began his career as a teacher in the Red Lion School in 
Bucks County. Pennsylvania. From this little country school he ad- 
vanced thru the various grades of his profession to the principalship 
of the \'aughan Grammar School. For a time he was teacher of 
drawing at the Central High School. 

Mr. Sayre's efficient work in the Central Manual Training School 
and the iiiHuence that has gone out from that school illustrates in a 
striking way the great value of continuity of effort in a single field, 
even when working against obstacles, for Mr. Sayre's task was not an 
easy one. ami the development of his school has been tremendously 
hampered in its growth for want of better buildings and equipment. He 
now richly deserves the honor of his new appointment which has come 
to him on account of distinguished service. 

In the October luuiiber we referred to the broadening of the activities 
of the German Societ\ for the Promotion of Boys' Handwork and to the 
change in the name of the journal published by that Society. Since 
writing that paragraph we have learned that the attendance at their 
summer school for training teachers is increasing so rapidly that it is 
probable that arrangements w ill soon be made for offering all-the-year- 
round courses. This annomicement. added to the previous one will be 
welcomed by American students w ho w ish to spend a year in Germany 
in further preparation for teaching the manual arts. 

Along with this information comes the still more interesting state- 
ment that unusual honors have been bestowed upon Dr. Alwin Pabst, 
the director of this school and editor of Die Arlnitschulc. The govern- 
ment of Saxony has given him the rank of Professor, which means much 
more than the same title in this country, and the German Emperor has 
conferred on him the r)r(ier of the Retl l""agle. These marked dis- 
tinctions are not f>nly a personal honor to Dr. Pabst, but they may also 
be regarded as a most gratifying recognition and approval of the work 
done by the Societ\ of which he is the diret ting officer. 

— C. A. Bennett. 



ASSOCIATIONS 



BOSTON MANUAL TRAINING CLUB. 

The Club has held two meetings thus far this year; tlie Hrst for the trans- 
action of business chiefly, October 12; the second, our 1912 "Ciet-Together Dinner" 
at the Boston City Club, on November 16. 

The following extracts from the "Outline of Problems for the Boston 
Elementary Schools, Grades 6, 7, 8," are presented here because of their general 
interest to shop teachers. 

THE PURPOSE OF MANUAL TRAINING. 

The purpose of all manual training is to secure a vigorous mental reaction 
thru the pupil's manual activity and his interest in the constructive problem. 
Benefit to the worker results only when this reaction is real and vital. The 
significance of this fact is of prime importance, and should have great influence 
in determining the methods to be employed by the teacher. Provision should 
be made in every grade for as large an amount of individual efl^ort as it is 
possible to secure. While the teacher should constantly bear in mind that the 
end in view is the boy himself, not the finished product, the problem should be 
as well executed as is consistent with the ability of the individual ; and it is 
generally advisable that the tool processes employed be those practised by the 
best cabinet-makers. Work in which the pupil does not put his best effort 
should not be accepted. 

As indicating a somewhat new departure in the shop work of a large 
cit}' school system, it is interesting to note that one-tenth of each pupil's manual 
training time is available for work upon objects to be used for school purposes. 
The necessar\- omissions from the year's course are, in every case, the problems, 
regardless of position, which most nearly correspond in exercises and difficulty 
to the work done. 

In case of class work of this character, team work and industrial methods 
are recommended. 

RULES FOR SQUARING TO DIMENSIONS. 

It is deemed advisable to present sets of "rules for planing," and after 
careful study certain forms have been fixed as standards. The statements are 
short and to the point, and should be learned and used by the pupils, altho, 
for the sake of brevity, the number of the rule is used for reference in these 
outlines. The pupil should be able to give instantly the substance of the di- 
rections or tests for each rule. 

The rules for squaring to dimensions when stock is the right thickness are 
given under Grade VI; from the rough stock, under Grade \'II. 

177 



17S 



M.IM.IL TRAIMXG MAGAZINE 



WHEN STOCK IS THE RIGHT THICKNESS. 



Statements. 


D 


IRECTIONS. 




Tests. 




I. Select 


better 


broad 


If warped, choose concave 
Mark it I . 

Make it straight, smooth 
square with face | . Ma 

II- 
Gage from face 1 1 on the 
broad faces. Plane to 
middle of the gage lines 
stop. Do not mark this 


side. 

and 
rk it 

two 

the 

and 

face. 


Test with back of 
square. 

Test with try-square 
least three places, 
for straightness 
straight edge. 

Test for flatness 
using back of 
square. 


try- 


2. Plane 


better 


narrow 


in at 
Test 


3. Gage > 
plant 


\idth 


and 


with 
only, 






try- 


4. Square 


better 


end. . . 


Work from 
Square a 
near end. 
side of 1 
knife line 


marked faces only. 

knife line around 

Saw close to out- 

ine. Rlockplane to 

, and stop. 


Test for flatness 
the back of the 
square. Test 
squareness 
marked faces. 


using 

try- 

for 

from 


5. Lay off length and 
square the other 
end. 


Lav off finished end. Work 
from marked faces only. 
Square a knife line around. 
Saw close to outside of line. 
Blockplane to knife line, and 
stop. 


Test for flatness 
the back of the 
scjuare. Test 
squareness 
marked faoes. 


using 
try- 
for 

from 



FROM ROUGH STOCK. 



Statements. 



Directions. 



Tests. 



1. Plane better broad ' If warped, choose convex side. 

face ' Make it smooth and flat. 

Mark it | . 

2. Plane better narrow Make it straight, smooth and 

face square with face | . Mark it 

li. 

3. Gage width and Gage from face || on the two 

plane broad faces. Plane to the 

middle of the gage lines, and 
stop. 1)0 not mark this face. 

4. Gage thickness and Gage from face | on the two 

plane narrow faces. Plane to the 

middle of the gage lines, and 
stop. Do not mark this face. 



$. Square better end., 



6. Lajr off length and 
ftquarc the other 
end. 



Work from marked faces only. 
.Square a knife line around 
near end. .Saw close to out- 
side of line. niockplane to 
knife line and stop. 

Lay off from finished end. 
Work from markeil faces 
only. Square a knife line 
around. Saw close to outside 
of line. niockplane to knife 
line, and stop. 



Test with back of try- 
square, winding sticks, 
and straight edge. 

Test with try-square in 
at least three places. 
Test for straightness 
with straight edge. 

Test for flatness only, 
using back of try- 
square. 



Test for flatness only, 
using the back of the 
try-square. 



Test for flatness, using 
the l)ack of the try- 
square. Test for 
squareness from 
marked faces. 

Test for flatness, using 
the back of the try- 
square. Test for 
squareness from 
marked faces. 



ASSOCI.^TIONS 179 

INDIVIDUAL PROBLEMS. 

During the last half of the year the work should make demands on the 
pupils for greater originality and initiative in selecting and planning for the 
execution of problems which require more joinery or construction. While there 
is no intention of discouraging the making of large pieces of furniture, it is 
expected that the teacher will allow only those pupils to make them who have 
patience, strength, and skill enough to produce substantial, attractive, and well 
finished results without disproportionate demands on the instructor. It is 
recommended that teachers have mounted pictures of such problems as are in- 
teresting to the boys of their respective districts, displayed as incentives and 
suggestions. All individual construction should follow the making of satisfactory 
sketches, and every opportunity to get pupils to make acceptable working draw- 
ings should be improved. It is obvious that no list of problems can fully embody 
these principles, but there are appended some suggestions which may be supple- 
mented. 

Frames. Book shelves for walls. 

Pedestals. Small bookcases. 

Tabourettes. Piano benches. 

Small tables or stands. Simple chairs. 

Costumers. Stools. 

Plate racks. Simple desks. 

Book troughs. Small settles, etc. 

Richard Benson. 
Chairman Press Commiitee. 

SECOND NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. 

The second National Conference on Vocational Guidance was held in New 
York, October 23d to 26th, under the auspices of the Central Committee on 
Vocational Guidance. Two years ago the Boston Chamber of Commerce, in 
cooperation with the Vocation Bureau, called the first national conference in 
Boston. Since that time many vocational guidance projects have been under- 
taken in various cities; this second conference was called as a sort of experience 
meeting. 

A rather comprehensive exhibit in the New York Public Library gave an 
indication of the extent of the activities which this movement has called forth 
thruout the countr}-. As a pioneer city Boston's display was, of course, of 
special interest to the visitor. The publications of the Vocation Bureau and the 
charts prepared by the Women's Municipal League, showing the training op- 
portunities afforded in the vicinity of Boston, and the booklets of the Girls' 
Trade Education League constitute a remarkable exhibit of the social service 
spirit of that city. Other interesting exhibits were contributed by the \'ocational 
Guidance Survey of New York City, the Cincinnati Vocational Bureau, and the 
Central High School of Grand Rapids. 

The general topics of the sessions included the following: Placement; 
Following up; Study of Occupations; Scholarships; Vocational Analysis; Op- 



180 M.lM'.ll. TR.IIMM, MlCl/lXE 

portunities for \'ocatioiial rraining; Mcthiuis of \"ocational nirection; Relation 
of \ocational Guidance to the Employer. 

The principal results accomplished b\ this (.'onterence seem to be the 
detinition of certain of tiie n^ore important problems confronting the workers in 
this field, and the formulation of a few of the more general propositions to 
which assent could be secured. It would be premature at this stage of develop- 
ment for anv one to announce a definite or final scheme of vocational guidance. 
The fund of information, in detail, of conditions in the industries, of economic 
conditions in the families of the children concerned, and other such far reaching 
problems, must be far more comprehensive and better organized than at present 
before a definite program can be formulated. 

The method of organization of this Conference may be of interest to those 
who are concerned with the details of Association work. At one of the early- 
sessions the chairman was directed to appoint a committee to consider and report 
on plans for organization of a national association for vocational guidance. This 
committee held several meetings for discussion of the problems involved, and in 
its report at the final session, recommended that the attempt to effect a national 
organization be postponed for the present. Instead, a national committee consist- 
ing of twenty persons was created. The members present at the business meeting 
nominated from the fioor and elected a nucleus committee of seven persons, 
which committee was cliarged with the duty and responsibility of canvassing the 
entire country for suggestions and selecting the additional thirteen members 
to make up the committee of twenty. This committee of twenty, after it shall 
have been organized, is to have the responsibility of directing the development 
of the movement for vocational guidance, and of calling a third National 
Conference at such time and place as may seem best. 

The temporary chairman of the organization is Eli W. Weaver, Boys' High 
School, 25 Jefferson Ave., ]ir(K)k\ln, N. \'., from whom, lioubtless, furtiier in- 
formation may be obtained. 

N.\TIt)NAL SOCIEIA FOR THE PROMOTION OF INDUSTRIAL 

EDUCATION. 

The National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education will hold 
its annual meeting in the Cit\ of Philadelpiiia on December 5, 6 and 7, 1912. 
The rapid progress which the movement for practical education in this country 
is making is opening large fields of usefulness for the Society and increasing 
the already large interest in its work and in its annual meetings. 

It is the custom of the Soriet\ to meet alicriiately in tiie East and West, 
last vear the sessitjii being held in ("inciiuiati and this year in Philadelphia. 
The cities in which the meetings have been held from year to year have been 
themselves greatl\ benefited by the presence of the Society and its annual con- 
vention. The interest in vocational education has been greatly stimulated, and 
in the wake of the meeting there have usually followed larger activities on the 
part of the local school authorities and schools, for meeting the vocational needs 
of its boys and girls, and men and women. 

The program this vear is an unusuallv slmig one, mans of tiie speakers 
being persons of national reputation. Among iliem are such notables as Ex- 



ASSOCIATIONS ISl 

Senator Albert J. Beveridge, of Indiana, Julia C. Lathrop, Chief of Children's 
Bureau, recently appointed by President Taft, Congressman William C. Redfield 
of Brooklyn, Hon. Carroll S. Page, I'nited States Senator from Vermont and 
author of the Page Bill, Hon. William B. Wilson, Representative member of 
Congress, 7th Pennsylvania District, formerly Secretary United Mine Workers 
of America, H. E. Miles, Chairman Wisconsin Commission of Industrial Educa- 
tion, Racine, Wis., F. A. Geier, Chairman Committee on Industrial Education, 
National Metal Trades Association, Cincinnati; Florence M. Marshall, Principal 
Manhattan Trade School for Girls, New York; Mrs. Mary Schenck Woolman, 
President Women's Educational and Industrial Union, Boston ; Clarence J. 
Owens, Managing Director Southern Commercial Congress, and others of equal 
note. 

The different sessions of the Society will devote their attention to large 
and important topics. On Thursday morning a special session for members from 
Pennsylvania and others interested will discuss proposed legislation in vocational 
education for that state. Thursday afternoon, separate round-tables will take 
up the problems of securing teachers for vocational work in two sections; one 
dealing with boys' work and the other with girls' work. Thursday night, the 
annual banquet of the Society will occur. The subject for discussion being 
^'Federal Aid for Vocational Education." Friday morning, the means of opening 
the way for vocational education in state and local communities will be 
considered. Friday afternoon, a symposium on debatable issues in Vocational 
Education will be held. Friday night, a symposium on the protection, equipment, 
and conservation of childhood thru vocational education will be discussed. 
Saturday morning, at its final meeting, ways by which the schoolmaster and 
the layman can do team work in helping get vocational education will be the 
theme. 

Social workers, philanthropists, workingmen, manufacturers, business men, 
educators, and citizens interested in the welfare of its workers, will all find in 
this program much of interest and profit. All those interested in the Society, its 
purpose, and its annual convention, should write to C. A. Prosser, Secretary, 
Room 415, 105 East 22d Street, New York City. 

CONFERENCE OF CHARITIES AND CORRECTION. 

The seventeenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction for the 
State of Illinois was held at Springfield, October 19th to 22d. The topics dis- 
cussed included: Social Causes of Distress, by Alexander Johnson, Sec'y. of 
National Conference for Charities and Correction, Fort Wayne, Indiana; Social 
and Sanitary Surveys, by Paul Kellogg, Russell Sage Foundation, New York 
City; The Coordination of Social Agencies, by Professor George R. Mead, 
University of Chicago. 

The National Association for the Study and Education of Exceptional 
Children held its third annual conference at the College of the City of New 
York, October 30th, to November 1st. The special topics considered were: 
The Exceptionally Bright Child; The Retarded Child; Rational Human Eugenics. 



132 M.ixL.ii. TR n.\i\c; M.ic;.i/i.\E 

l"nited States Cmninissioner Claxton was tlie presiding oHicev of the Conference. 
Information concerning the affairs of this AssiK'iatioii may be obtained by ad- 
dressing the Secretary at Plainfield, New Jersey. 

DETROIT MANUAL IRAIMNG Cl.CB. 

The Detroit Manual Training Club lias organized for the year, ami held 
its annual outdtxir meeting down the river. Hie officers elected for the year are: 
president. Director E. Ci. Allen, Cass technical high school; vice-president, 
William Sargent, central high school; secretary-treasurer, Daniel Hickok, 
western high school. 

The Club has planned for this year a survey of the industrial field in 
Detroit and vicinity, from the point of view of relating technical and manual 
instruction to the industrial needs of the community. Last year the Club visited 
a number of the larger manufacturing plants. 

AMERICAN SOCIEri OF ENGINEERING DRAFTSMEN. 

The annual business meeting of tlie Society \vas lield at Teachers College, 
Columbia University, on Tuesday, October 1st. The ofHcers elected for the 
ensuing year are the following: President, Prof. Charles W. Weick, Teachers 
College, New York; First Vice President, W. B. Ilarser; Second Vice President, 
Charles A. Clark, of the Crocker-Wheeler Company; Third Vice President, C. B. 
J. McManus; Fourth Vice President, A. T. Manner, of the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad; members of the Board of CJovernors, E. N. Chandler, H. L. Sloan, 
C. \N'. Fleming. 

The second regular meeting of the year was held in the Engineering 
Society's Building, New ^ ork, on Thursday, October 3 1st. The program in- 
cluded a paper, illustrated by stereopticon views, on "How to Make a Record 
Drawing for a City Sewer Survey," by Rupert C. Smith, and a paper on 
■•I'tilities of Sheet Method in Buildings," by George W. Kittredge, editor of 
•rhe Sheet Metal XN'orker."' 

ILLINOIS SCHOOLM \STERS' CLUB. 

The fall meeting of the Illinois Sclidoimaslers' Club was lield in Peoria, 
October 25 and 26th. The Saturday morning session was devoted lo a discussion 
of the proposed industrial and vocational education bill, which it is expected 
is to be brought before the next session of the State Legislature. The principal 
addresses were made by Dr. E. G. Cooley, of the Chicago City Club, Professor 
F. .\I. Leavitt, Cniversity of Chicago, and Dean I'ugene Daveniiort, College of 
Agriculture, University of Illinois. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George A. Seaton, Editor. 

Since the opening of Bradle\ Pol\technic Institute fifteen years a^o many 
boys and young men have had their first experience in woodworking within its 
shops. Some of these have been pupils from the upper grades of one of the 
Peoria public schools; some pupils of high school grade, and others from the 
college department. There have also been many normal students who, though 
not really beginners, have had to put themselves in the attitude of beginners 
and take similar work. Altho it might be said that the work has not been given 
alike in any two of these years yet the first work for beginners was carried on 
essentially the same until very recently. That is, in the early years of the 
Institute the work started with two exercise pieces involving the use of the 
laying-out tools, the crosscut-saw, bit and brace. Later these v.ere replaced by 
useful models, and still later by others, but in all of them the amount and kind 
of tool processes preceding the use of the plane, were practically tlie same. 

During the past few years those in charge of the work have become con- 
vinced that more should be done to develop in the pupils facility and confidence 
in the use of the laying-out tools, the crosscut-saw and the rip-saw. This has 
resulted in developing a line of work quite different in character, which, altho 
it is likely to change somewhat in the future, may be suggestive to other teachers 
of woodworking. 

The work is planned to precede the w^ork with the plane, and all pieces 
are made of material that has been machine-planed to two dimensions; that is, 
S4S material. The work involves the use of the try-square, knife, marking 
gage, rule, crosscut-and rip-saws, hammer and nails. 

The problems are divided into two groups, one to teach crosscut-sawing and 
the other to teach rip-sawing. Figs. 1 and 2 belong to the first group, and Figs. 
3 and 4 to the second. The working drawings of a few of these are on the 
following pages. No student is required to work out all the problems. Selection 
is made according to his needs and somewhat according to his wishes. 

During last year this work was given to a class of seventh grade boys, and 
occupied about forty hours. Interest was not lacking in the class, as was shown 
by the fact that nearly every piece made was taken home, yet such action was 
not allowed until the pupil had paid for the material used in making it. Of 
course the standard could not be held as high in such a class as in a class of 
normal students, but good results were obtained. It is belie\ed that this work 
could well be carried on in a sixth grade, but that has not yet been tried. At 
the close of this preliminary work each class is given a test similar to the 
following: 

A piece of wood having t\vo adjacent surfaces machine-planed s(]uare with 
each other is given out, and the following directions: (It it announced that 
work will be graded on smoothness, accuracy and speed.) 

Mark working face and working side. 

Knife around at the following distances from the end of the piece: ■'I', 
1-7/16, 2, 2-15/16, 3-1/2, 4-7/16. 

183 



1S4 



M.IM.IL TR.IIMXC MAGA/.ISE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



185 




1S6 



.l/./.VtV/L TR.^IXIXG MAGAZINE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



187 




188 



M.IM.n. TR.nMSG M.IG IZISE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



189 




GROUP II. RIP-SAWING. 



Set gage at ^" ; gage two lines from the working face and two from the 
working side. 

Set gage at l^s; gage two lines from the working face and two from the 
working side. 

Rip-saw four surfaces of first interior cube only. 

Cross-saw two surfaces of first interior cube. 

Rip-saw four surfaces of second interior cube. 



190 



.U.V.Vr.//. TR.ilMXG .U.7G\-/Z/A£ 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



191 



5C 

I 









1 
i 


f 




i 


f 


\ 


1 
i 


\ 


) 








> 












5 


c 


i 




3 

f 







a 


















1 








L/J 



192 



M.IM.IL TR.UMXC MAGAZINE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



193 



Cross-saw two surfaces of second interior cube. 

Rip-saw four surfaces of third interior cube. 

Cross-saw two surfaces of third interior cube. 

In a test similar to the above, given recently to a class of twenty-five junior 
normal students, all but three completed the work in forty-five minutes or less. 
The work of these three and of one other was more than one sixty-fourth of an 
inch from the correct dimensions on the single cubes, and therefore they were 
required to do more work in these two groups and take another test. 

— C. S. VanDeusen. 



7/\5Lf Flant ^5tAN£7 



4T^ 



/i 






'ij\. 



I^IOQ 



;5^ 









CURRENT ITEMS 

ACri\ ITIKS OF THE NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

THE TRAINING OF TEACHERS OK THE MANUAL ARTS IN MICHIGAN. 

A forward step in tlie training of teachers for special subjects has been 
taken by the state education department in Michigan. As at present arranged 
each of the norinal schools maintains departments in the special subjects. 
Beginning with the fall of 1913, under tlie new plan, the State Normal College 
at Vpsilanti will prepare teachers in the household arts; the Western Normal 
School at Kalamazoo will train teachers in the manual arts and trades; and 
the Central Michigan Normal School at Mt. Pleasant will prepare teachers of 
agriculture. The normal school so designated for each subject is the only one 
empowered to issue diplomas or teaching certificates in the given subject. This 
will not curtail the usefulness of the departments already organized in other than 
the given subject, since it will continue to be desirable to provide all the 
special subjects as electives. The new ruling, however, will insure, by means 
of this concentration of effort, greater uniformity, and thoro technical training 
for the special teachers. The same general scheme is in operation in Maine 
where altho all of the normal schools teach the special subjects, only one has 
a course for the training of teachers in manual arts, and one the training of 
teachers in domestic arts. 

The Kasteri) Kentucky State Normal School, at Richmond, reejuires two 
semesters' work in manual training or domestic science of all students taking 
the intermediate course of study, which corresponds to the usual second year of 
normal school work. Special courses in these subjects are provided for those 
who wish to <)ualif\ for teaching these subjects. 

In the State Normal School at Albion, Idaho, all students are required to 
take at least one year's work in the manual arts department. The work of 
that department includes woodworking, cabinet construction, turning, pattern- 
making, forging, sheet metal work, arts and crafts design, and elementary 
manual training. Elmer A. Bull took charge of the department this year. Mr. 
Bull was formerl\ director of inaiuial training al ^'ankton, South Dakota. 

At Stevens Point Normal School, in Wisconsin, two and tiiree year domestic 
science courses have been establislied, also one and two \ear home maker's 
course*. Mi^'> I intria f-'echt, of Bradley Institute, has charge <if the lioinc maker's 
courses. 

F'he Concord State Normal School at Athens, West \'irginia, has recently 
opened a department of h«)me economics, under the direction of Miss Sadie 
Brvs/iii, of the Cnivcrsity of .Minnesota. 

194 



CLRREiXT ITEMS 195 

The four state normal schools of Texas now have a uniform course of 
study. This course has been arranged in groups, in one of which each student 
will enroll, instead of selecting electives at random as formerly. The groups 
are the agricultural, preparing students to teach agriculture in city or rural 
schools; the industrial arts group, preparing teachers of manual training and 
home economics; the language group; the primary, elementary, and art group; 
and the science-mathematics group. 

The State Normal School at Natchitoches, Louisiana, has enlarged and 
improved its domestic science department. Miss Margaret NN'eeks has been 
elected head of the department. 

EAST. 

A NEW LAW IN RHODE ISLAND. 

Rhode Island passed a law in 1912, authorizing state aid for industrial 
education. The first section of the law provides aid for manual and household 
arts courses in the public schools. The courses must meet with the approval 
of the state board of education. The aid is not to exceed in amount one-half 
the sum expended for equipment. In section two, aid is provided for towns 
which establish day or evening courses in vocational training, "including in- 
struction in the principles and practice of agriculture and training in the 
mechanic and other industrial arts." These courses must be approved by the 
state board as to equipment, instruction, expenditure, supervision, and conditions 
of attendance. The aid in the case of these vocational classes is given for the 
expense of instruction to the amount of one-half of the expenditure for this 
purpose. The cost of equipment, buildings, land, or rent of rooms, may not 
be included in making up this sum. 

Manual training high schools, or other high schools witli manual training 
departments, are not eligible for aid under this section unless it can be shown 
that the courses are truly vocational. 

IN INDIANAPOLIS. 

Close correlation is characteristic of the departments of the Indianapolis 
Manual Training High School. Beginning with the free hand drawing classes, 
one finds the students, after having mastered the fundamental principles, de- 
signing such pieces of furniture as they wish to make in their liomes. Those 
who are taking wood-turning in the shops, study the drawing of curves and 
design cups, vases, bowls, etc., in the drawing class. These designs they then 
vurn in the shops. This correlation is again seen in pattern-making, foundry 
practice, and mechanical drawing. The mechanical drawing classes furnish 
the shops with drawings and blueprints. The pattern shop supplies the foundry 
with patterns, the foundry supplies the machine shop with castings, and the 
machine shop, in turn, makes such of the machines needed by the manual train- 
ing department as are within the ability of the students to produce. 



196 .W.V.Vr./Z. TR.IIMXG M.IC.l/.lXE 

Two interestitii: features of the niacliiiie shop work are the keeping of time 
records and the illustrated lectures. The latter cover such subjects as iron and 
wixxlworking tools and machines; the production of timber, its preservation and 
uses; the production of pig iron, its conversion into iron and steel and their 
uses. 

The policv of the school is steadilx growing stronger in favor of the 
production of really useful furniture, machines, etc., made in a practical and 
workmanlike manner. This year the joinery and cabinet-making shops have a 
drum and disc sander and a hollow chisel mortiser as part of the equipment. 
It is thought that these will help make the work more practical and will 
increase the efficiency of such boys as may go into factories. 

The crowded condition of the Indianapolis high schools made necessary 
the establishment of a branch high scluxil. The Winona Technical Institute 
Trade Schmil, which was unoccupied and its equipment idle, offered an ideal 
iiKation for a temporary high school. The receiver of the Winona school was 
anxious to have the equipment used, so an arrangement was made and the school 
was opened with an enrolment of two hundred pupils. M. H. Stuart, principal 
of the Manual Training High School is in charge. First year work only is 
offered. In addition to the academic subjects classes were formed in free hand 
drawing, sewing, joinery and cabinet making, and in shop science. The last 
is a new subject which is proving very popular. 

THE NEW DOMESTIC SCIENCE COURSE IN MILWAUKEE HIGH SCHOOLS. 

The Milwaukee high schools now liave a domestic science course of study, 
thus satisfying the demand that a girl be educated along the lines of her 
natural development and probable future occupation. English and mathematics, 
phvsiology, botany, zoology, chemistrj', physics (elective), and one year of United 
States history comprise the academic part of the course. A foreign language 
may be substituted for English the last two years of the course. The special 
subjects fill out what appears to be a very rich and practical course. Cooking 
and sewing are given the first year. In the first semester of the second year 
are given dressmaking, laundry work, household accounting; and in the second 
^emeste^, miilinery, emergency and home nursing, and invalid cookery. In the 
eleventh grade, the first term is devoted to millinery, marketing, advanced 
cooking and sewing. The second term dressmaking, textiles, home decoration, 
furnishing and sanitation are offered. The following subjects make up the 
special program of the twelfth grade; first semester, advanced dressmaking, 
dietetics, feeding and care of children; the second semester, advanced dress- 
making and tailoring and household management. 

New ^'ork State's rapid progress in the manual, domestic, and industrial 
art* in shown by the following facts given in an address at the opening of the 
Male education building in Albany in October: 

All public schftols, whether in cities, villages or rural districts, teach draw- 
ing. Three-fourths r)f the city schools offer courses in manual training, cooking 
and ««wing. One-half the village schools give courses in sewing, one-third 



CURRENT ITEMS 



197 




19S Ml MIL TRUMXC MICIZIM- 

ill niaiuial training: aiul (.■nokiiii:. There are tnrtv iniblic iiulustrial and tiaiie 
schix>ls with a day enrolnieiit of tour tliousaiui and an cveninij enrolment of 
three thousand pupils. Twenty-eiglu village high schools have vocational courses 
in agriculture, and twenty others give agricultural teaching of a less definite 
character. There are ten thousand pupils in evening departments of existing 
day schiHils, learning the trade applications of drawing, science and mathematics. 
These industrial, trade and agricultural schools have been developed in New 
York under the department witiiin the last four years. Meanwiiile the number 
of pupils receiving such training lias ([uatlrupled. 

.Manual training and the domestic arts are being developed rapidly in the 
schools of Louisville, Kentucky, imder the direction of Louis A. Bacon. Fourteen 
centers for this work were opened at the beginning of the school year. Ten 
centers are for white ciiildren and four for colored ciiildren. The arrangement 
of these centers makes it possible for practically ail ot the se\entli aiul eightli 
grade pupils of the city to have the special subjects. 

A lumiber of Louisville women teachers took a six \veeks' summer course 
under L. C Ciardner, of the manual training high school, in preparation for the 
work of teaching manual training in the new classes. In this summer course 
th.ev worked out the problems as arrangeil in the course of study prepared by 
Mr. Bacon. 

The following places in Wisconsin lia\e recently iiuroduced manual training 
into the schools: Wausaukee, Oconortiowoc, Oconto, Merrill, I'dgerton, Tomah, 
New London, Waukesha, Little Chute. Domestic science courses have been 
introiluced in Oconto, Wausaukee, Barron, Prairie du Sac, Merrill, Monroe, 
\'iro<|ua, Randolph, Black River Falls, Mondovi, Princeton, West Salem, 
Waterloo, and West Beiul. .At River Falls a new building has been erected for 
the u>e of these departttieiits 

Plumbing and bricklasiiig have been added to the manual training courses 
in the Mar<|iiette, .Michigan, schools. The department has a building of its own. 
The enrfdment is increasing yearly, seventy-five high school students and 240 
grade students ha\ing elected the subject this semester. 

The safety of students is matie of first importance in the machine-shoii ai 
the Cirand Rapids, .Michigan, Junior High School. I^\ery machine has an 
individual motor, thus eliminating all shafting and belting. The large saws are 
encased in steel protective covering, and others are (■(i\ercd with wire netting. 
Students are not allowed to use the machines imless the instru(li}r, J. K. Jensen, 
is present. 

In Trenton, New Jersey, manual training has hecii taught for six years. 
'There are now twelve shops and eleven instructors, including llic supervisor, 
W. R. Ward. The value of good applied design is etiiph:isi/ed in gratrunar 
grailc manual training in 'Trenton, while in the high s(li(»d the emphasis is 
placed on goo«l construction. In the spc-ial clavses for defect i\c and incirrigible 



CCRREXT ITEMS 199 

boys, the manual training work is varied a good deal. C'liair caning is a 
favorite subject. The boys solicit chairs from their neigiiinirs, bring them to 
school, cane them, and tlien charge a nmninal price fiu- the work. 

Wood-turning has been added to the manual training course at Nashua, 
New fiampshire. The equipment consists of twelve lathes, a band-saw, and a 
grinder. The work in this department has aroused a great deal of interest 
among the high school students, and classes are crowded, lamest W. Heck is 
director. 

A comprehensive course in household economy has been introduced at Bates 
College, Lewiston, Maine. Its aim is both practical and cultural. It purposes 
to enable women to make their ov/n definite contribution to civilization as sought 
and realized in the community and the home. 

White River Junction, in Vermont, has begun a plan feu- linking the interests 
of the school more closely to the community by establishing courses in drawing, 
manual training, domestic science, and elementary agriculture. Cooperation 
with local trades and industries will be sought in developing the new subjects. 
Some classes for employed young people will be started later. Extension work 
in surrounding rural communities is also planned. 

WEST. 

Boys in the elementary schools of Minneapolis who are over twei.e vears of 
age will soon have the opportunity to spend half a day a week in manual 
training work in addition to the regular period for their grades. A special 
class for them has been arranged in six buildings and the work will soon be 
extended to other buildings. This plan has been devised b\ J. E. Painter, 
director of manual training, as a beginning in provision for that type of pupils 
who care little for academic subjects. 

Interest in the manual arts and domestic science is steadily growing in 
Wyoming, and altho very few schools have courses in these subjects in the 
state, their introduction is being advocated at the educational meetings, and 
provision is made for them in new buildings being erecteil at various points in 
the state. 

The new school building at Fruita, Colorado, has rooms for manual training 
and domestic science. At Trinidad, new equipment has been purchased for the 
high school and the old equipment has been placed in grade buildings. House- 
hold chemistry has been added to the course in domestic science. Florence has 
tv;o grade buildings equipped for manual training. Colorado Sprmgs intends 
to have a truly practical course in home economics having purchased and fitted 
up a residence for the classes taking this course and the arts and crafts. Manual 
training and domestic science classes began at Aguilar in November. 



200 M.^M'.n. TR.UMSG M.IGA7.1XE 

RiKkv Ford, Colorado, has courses in manual training, agriculture, domestic 
science and domestic arts in the schools. Montrose County Higli School has 
agriculture and manual training courses. 

The Clav County High School, at Clay Center, Kansas, has organized 
courses in manual training and mechanical drawing which will extend thru 
at least two years' work. Five periods, of eighty minutes each, will be devoted 
to these subjects, four to manual training, and one to mechanical drawing, each 
week. In connection with the regular problems, lessons will be given on lumber- 
ing, forestry, and methods of finishing work. The etjuipment for the new work 
was furnished at a cost of about three luuulred dollars. \\'. Cr. Speer, of Man- 
hattan, Kansas, is the instructor. 

Se\eral improvements iia\e been mmie in the manual training department 
of the Wichita, Kansas, schools. Forging lias been added in the high school. 
Frame buildings, of two rooms each, ha\e been placed in the grounds of three 
schools to use as manual training anil domestic science centers. L. G. Hare and 
G. .M. Brown are teaching the manual training in the grade centers, and Misses 
Ellas Travis, Helen Smith, and Xettie Hollingsworth, the domestic science. 

Arkansas City, Kansas, has a new $10,000 manual training building. On the 
first floor are five rooms given to the use of manual and domestic arts. On the 
second and third floors are the gymnasium aiul six rooms for grammar grade 
work. All grammar grade pupils are taught in this building by the depart- 
mental plan. .Manual training is reijuired of all pupils of these grades. A 
two-years' course is offered as an elective to high school students, who come to 
this building for their manual training work. Two men and two women teach 
the special subjects in the new school. 

The manual training work in Salem, Oregon, has been growing steadily 
since its introduction in 1908. At that time the work was given to the grammar 
grade boys of one or two buildings under the direction of the art instructor. In 
1909 three shops were in use and a supervisor was employed. In 1911 an in- 
structor for grade work in manual training \vas engageil and the director took 
charge of the high school classes in the subject. Increased facilities are now 
in demand for the department. 

.Manual training in the schools of l'u\allup, Washington, has been extended 
thru the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Two buildings have been erected at 
the high school grounds for use of the iiigli school classes in manual arts, 
agriculture, and domestic science. 

The manual traiiiing department at Port .Angeles, Washington, will be 
located in new <|uarters after the holidays. II. S. Singer, the supervisor, has 
been appointed as supervisor of the couiUy niaiiual i raining work, in addition 
lo his work in Pf)rt .Angeles. He will assist rural teachers in organizing and 
conducting matnial training classes in their s(-hools. 



CURRENT ITEMS 201 

A course in printing was arranged for the high school students in Pasadena, 
California, this semester. The course is in charge of an experienced printer. 

Plans are under way in Pasadena for an industrial school in the manu- 
facturing district. The school will be open to pupils of the grammar grades. 

Interest in manual training and domestic science is growing rapidly in 
Texas. Houston is building two new junior high schools which will be well 
provided with manual training shops, domestic science laboratories, and draw- 
ing rooms. One of these schools is to be conducted as a vocational school, giving 
half time to industrial work. The rooms for these special subjects now in use 
in Houston have been opened to night school students who show great interest 
in the work and attend in large numbers. E. M. Wyatt is director of manual 
training in Houston. Manual training and domestic science have been introduced 
this year in Houston Heights under the direction of Ivan S. Blair, and Miss 
Mary F. Sears. South Houston has equipped her schools for manual training and 
agriculture. 

El Paso, Texas, is to have a new high school, to cost about $250,000. The 
site includes four city blocks. The group plan of buildings will be used, con- 
sisting of a main building, a building for manual and domestic arts, a gym- 
nasium and assembly hall, and the heating and power plant. As soon as the 
new school is completed, the manual and domestic art courses in the high school 
will be extended to a full four years. At present only one year of domestic 
science and two years of manual training are offered. Woodworking equip- 
ment only is at the service of the department. Two new instructors are assisting 
the supervisor, W. A. Burk. They are D. E. Chenault, of Hastings, Nebraska, 
and Roe E. Clark, of Rosedale, Kansas. 

The manual training department of the University of Texas, at Austin, is 
being equipped and developed rapidly in order that it may prepare teachers for 
the subject. Woodworking, machine shop practice, and forging are now being 
taught and a foundry will be added in the near future. The classes are open 
to students in engineering also. Those preparing to teach the subject are given 
lectures on the theory of the subject in addition to the regular course. Trenmor 
Coffin is head of the department. 

The schools of Douglas, Arizona, have a manual training department, oc- 
cupying three rooms. The bench-work room is equipped with twenty benches 
and the usual complement of tools; in the wood-turning room are lathes, driven 
by a five-horse power motor; a saw-bench, a twenty-six inch planer, a ten-inch 
jointer, and a twenty-eight inch band-saw. These machines are operated by 
electric motors. The third room, used for mechanical drawing, is equipped with 
twenty drawing tables. The department, which was organized four years ago, 
is under the supervision of Howard B. Ross, who took charge at the beginning 
of the present session. 

Domestic science and art have also been taught in the Douglas schools four 
years. Cooking is offered in the seventh and eighth grades and the high school. 



202 M.^.M.^L TR.UMXG M.IG.IZIXE 

Sewing is begun in the sixtli grade and continues thru the high schcxil. Machine 
sewing is taught troiii the eighth grade up, the course ending with dressmaking. 
Miss Cora Trimmer teaches cooking and Miss Mary Palmer teaches sewing. 

MWLAL TRAINING rOI'ULAR IN EVENING SCHOOLS. 

A Study of the public evening school situation in various states throws new 
light on some of the points regarding manual training being publicly discussed 
at tlie present time, such as its practical value, and how it can be vocationalized. 

It is significant that at Salem, Massachusetts, mechanical drawing and 
machine shop practice, taught in the high school shops with the usual manual 
training equipment, are being gi\en in the evening school as the first step in 
vocational classes for workers in tlie slioe anil leatlier iiulustry and in machiner}' 
manufacture. 

In Lansingburgh, New York, I'oledo, Dhio, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Hol- 
yoke, Massachusetts, and other localities, manual training and domestic science 
are indispensable features of evening school programs. Enrolment in such 
classes is very large, showing that the students find enougii in these subjects to 
repay the effort necessary to attend evening school. The student body of any 
evening school is made up almost wholly of those who, in their daily work in 
the industrial world, have seen the necessity for self improvement if they wish 
to advance. As a rule, also, evening classes are organized in response to a 
direct demand from these people, and are not dominated by educational 
traditions. Thus given free choice, the selection of manual arts subjects by 
these students who know from actual industrial experience what they need, is of 
considerable interest. 

A COLORADO PLAN FOR RUR.\L SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT. 

The Colorado state board of agriculture has just appointed C. G. Sargent, 
of Grand Junction, to act as state rural school visitor. Mr. Sargent's work 
will deal largely with the modification of rural school programs so as to in- 
clude the manual or domestic arts, or agriculture. The needs of the individual 
community will determine which of these subjects will be advised. The state 
will not attempt to prescribe a set course of study but will endeavor to arouse 
each locality to a realization of its needs and what form of school work will 
best secure the desired results. Mr. Sargent will get the county superintendents 
intercted, and thru them will be reached the progressive teachers, and by means 
of their example and entluisiasm the whf)le lump will be leavened. The success 
of a program of this kind will depend largely upon the ability of the one man, 
the state visitor, to secure cooperation. Mr. Sargent's methods in carrying out 
this plan for rural betterment will be studied with keen interest. 

Closely allied with this plan is an arrangement being made by the state 
board of agriculture for giving the farmers of each county in the state instruction 
in farm management and demonstrations. Professor D. W. Frear of the State 
College of Agriculture is in charge of this movement and is busy securing the as- 
siMance of leaders in the various counties. 



CURRENT ITEMS 203 

FOREIGN NOTES. 

THE FUTURE OF NAAS. 

Since Otto Salomon died in 1907 three different attempts have been made to 
provide a successor. The fourth attempt is all the more likely to be successful 
because in the meantime the State in Sweden has intervened by the promise of 
a yearly grant, amounting for the present year to more than £2,000, which is to 
be devoted to the repair and upkeep of the Castle, the farm buildings, and the 
Seminary buildings, including the laying down of water-pipes and the installation 
of electric lights. 

Last year the governing body, finding themselves in need of some outside 
help, took Privy Councillor P. E. Lindstrom, who was Minister for Church and 
Education in the late Cabinet, into their counsels; and they have now induced 
him to become the provisional Head of the Institution for one year at least, 
with the opportunit}' of becoming permanent Head if he sees his way to accept 
the post. The Director's salary is fixed at 8,800 kronor, and suitable provision 
is made for a retiring pension. The first course, for which there were two hundred 
applications, began on June 10. At this course Prof. Axel Herrlin is giving the 
lectures, in which duty he is to be replaced by Dr. Rurik Holm, Inspector of 
Elementary Schools (who is not new to the work), at the usual course in August. 
The delicate question of the Director's relation to his governing body remains 
as it was. Whilst some maintain he cannot do Salomon's work unless he has 
Salomon's freedom, and others hold that a strong and capable Director will 
make his own position, it seems to be generally felt that a revision of the whole 
question may be necessary in the near future. 

Still further changes may be expected at Naas. For rather more than half 
the year the buildings there have been entirely unused; and in the impending 
reorganization and extension of continuation school work in Sweden, it is 
hoped, if we may judge from a speech of Minister Berg in the Gothenburg 
Handels-Tidning, that Naas may become a centre for the additional training of 
teachers that may become necessary. "In the reorganization of our continuation 
schools," says Minister Berg, "which must shortly take place and whose aim will 
be to bring the instruction into close relation with the practical tasks the pupils 
are engaged in out of school, the State can make very good use of an institution 
like Naas, fvhich is so admirably adapted for arranging shorter courses of train- 
ing in every practical subject. Such a use would be in closest agreement with 
the object of the institution, which is, according to the founder's original deed, 
to provide continued training for teachers of both sexes who have already entered 
the profession, and so to promote education in general and especially the use of 
pedagogic sloyd as one of its instruments." — J. S. T., Educational Times. 

An interesting experiment in technical education of a highly practical kind 
will shortly be commenced by a well-known London firm of wholesale stationers. 
A lecturer connected with one of the polytechnics has been engaged to give a 
series of lectures to the apprentices, junior salesmen, and office boys employed 
by the firm upon such subjects as the technology of the products handled by 
them, and also such purely "business" matters as office routine, the best methods 



204 M.^M.ll. TR.IIMXC M.lG.l/IXE 

of dealini: with correspondence, the proper treatnieiit of a prospective customer, 
the legal rights and duties of the enipUnee, and so on. Ihese lectures will 
probabK be delivered in the buildings in which the tirni carries on its business, 
and at a time immediately folKnving the close of the day's work. 

A sign of the times is the establishment of commercial sides or commercial 
departments in certain secondary schools in Englantl. For many years parents 
who desired for tlieir children a commercial training ha\e had nothing to fall 
back on but the private "business training colleges" — institutions in which true 
education plays a very small part, and in which ideals are entirely lacking. 
To be effective, commercial training must be approached from a scientific 
point of view. A boy who is intended for a business career will derive benefit 
from a knowledge of the development of industry and commerce, the theory of 
banking, the principles of international trade, the determining factors in earning, 
the geographical influences affecting economic and political conditions in various 
parts of the world. Such a training is not incompatible with educational ideals, 
and is likely to make for increased efHciency in our industry and trade. In 
some of our schools the experiment has already been successfully tried with older 
pupils who have had a thorough grounding in the usual subjects of the secondary 
curriculum. Such a form of vocational training for upper classes cannot meet 
with the objections which are held towards practical and vocational schools, and, 
if carried out in a systematic manner, would undoubtetily have an influence upon 
commercial efficiency and competition for foreign trade. 

The new Kelvin Technical High School of Winnipeg, Canada, has been 
completed at a cost of $350,000, with an additional cost of $3 5,000 for apparatus. 
D. M. Duncan is principal. This makes Winnipeg's second large technical 
school. A third will be built in the near future. 



The editor of this magazine will be glad to receive photographs of manual 
training work for use in the Current Items department or as tail-pieces. In order 
to be acceptable, a photograph must be such as to reproduce well. Many photo- 
graphs are rejected because they lack this quality, not because the subjects are 
not of interest. A clear, distinct print, neither very dark or very light, with good 
contrast in tone, with a plain background, unspotted, and ivitliotit lettering; or 
printittff, is the best for reproduction. Objects photographed singly are preferred 
to groups. Soft platinum prints, or those of similar nature, do not reproduce well. 



REVIEWS 

King's Series in U'ooJivork and Carpentry. By Charles A. King, director 
of manual training, High School, Bay City, Michigan. American Book Co. 
S%. X 7% in. Elements of Woodwork, 146 pages, price 60 cents; Elements of 
Construction, 132 pages, price 70 cents; Handbook for Teachers and Normal 
Schools, 181 pages, price $1.00. 

This is a series of five volumes, three of which deal with subject matter 
common to the average manual training shop. Of these three the "Elements 
of Woodwork" and the "Elements of Construction" are intended for use as 
texts, and the last, the "Handbook for Teachers," is to be used as a guide and 
reference book for teachers and normal students. The author is to be congratu- 
lated on the reliability and completeness of his discription of shop processes 
and constructions. From this standpoint the books deserve special recognition. 

The lists of questions at the end of each chapter and the chapter of 
arithmetic questions in the second volume are valuable features and should be 
a great aid to pupils using the books as texts. 

The drawings and illustrations show the regular type of models in common 
use. The designs are commonplace. — Louis F. Olson, 

Stout Institute, Menomonie, Wis. 

The jrooJivorker Series. Issued from the office of T/ie IFooci^vorker, 
London, England. 4-% x 7 in. ; pp. av. 90; price 6d. each, bound in paper. 

The titles in this handy English series are Soft Woods and Colonial Tim- 
bers; Hard Woods, English and Foreign; Woodcarving; Polishing, Staining, 
etc.; and Wood-Turning. The two books on woods are by Percy A. Wells, 
Head of Cabinet Department of the Shoreditch Technical Institute, London, 
and author of Modern Cabinet Work. The volume on hard woods describes 
oaks, mahogany of many varieties, all of the well known hard woods, and a 
number of woods unfamiliar to the American manual training teacher, such 
as teak, padouk, and sandalwood. The volume on soft woods contains a chapter 
devoted to the growth, seasoning, structure, and defects of trees, and another 
devoted to the cutting, seasoning, commercial sizes and terms of lumber. The 
other chapters are descriptive of various woods. The whole series is illustrated. 

—V. E. W. 

Tin-Plate Working. By R. H. Clarke. The Technical Publishing Co., 
Ltd., London, W. C. 5 x 7^ inches, 44 pp., 12 plates; price Is, 6d. 

The illustrations, both plates and half-tones, in this little English manual 
of sheet metalworking are to be commended. The author is workshop instructor 
and assistant in the engineering department of the Portsmouth Municipal 
Technical College. The models include a grocers' scoop, an oil bottle, a dark 
room lantern, a cylindrical pipe with elbow joint, funnels, and other very 
practical forms. — ^ • E. W. 

205 



206 M.LM.n. TR.HMXG M.IG.IZINE 

Amuttur Joinery in the llome; The Art of Polychromatic atui Decorative 
Turning; Artistic and Decorative Stencilling. By George A. Audsley and 
Berthold Audsley. Georjie Allen and Co., Ltd., London. 5% x 8% inclies, price 
4s. 6d. each. 

These are three English publications in the series known as "Allen's 
Technical and Art Manuals." Each book is illustrated with full-page plates 
which are grouped in the back of the book. They differ from American practice 
in the respective subjects in the matter of design, which in these books is 
decidedly ornate. — V. E. W. 

Illinois Manual Arts Association. Proceedings of the Xifith .hiriual Meeting. 
A. C. Newell, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Illinois. 6x9 in.; pp. 
95. Price 10 cents. 

The subject for discussion at the ninth annual meeting of this Association, 
in Peoria, February 16th and 17th, 1912, was "Vocational Education." The 
papers cover not only the tlieory of the subject but include descriptions of 
actual vocational experiments. They are a distinct contribution to the literature 
of the subject. 

Of great interest is the latest report of the committee on a course of study 
in the manual arts. This course of study lias been gradually evolving since 
1907. Altho the work of the committee is not yet finished, this latest report 
presents more complete outlines than those previous to this. The Illinois 
Educational Commission, and the State Teachers Association, and the ITniversity 
of Illinois have also been working on this same problem. The conclusions and 
results of the work of these organizations have been considered in preparing 
the course of study, which may be said to be representative of the best thought 
of the state on this subject. 

The course of study includes outlines for courses in the manual arts for 
common schools in towns and rural districts; courses for elementary schools in 
cities; and for city high schools. Altho conditions differ in different states, 
such a course of study will at least prove suggestive and helpful in working 
out certain standards in other states as well as Illinois. — V. E. W. 

Primer, The Ed<ward Lear Book, Berry's ICritiin; Books. H. O. Berry and 
Co., Chicago, S'l- x 7'_' in.; pp. 56. 

This is quite the most charming writing book \ve liave \et seen. I'^ach line 
of copy is taken from one of the well-known Edward Lear alphabet rliymes. 
(>ppo>ite each right-hand copy page is printed the rhyme with an appropriate 
picture in decorative effect and in soft tones of green and dull orange. The 
pictures are the work of Frederic Richardson. 'These animal pictures will 
delight the little folks who will receive from the wlioli- effect an unconscious 
education iti gfKxi taste atui harmonious color. — \'. K. \V. 

Toys and Toymaking. H\ (ieorge F. Joiinson. Longmans, Cireen and C ). 
S% X %Vi in. Price $1.00 net. 

Thi* book by the editor of Educational llandivork, who is also Inspector of 
Handwork for the Liverpr)ol Educatir)n ("ommittee, will interest iliose who are 
frillrtwing the trend of rnamial training In l',iiglati<l. The materials used for 



REVIEWS 207 

the models are match stales, thin veneer, cardboard, glue, etc. The cliaracter 
of models and of materials would indicate use in the primary grades. With 
very few exceptions, the toys are miniature pieces of furniture or utility objects 
found in the home or in various occupations. They are not mechanical toys, 
goodly-sized things that "go," such as the average American boy has in mind 
when one says "toy" — and therefore we doubt if these models would have a 
very wide appeal for the children in our schools. — V. E. W. 

fVestern Draiving and Manual Training Association, igth Annual Report. 
F. D. Crawshaw, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, Room 219, U. 
H. 6 X 9 in. ; pp. 234. Price 50 cents. 

This is the volume of proceedings of the meeting held at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
May 1-4, 1912. It contains a list of members of the association, lists of officers 
and standing committees and the constitution and by-laws. The subjects dis- 
cussed in the papers, which make up the bulk of the volume, cover a wide 
range, but thruout is observable the recurrence of the key-note, "adjustment." 
This note was first brought out in the address of the president, Mr. Crawshaw, 
who emphasized the need for adjustment in all departments of special teaching 
and especially in regard to industrial education. This last is the subject of the 
greater number of papers and round table discussions. Many significant state- 
ments are made in this connection in the volume which should reach a much 
larger audience than that present at the convention. A number of valuable 
papers are presented which give details of methods and courses, such as the 
paper by A. C. Newell, of the Illinois State Normal University, on "What 
Should Be Included in a Course of Instruction in Architectural Drawing?" 
This paper is full of just that sort of material that will help the busy teacher 
of the subject to plan and carry out a course. Indeed, practicalit}' characterizes 
all of the papers and round table discussions. Manual arts teachers are fortunate 
in having available in permanent form such a volume of inspirational and 
usable material. — V. E. W. 

Illustrations of Design. By Lockwood de Forest. Ginn and Company. 9 x 
lOy. in.; pp. 58. Price $2.00. 

These illustrations are based on notes of line as used by the craftsmen of 
India, and represent oriental design. The author, thru residence in India, has 
had an opportunity to observe such designs in the making. The three simple 
notes which he gives as the basis for the composition of the designs are the 
triangle, the square, and the curve or wave. There is an explanatory preface 
by the author. The remainder of the book consists of fifty full page plates of 
elaborate carving, metalworking, and textile designs. The book is bound in 
portfolio form, in a removable binder, which will facilitate its use for class- 
room illustrative purposes. — V. E. W. 

Notes on Neurology of Voluntary Movement. By George Van Ness Dearborn, 
M. D., Ph. D. William Wood & Co., New York. 7% x 7M in.; pp. 48. 

This pamphlet presents the results of a study in the laboratory of physiology 
of Tufts College, Medical and Dental Schools, Boston, Mass., and is reprinted 
from the Medical Record of May 18, 1912. The principal divisions of the 



208 M.IM.ll. TR II.MSC M.lC.l/l\E 

presentation are: — (I) Biological Orientation; (2) The l")evelopnient of Volun- 
tarv Movement in the Infant; (31 The Adult Neurolocy of \oliintary Move- 
ment ; (4) Conclusion. 

"The main thesis of this essay may be succinctly stated in three sentences, 
thus: As a necessary preliminary to the exact neurology of the will, every 
deliberate movement, however simple, must be accorded a personal motive, 
often intricate, whose factors, in part merely neural, must be sought for. Each 
of these factors, psychological or physiological, implicit in a voluntary movement, 
has as its concomitant a functional set of nervous impulses. Because of the 
varietv and complexity of the factors determining it, every deliberate movement 
must be considered the resultant of influences coming from practically every part 
of the brain or even of the entire grey fabric of the nervous system." 

Rrclaiming ti Cominomi-eaUJi and Other Essays. By Cheesman A. Her rick, 
John Joseph McVey, Philadelphia, 5^4 x 7 in.; pp. 201, price $1.00. 

This little volume of essays by the president of Girard College contains 
much interesting material both informational and inspiring. Altho the subjects 
of the various essays are unrelated, all have an educational bearing which will 
increase their value for teachers. 

The initial essay, "Reclaiming a Commonwealth," tells the story of North 
Carolina's educational regeneration and the relation of this uplift to the welfare 
of the state. The second essay, "Education the Keystone of Power," carries the 
thought on to the relation of education to the welfare of the nation. It includes 
brief discussions of foreign systems of education. Of the entire group of essays 
the one entitled "Unconscious Education" has the broadest message for teachers 
and should receive a wide reading. It emphasizes the importance of personality 
in the teacher as an educating factor. The essays on "The New Commercialism" 
and "Professional Ethics" set higii standards of conduct. The last three essays 
in the book on "Supervision of the High Schools," "Old Age Pensions," and "Re- 
tirement Funds for Teachers" are largely devoted to information and will prove 
of use to those interested in these topics. 



RECEIVED. 

The Serve Mechanism of I'oluntary Mo'vemcnt. By George Van Ness 
Dearborn, Professor of Physiology in Tufl's Medical College. Reprinted from 
the .Imer'uan Physical Education Revieiv, May, 1912. 12 pp. 

State High Schools. The nineteenth annual report of the inspector of state 
high schools in Minnesota. By (Jeorge B. Alton, 1601 University Ave. S. E., 
Minncapfilis, Minn. This gives many facts and figures concerning the remark- 
able development of the high schools of the state under the Putnam and the 
B€nM»n-I.€e Acts. 

The Kini(dom of Dust. By J. Gordon Ogden. Popular Mechaiiir Company, 
Chicago. Price, 50 cents. 

The fJyini; Hickory Trees: Cause and Remedy. By A. 1). Hopkins, Bureau 
of KniomoloKy rirrular No. 144, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. 




H. WILLIAMS SMITH 

[SI;K KDITOKIAL] 



VOLUME XIV NUMBER 3 



Manual Training Magazine 



FEBRUARY, 1913 



PRACTICAL ARTS AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE. 
C. A. Prosser. 

IN spite of all the other excellent things which our public school 
system does for childhood, most boys and girls leave the portals of 
the schoolhouse to enter all kinds of wage earning occupations not 
only untrained but undirected as to w^hat they ought to do in life. 

More than 6,000,000 boys and girls between fourteen and eighteen 
years of age are emploj^ed in various ways in this country. This does 
not include the additional army of children in some of the southern 
states leaving school at the tender age of twelve. During the present 
year at least 2,000,000 more childish wage-earners upon reaching the 
age of fourteen will enter the ranks of industry. More than seven 
out of ten of this multitude did not finish the work of the elementary 
school. More than three out of four of them did not reach the eighth 
year of the schools and more than one out of two, the seventh year. 
Almost half of them had not completed the fifth grade work. Great 
numbers of them were barely able to meet the test for illiteracy necessary 
in order to secure working certificates which in most of the states is a 
test on the work of the fourth grade. 

These children not only entered life deficient in the elementary 
school education which our day regards as being necessary to the civic 
intelligence and the vocational efficiency of everj'one, but practically all 
of them had been trained by a formalized process in the things of the 
books alone, which gave them no opportunity to find what they would 
like to do and what they were best able to do in life. Practically all 
of them went to work without proper vocational guidance and direction. 
All of them found the doors of most of the skilled and desirable in- 
dustries closed to them until they should become sixteen years of age. 

209 



210 M.IM'.II. TR.IIMXC MlC^.I/lXK 

Since tlu'\ niusr \\ (.uk sonu'w hcrt' nuisr oi these childish wage- 
earners riml their way huiiely by accident into Uiw-grade skilled or 
unskilled occupations — the great child-eniplo\ ing industries and enter- 
prises which are alua>s wide open at the bottom to receive young 
workers but closed at the top so far as permanent desirable employment 
is concerned. Here, because their work lacks purpose and hope they drift 
about from one position to another, changing in some states, it is said, 
from one unskilled position to another on an a\erage once e\ery four 
months. The resulting nuual tlegradation to the child and the tremen- 
dous cost to the employer ilue to this indifferent, unstable, fluctuat- 
ing service cannot be estimated. For most of these chihlren the years 
from fourteen to sixteen spent in wage-earning in store and shop and 
factt)ry are wasted years, since they find themselves at sixteen in the 
same position as at fourteen — starting life without any atlequate prepa- 
ration for wage-earning. Their menial, monotonous, more or less auto- 
matic work not only gives no skill which will be useful to them in after 
\ears but also arrests rather than develops intelligence and ambition. 

Out of the great army of children who leave the schools at fourteen 
to go to work and get from those schools no further attention, come 
the ne'er-do-wells, the loafers, the tramps, gamblers, prostitutes, and 
criminals for whose care the state spends more money in penal and cor- 
rectional work than it would have cost to have prevented, thru proper 
vocational guidance and training, maii\ nt them from becoming a burden 
and menace to society. 

In the absence of any work in the elementary schools which dis- 
covers the taste and abilitv of children, manv pupils after receiving the 
graded school diploma elect the high school when it does not give the 
training which is best suited to their needs and to the kind of w'ork 
they are to do in the world. Thev do this largely because they have 
not found themselves and have not come to realize cither the kind of 
work which they are destined to do or the kind of training which would 
best prepare them for it. 

soMi-. cuoici-; i\i:\i r Aiu.i;. 

Ail boys and girls are, in the neighborhood of fourteen years of 
aj;e, recpn'red to make a choice of some kind. They decide first of all 
whether the\ are to attend school or go to work. If they are to attend 
school they must decide what kind of school the\- are to enter. As vo- 
cational schools, fjr departments, are established to meet the needs of 



PRACTICAL ARTS AMJ TOCATIONAL CL I DANCE 211 

those who are not destined for busuiess and professional careers, every 
pupil ought, as the results of his previous trainin<:, to he in a position 
at fourteen years of age to make an intelligent choice of the occupation 
which he desires to follow or the kind of training which he wishes. 
This can only be done by some system of instruction in the upper grades 
of the elementary schools which will test pupils out by other things in 
addition to arithmetic, spelling, reading, writing, and other traditicjnal 
subjects of a general education. 

The results of our failure thru the schools to properly direct and 
train all the children of all the people for useful service are unmistak- 
able, ^lisfits in all vocations confront us everywhere. Many workers 
are inefficient because they are not adapted to the work they are doing 
and some because they have not been properly prepared for it. This 
lack of efficiency constitutes a permanent handicap not only to the worker 
but to the calling which he follows. It means lessened wage, uncer- 
tain employment, failure of promotion, economic struggle, waste in the 
use of material, poor workmanship, reduced output, and the lowering 
of the standards of skill and workmanship of American industries. 

We talk much today of the necessity of conserving our natural re- 
sources. Let us not forget that the richest asset which this country 
possesses is the practical and constructive ability of the children who 
sit in our schoolhouses today who are to be the workers and the leaders 
in industry of the future and whose talent and aptitude, whatever it 
may be, can only be uncovered by some system of training within the 
schools that will give it a chance for expression. Every consideration 
requires that every worker should have a chance to discover and to de- 
velop to the full all his possibilities, both for the good of himself and 
for the welfare of the social order. It is idle for us to talk much about 
conserving our natural resources until we have by a system of voca- 
tional guidance and training developed a type of intelligent skilled 
workmen in shop and home and farm who will so deal with the products 
of our soil and our mines as to eliminate waste and transform them 
into products of higher, and still higher value. 

Above all, we must in some way secure a better adjustment of every 
worker to the calling in which he can work most successfully, in order 
that he may have the joy that comes from a sense of achievement, and 
experience the uplift that blesses ev-ery man who finds himself employed 
at a task in which he is interested and at which he is able to render 
a service creditable to himself and beneficial to his fellows. 



Ji: M.LM.n. TR.IIMXC M IG.l/lXH 

Vocational iiuidaiKH' and \ ocatioiial education are necessary in meet- 
ing the problem of fitting the great mass of our people for useful em- 
plovment. each as the handmaiden of the other and each as indispensable 
to the success of the other. This paper \\ ill contine its attention largely 
to the question of how vocational guidance nia\ be best given boys and 
girls at fourteen years of age. 

Two things are necessary in any successful program of \t)cational 
guidance; a greater knowledge of the child than we have thus far ob- 
tained thru the work of the schools, and the close cooperation of other 
agencies with the schoolmaster in the attempt to gi\ e advice and 
counsel to the child as to his choice of a life work. 

No vocatiimal counselor, however competent and however devoted, 
will be able to deal with most children at fourteen years of age unless 
he knows more about their tasks and ability than the fact that they 
have made this or that per cent in spelling, reading, arithmetic, geog- 
raphy, history, and other public school subjects. Such a record may 
determine whether or not the child is destined for high school and for 
college; it does not at all reveal the other tendencies and capabilities 
of most pupils. It is equally true that the vocational counselor must 
learn, if he would be successful, how to secure in some way the active, 
helpful cooperation of laymen, drawn from many different walks and 
occupations of life, who will be able to give him and those children with 
whom he deals the benefit of the experience which they have had, and 
serve as big brothers and big sisters in the task of helping the adolescent 
boy and girl to find themselves. 

IMPORTANCE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PERIOD. 

The greater knowledge of the child which wc need to have in order 
to give vr)cational dircctif)n. is only to be obtained by some system of 
training within the schools between twehe and fourteen years of age 
which shall help us to find o\it what they would like to do and what 
they are best able to do. 

Under the comparati\el\- simple and luinu'tive conditions of farm 
and village life of an earlier da\ , the experiences the child went thru 
in his rnvirttiunent on the farm and in the village uncovered his inter- 
ests and his abilit\- largelv without the aid of the schoolroom. The 
h'ttlc red schoolhouse on the hill still tested him in the things of the 
k»ok : his envirotuurnt tested him in the things f)f lite. 

The hoy came in contact with a round of activities which were dis 



PRACTICAL ARTS A AD lUCATlOXAL CLADAXCE 213 

tinctivel.v educative to him in the practical affairs of life. He followed 
the plow while his father sowed. On rainy days he tinkered with the 
farm machinery in the barn. When he was not able to repair it, he 
took it to the villa^ue hard by and helped, in a humble way, the artisan 
there to do his work. In the village he came into rather intimate con- 
tact with the work- of the blacksmith, the wheelwri<^ht, the saddler, the 
carpenter, the shoemaker, and all the other skilled trades which the com- 
munity afforded. 

Out of this experience with the realities of things, certain undoubted 
benefits came to the boy. The experiences he went thru were distinc- 
tively educational to him. He learned to do many things by doing. He 
touched the realities which in themselves gave insight and power. There 
can be no doubt but that the success which the little red schoolhousc 
was able to obtain with its short term of school, its inadequate facilities, 
its poor teachers, measured by our modern standards, was largely due 
to the fact that the pupils came to the school with a background of 
life experience and a knowledge of the things which the book only 
photographed and symbolized, which inspired them in a short time 
and under unfavorable conditions to master the things of the book. 

This experience was distinctly socializing. The boy came in an 
elementary way to understand the trials and difficulties and achieve- 
ments, workmanship, and ideals of the artisan. No matter what he 
became in after life — the judge on the bench, a lawyer at the bar, a 
doctor driving lonely reads at night, a teacher in the schoolroom, an 
artisan following one of the trades which his community needed, — 
he carried into his life work a sympathetic understanding and appre- 
ciation of the work of his fellows that rendered him measurably more 
capable in his own and bound him and them together in a bond of 
appreciation and understanding. 

Out of this work came a very sensible vocational guidance. The 
father and the boy and the neighborhood came to know what the boy 
was interested in and where his largest success would be made. With 
the doors of the trades opening up before him at the close of his elemen- 
tary schooling, he was able to choose and to follow in content antl w ith 
success the work for which he was best fitted. 

It should be said by the way of passing that this elementary exper- 
ience during his childhood days with the tools and processes of different 
occupations, particularly the one in which he became interested, gave 
him considerable elementary preparation and understanding of the work 
which he was to follow and was a distinct benefit to him in mastering 



:i4 M.I. Mil tr.ii.mm: .m.I(:.i/.i.\e 

it in a more sorious and thorogoiiig w a\ w hen he came to his adolescent 
years. 

It seems clear to all of us that under the conditions of modern life 
the opportunity of the hoy to secure such real experience outside the 
school has, to a \ery -jreat extent at least, disappeared. Trades have 
become factoryized. Larije scale prt)duction has not oiiIn taken the 
ownership of tools from the worker but he has harnessed liim as a 
machine-hand to one machine under the shop roof where he may serve 
all his davs in carryinji <>n one process making one small part of the 
finished output of the establishment. Seldom, if e\er, does the boy of 
tender years have an opportunity to izet be\ond the factory ^ate to even 
witness the work which is beint:: carried on be_\ond it. 

Children have become herded together in great cities; the population 
is becoming more and more urban; children live huddled together in 
apartment houses; e\en pla\ grounds are difficult to secure. The school 
term has been lengthened from four months to ten and the pupils are 
being crammed and saturated with the things of the book, which at best 
are only photographs or sunuuations of the life experience denied most 
of them. Of course, children do have life experience, but it is the 
experience of the superficial obser\er of the rapidly changing phenomena 
around tliem anil not the kind with whicli in former days they had 
an opportimtiy to come into intimate contact ami in which they were 
able to participate actively with brain and with hand. 

AH tlie arguments that are being used to-da\ to show the necessity 
of vocational direction and guidance for children facing the complexi- 
ties of our modern industrial and commercial life point at the same 
time to the need (jf securing for children in some wa\ the kiml of life 
experience, before the\- become fourteen years of age, which will give 
some basis uDon which the\ , and those tiuiding aiul directing them, may 
deal intelligenth with the problciu of placing thcni in luoper schools, 
in irivinir them pnjper trainintz, and in placing rluni in the tailings of 
life for which tliey are best suited. 

THE SCHOOL MUST FURNISH RF,.\L LITH I- X I'I'RI K XCK. 

If it be siibnu'tted tluit i>ractical exiirrietnc with the realities of things 
is a necessar\ part of the training of the iliild between twchc and 
fourteen >ears of age, and if it be admitted tinther that under modern 
conditions it i^ not pr)vsible for the child to secure this training as he 
should in his em irittunent outside the school, then the dutv and responsi- 



PRACTICAL ARTS AND I'OCATIUNAL CilDAS'iA: 215 

bilitv rests upon the school as the ag;ent of the state for the welfare of 
childhood to give it under the school roof. 

There is a sense in which it may be truthfully said that to a very 
great extent in the past the result of the training of the elementary 
school, and of the high school as well, has been to select by elimination, 
closing the door from time to time by a system of tests and examinations 
against all those who were not able to respond successfully to the kind 
of studies that were being offered in the schools and to the demand upon 
the capacity of the child in dealing with abstractions. More and more, 
in our theory of the American public school system, we are swinging 
around to the idea that it is to be the mission of the schools in the future 
to select and to adjust boys and girls for life by having them undergo 
varied experiences in order to uncover their varied tastes and aptitudes 
and to direct and to train them in the avenues for which they display 
the most capacity. 

Such a program as this would require a differentiation of the course 
of study for pupils between twelve and fourteen years of age. The 
amount of difference in the course of study for different kinds of pupils 
in any given school system would of course depend upon the size of the 
city, the extent of its resources, the size of the building, the number of 
different groups of pupils dealt with, and the size of each group. 

POSSIBILITIES OF THE ELEMEXTARY SCHOOL. 

In a city of 50,000 people, the usual elementary school might well 
offer for the seventh and eighth >ears a high school preparatory course, a 
commercial course, a household arts course for girls, and a practical 
arts course for boys. All the pupils from these different groups could 
well take in the same classes, if necessary, the same work in P.nglish, 
history, civics, music, drawing, penmanship, physical training, which 
would occupy at least half of a lengthened day in the schoolroom. They 
would separate from each other for different work in the lines in which 
they were being tested. 

Pupils in the high school preparatory course, w ho were in it because 
it was already determined that the>- were to go to high school and to 
college, could take courses in elementary algebra and in a foreign lan- 
guage. The elementary algebra would be as good, or better, training 
to meet the demands of the high school as any other coiu'se. The for- 
eign language could be taken up at a time when the child was better 
prepared to deal with it. It is a well known fact that one of the great 



2ib M.LW.IL TR ll\l.\C M IC.I/.L\E 

difficulties in tlu- toacliing of tori'i_i:n Iani:ua>zcs in the hi.Lih schools is 
that pupils talif tlu-ni at a time when the lan.uuaize instinct is at an ehb 
rather than at the tiow . 

Pupils takini; the commercial course wouKl be those who were i^oing 
out to commercial life at fovn-teen or izoing inti) the commercial de- 
partment of the regular high school, or going out to the private com- 
mercial college, or intending after the regular high school course to fit 
themselves to enter business life. These sliould take in the difi'erentiated 
work between twelve and fourteen, rich courses in the keeping of simple 
accounts, commercial arithmetic, commercial geography, and probably 
should be given some elementary experience in hantUing a typewriter. 
Such commercial arithmetic ami geography is just as good as any which 
the schools have ever oli'ered, and because it appeals to the interests of 
these pupils, is better than an\ other. 

Girls taking the course in household arts between twelve and four- 
teen would be girls who were going out to the factory to spend, on the 
average, six years before taking up home-making in their liomes, or 
who were going to the high school for a year or two and then going 
home to await marriage, or who expect to take the household arts 
training offered by the regular high school. These should have rich 
courses, in a lengthened day, in cooking, with the "how" and "why" 
of the work : sewing and hat trimming with the "how" and the 
■"why"; sanitation and hygiene of the home; household decoration; and 
some little elementary experience in the probK'm of the care of the sick. 

Boys wanting the training in practical arts would be boys who at 
fourteen were going to make a choice of some w age-earning occupation, 
or who were going to enter some industrial or trade school, or who 
were g«»ing to take the manual training work in a regular high school 
or enter a technical high school. These should have rich courses in the 
practical arts, with the "how " and the "why" of the process given when- 
ever possible, industrial arithmetic, industrial geography, and elementary 
«lra\\ing cl(»sely related to the work which they were doing in the shop. 

The high school claims that what it wants is trained minds rather 
than an\ particular content or book experience leading up to its work. 
If this be true, then any one of these courses is as good a preparation, 
at least for the general course in the high school, as an\ other course 
of instruction. Pupils taking any one of these courses w lio dei ide after 
grarluating from the <-lcmentar\ school that they wished to attend the 
rrjHJlar high s<-h«»oi would be in as good a position as aii\ other jiujiils 
to fake its work. So far as the door of oi)poitunit\ IcadiDLr out to 



PRACTICAL ARTS AM) lOCATIOXAL GUIDANCE 217 

the regular high school, tlie} would not he injured, to say tiie least, by 
the kind of elementary' school experience which they had received. 

Nor is there an}' reason why between the ages of twelve and four- 
teen a flexible arrangement of the school program should not permit the 
pupils in any one of these courses to receive some experience in some of 
the other courses as a test of their interest and their capacity. 

It goes almost without saying that after such an experience in the 
upper grades of the elementary school, boys and girls upon graduating 
would be in a position to face either some calling or further schooling 
much better prepared to make an intelligent choice of what they should 
do than they can be under the present school regime, under which most 
of them know only that they have or have not been able to respond 
unsuccessfully to the tests which have been set up in the academic work. 

Where courses in the practical arts and in the household arts were 
offered in the seventh and eighth years of the work, the administration 
should be so flexible as to permit boys and girls twelve years of age, 
who were retarded in their work so that they had not reached the 
seventh year of the course, to receive the benefit of the instruction irre- 
spective of the question of where they might be located in the graded 
schools. This training in the practical arts would probably be of more 
benefit to this kind of boys and girls than to any other. Practically 
all of them will leave school at fourteen years of age, or seek to enter 
an industrial school. They must make a choice of some wage-earning 
occupation. They need perhaps most of all to have such experience 
between twelve and fourteen years of age as will help them when they 
reach the period of compulsory education to make an intelligent choice 
of an ocupation. Every experience goes to show that these retarded 
boys and girls who were not able to measure up to the things of the 
book are able to learn by doing. When they are taught such subjects 
as spelling and arithmetic in connection with the work which they are 
doing with their hands, they are able to grasp them much better because 
they are being taught on the basis of the actual experience which they 
are receiving. 

CONTENT OF WORK IN PRACTICAL ARTS FOR BOYS. 

This paper will from this point direct its attention entirely to the 
question of training in the practical arts for boys between twelve and 
fourteen years of age. If this training in the practical arts is to help 
bovs to find themselves in order that at fourteen they may make an 



218 M.I.\L II TR ll\l\C M.lc: l/l.\E 

intellijicnt choice i>t tlu'ir work tor tin- tiiturc, it must he \ an'cd. A 
course in \\ ooilw orkiiiii, excclK'iit as it nia\ bo, only ri'\cals w hotlier 
or not the bo\ respoiiils to it with his interest and aptitiule. A course 
in nu'talworkini: aK)ne will determine only whether or not he is ailapteil 
to that work. A course in printinLi; alone shows whether or not he 
has anv tendenc> toward the printers trade. \\'hat we need is not a 
course in woodwt)rkin.i:, or a course in nietalw orkin^. but an organization 
ot training in the practical arts during: the seventh and eiiihth \ears 
which will include experiences drawn from many diiierent fields of 
emploxnient. such as woodw orkinii. metalworkinii;, electrical working, 
printing, bookbinding, leather working, cla\ working, and gardening. 
These should not be known as courses at all, but should consist of a 
series of jobs, projects, enterprises, tasks — call them what you will — 
taken some from one field and some from another. I'he progress of the 
boy thru the school in a given >ear should be stated in terms of a series 
of experiences, some of them in wood, some in metal, some in printing, 
stime in electrical work, etc. 

The boy should follow these as a series of carefully graduated expe- 
riences, each one being taken up when as the result of his previous train- 
ing he is able to deal w ith it. The work might be arrangetl so that he 
gave his time in the shop for a certain period, a month or so, to wood, 
then to metal, then to electrical work, then to printing, etc. It is be- 
h'eved, however, that the best results would be secured by ha\ing him 
assigned jobs from diiierent fields rather indiscriminately, a job in metal- 
W(jrking fidlowing one in wood; a job in electrical work following one 
in printing. These shop tasks he shoidd follow individually rather than 
as a member of a group. There is no reason why all the pupils in the 
class should he working ujion the same kind of a job at the same time 
m)r that they should be working upon different jobs from the same 
f^e\l\ of industry the samt- moment. 

A course of training in the practical arts like that described above 
would requir«" a varied rather than an extcnsixe ecpiipment. Instead 
ot duplicating t«)ols and machines so as to |iro\ ide e\ery pupil with a 
carpenter's bench, (•\cr\ pupil with a case of type, every jMijiil with a 
lathe, every pupil with a dr)or bell and battery, just a tew pieces of 
rtjuipment necessarv in order to gi\c the bo\ evpericncc in any occupa- 
tion would be nrccssary, the pupils being taught indixidually and being 
shitfe«j aUiut so as to p<Tmit the varied e(impm(nl ot the shop to keep 
thrm all busy at different tasks. The trital cost ot the e(|uipment 
neci-ssary to do this would ccrtaird\ not be anv more, and would |)roba- 



PRACTICAL ARTS A\D TOCATIOWIL CVIDASCE 219 

bly be less, than that of the present niethotl of duplicating pieces in 
order to teach pupils by the group inetlunl. 

Some cities have some of their ward or elementary school buildings 
located near each other. Where this is true, it would be possible to 
secure varied experience in different practical arts for boys by having each 
one of these buildings devote its attention to arts or lines of employ- 
ment different from that to which each of the other buildings gave its 
attention. By shifting the pupil for a portion of his day or year from 
one building to another, these buildings thru cooperation could si-cure 
training in various activities for the boys. 

PROBLEMS COXFROXTIXG THE TEACHER. 

If the interest and capacity of the boy is to be properly tested, the 
experience which he receives in the school shop should be made as real 
as possible. This means that the instructor in charge of the work should 
have at least some elementary knowledge of the industry dealt with. For 
the purpose of this prevocaticjnal training, he need not be a journeyman 
or master of the calling, but he should have a sufficient contact with it to 
be able to bring some of its atmosphere into the schoolroom. There are 
probabl\ some excellent instructors in manual training for boys in this 
country to-day who are women, but the burden of proof rests upon him 
who proposes a woman as teacher of the practical arts for boys to show- 
that she has had such experience and possesses such ability as to render 
her an exception to the general presumption that the teachers of this 
work should be men. 

The work should be carried on as nearly like the actual shop as 
possible, otherwise the experience lacks reality. This does not at all 
mean that in the instruction an attempt should be made to reach shop 
standards of workmanship. In the earlier days, boys had an opportunity 
to tinker in an elementary way at different occupations. The work 
was valuable to them not because shop standards were reached but be- 
cause they had an opportunity thru it to find out whether they re- 
sponded to it. The aim of the work should not be large skill but life 
experience. Ideals of workmanship for the boys in the shop are good, 
and to some extent, necessary, but they should not be approached thru 
refined work on a few limited tasks to the point of defeating the larger 
aim of helping the boy to find himself. 

At the best, it will be impossible for the school to make this work 
in practical arts so real as to present to the child the work as it is carried 



220 M.LM .11. TR II.M.Sa .M.ia.l/l.\H 

oil in tlic iniiiistrv. K\t.M"\ placi' w hero rlu- lucal coninuiniry has the 
work, which is beinij done in the school, carried on in a shop t)r factory, 
arranirenionts should be made to have tlie boy visit the establishment 
and secure an opportunitv under tavi)rable conilitions to see >2;rown men 
carr\inir on the work on a lar^e scale, which he is attempting to do 
as a bov would do it under the school root, in this way the manu- 
facturing establishments, shops and farms of the community would be 
made to cooperate w ith the school in bringing the boy into contact w ith 
the work of the world so that he might choose from it that which he 
is best adapted to pursue. 

ACTIVITY MLST HAVE PRACTICAL OUTCOME. 

Pupils should be taught individually rather than by the group 
method. The work should be put on a productive rather than on an 
exercise basis. The shop shouKl make useful things to be utilized by 
the school or by the school system. Every experience goes to show that 
boNS are much more interested in making things which are to be used 
in the school system, aiul thru which the boys are conscious of the fact 
that they are contributing something that is useful, than they are in 
making a tabouret for sister's parlor. Somewhere in the course there 
should be work done by the boy that smacks of the time element and 
approach of the shop outside. Where pupils make parts of things, all 
should get an experience some time of making parts and assembling 
those parts into the tinishcd product. 

The experience which the boy undergoes in the shop should be made 
educative for him. He should do there something more than merely 
use his hands. ( )n e\cr\ job which he performs every opportunity 
should be utilized for whatever drawing, arithmetic, spelling, and even 
compositifin work, will enable him to do the job better and to gain 
p<iwer in the use (jf related academic work. 

XECKSSARV MODIITCATIOX OF MAXUAI, TRAIN' IXC. 

Such a program would not be a diniiiilr or complicated one were 
it not so totalis at \ariatuc with the pr(Ncnr practice of the schools. 
The large results to be obtained from the work justify itN introduction 
tho a more flexible a(hninistration of both acadiinic and manual train- 
ing work in the seventh and eighth \(ars would be necessary. It seems 
certain that to carry out such a program more time would have to be 
given tor m;inual training, or traim'ng in the jMartind arts, than at 



PRACTICAL ARTS AND TOCATIONAL GUIDANCE 221 

present. This might be secured b\ tlie substitution of such work for 
other required subjects. It would probablj' be best secured by lengthen- 
ing the school day. Advocates of the lengthened school day point out 
that if pupils gave half their time to actual work with their hands rather 
than close attention to books, a longer school day would not only not 
be burdensome but beneficial to them physically as well as otherwise. 
It is certain that if we are to accomplish anything worth while in work- 
ing with the hands with children between twelve and fourteen years 
of age, we must give more time to the work in the program than the 
average of fifteen or twenty minutes per day which in most cases is 
alloted the practical work, thereby giving it the same importance in 
the curriculum as music and spelling. We need wider experience and 
training for the instructors. Woodworking and metalworking have 
been the only lines of training for which they have been prepared in 
our schools. They need not only preparation for different lines of 
work in the schools but a wider and more intimate contact with other 
lines of industry. In order to attract desirable teachers to the work 
who will be willing to make such preparation and secure such exper- 
ience, there should be more salary for the capable. Above all, there 
needs to be in all quarters a greater recognition of the place and the 
value of training in the practical arts in the elementary schools, both 
for its educative benefit to the pupils and as an indispensable part of 
any successful attempt to give proper vocational guidance to the ado- 
lescent. 

It is not denied that the program set out above raises some problems 
new in character, doubtless some that are difficult of solution from the 
administrative standpoint, which cannot be discussed in detail here. 
I have attempted to formulate some of these questions, as follows. 

SOME QUESTIONS FOR SOLUTION. 

1. Should all children of 12 to 14 years be required to take some training 
in the practical arts? 

2. What difference in amount and kind should be made in the training as 
between those strongest in book work and those strongest in manual work ? 

3. Should this training in the practical arts be restricted to those who have 
reached the 7th grade at 12 years of age or should all children, even if they are 
retarded in their work, who need the work be given it? 

4. How much experience in an industry or occupation should an instructor 
have in order to teach it as a part of prevocational training in the practical arts? 

5. What changes should be made in the preparation of teachers of manual 
training in the practical arts as now given in order to fit them properly to carry 



i/./.vr.//. TR n.\i\c; m.ic.i/i\e 

on such trainini: as sliall serve eti'ectually as a pan oi a piojjiram ot pievocatiunal 
guidance aiul education? 

6. How many teachers of practical arts in the upper grades of ihe elementary 
schixils secure necessarv experience in lines of ii\dustry or occupations with which 
they arc expected to deal? 

7. What should be the time allotment for training in tlie practical arts? 

S. What are the kinds or types of jobs or experiences or enterprises from 
each of the practical arts, such as gardening, inetalworking, woodworking, electri- 
cal workini:. printing, bo<ikbinding, cement working, clay working, that the schools 

should give? 

9. To what extent should the school adil to the list of iiractical arts others 

carried on by the local comiiiunity ? 

10. How can the instructors in the practical arts aid in gi\ ing proper voca- 
tional guidance and direction to the pupils? 

11. What sltould the school authorities tio with the output of the work in the 
practical arts? 

\2. What are the working programs for such training in the practical arts 
tor those. \2 to 14 years of age, which seem best for typical or represeiuative 
school units in cities and towns of varied and given populations? 

13. Should the school day be lengthened in onler to give the training, or 
can it be given in tlie present school day by substituting it for some work now 
required? 

14. If proper time allotment is secured b\ substitution, in place of what other 
work should it be offered? 

15. To what extent should this school training in the practical arts be sup- 
plemented by visits to places in the community where they are being practised com- 
mercially? 

16. To what extent should the job or enterprise be used as the means, or 
center, or core of instruction of tiie boy in related arithmetic, drawing, English, 
geography, civics, etc.? 

17. What would be the best e(|uipmeiii foi- a t\vo->ear course of training in 
the practical arts, for a group of twenty boys, in which the jobs or experiences 
of the pupil were drawn from a number of different occupations or employments? 

IS. From what practical arts should the experiences be drawn for a course 
of training as a basis for the vocational guidance of girls and what would be 
the best equipment for such a course in meeting the needs ot a group of twerUy 
KirU? 

IV. To what extent, b\ cooperation between different eleinentar\ school 
h(iilding<i each e<|ui[)ped to give work in onl\ one or two practical arts, could 
pupiU l>e interchanged for a part of the day so as to give them varied experience 
in activiiic* drawn from a number of different arts? 

20. How ma\ we best impress school authorities with the great educative as 
well a% vicial and economic value of the right kind ot woik in the practical arts 
for rhiltlren 12 to 14 years of age so that it may cease to be a mere ajipeti/er for 
academic activities and he given its proper place and f)pportunity in the work 
of the •rh'K)l ? 



RECORD AND COST KEEPING IN SCHOOL SHOPS. 

Foster F . H 1 1. l i x . 

I SHALL discuss brieHy particular methods for the machine-shop 
altho they may be adapted to any shop with a tew minor 
changes. 

A system to be ideal should be simple," accurate, and as nearly 
automatic in its working as possible. To obtain simplicity, authorities 
seem to agree that cards or a combination of cards and forms are the 
proper materials to use. The cards should be printed and the informa- 
tion should be such that the student has but to fill in certain figures 
or other small data as the bulk of the information is printed on the 
card. In some cases the card can be so arranged that a check mark 
is all that is necessary to record a given condition. 

To handle cards properly suitable racks should be provided, each 
being properly labeled to avoid the confusion which is caused when 
cards are out of place. 

To promote accuracy the cards should have provision for entries at 
the close of each period so that the record will be made at the time 
and thus prevent the trusting to the memory. It is well to have the 
records on the cards cover but a short period of time so that the ac- 
curacy of the system will not be affected to a great extent if a card 
should be lost. 

As an example, suppose we employ a time card for the exercise 
work. If we have a new card for each exercise, the student can 
generally replace it at the time, from memory in case a card is lost. 
If the card holds the record of the year, the loss of one near the end of 
the year is a serious matter. 

In the machine-shop of the average school the records can be easily 
handled by providing a card for the time record, a card for the stock 
record, and an assignment board. The data should be transferred from 
the time card to a class or grade book when the work is graded. The 
stock cards can be filed under the name of the student in a suitable 
case in the toolroom and at any time the record should he complete to 
date. 

223 



JJ4 



M.l.M.n TRIIMXC: M la.l/.lXE 



THE TIM1-: RKCORl). 



The time record. Kiij. 1. sho\ili1 he brouizht to date at the close of 
each period b\ every student. 

On tlu' tirst line, after \<irin-. the student enters his name; after 

Ddtt. the date of tlu- be>j;innini: of the exercise; after Joh, the name of 



THE STOUT KSTITUTt MACHIHf SHOP TIME RtCOHD 




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n*:- St 












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v' 


J" 


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ii 












































































i. 












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-. •<. T,„ 

























THE smuT INSTITUTE MACHINE SHOP STOCK RECORD 



Nome ^ i'ft^ '-<i-*Uyt Xi' 



Job 



^ 



. /i^ / y/z 



. S1ZE,J'"'«PE- 



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-^ppfiovtD fty_ 



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UG. 1. Jill. riMl. KI.CdKU. 



FIG. 2. THE STOCK RKCORD. 



the piece started. In the column under Machine will be found the 
names of the machines which are among the equipment. To the right 
will be found a column under Tune which corresponds to the day of 
the week. At the extreme right is a total column. At the bottom of 
the card i'^ to be found a place to enter the number of pieces and also 
the Total Tinit . 

To handle the time cards two cases will be needed, one containing 
two pockets and labeled "New Time Cards" and "Finished Work" 
respectively. The other case, the individual card case, should be labeled 
with the name of the class or section number and should contain as 
many prickets as there are men in the section. This case is to hold 
the cards while the work is in progress. 



RECORD AND COST KEEPISG 
THE STOCK RliCORO CARIES. 



225 



The stock record cards, Fig. 2, should he of the same size as the 
time card, 4" x 5'^, but should be printed on a different colored stock. 

At the top of the card will be found places for Name, Date, and 
Job. To the left is a column, Suinlnr of Pieces. To the right is a 




FIG. 3. THE ASSIGNMENT BOARD. 

column Kind of Material, Size. etc. At the bottom is a line after 
Appro-red By for the signature of the instructor. 

Two cases will be needed to handle these cards, one at the desk, 
labeled "New Stock Cards," and a filing case in the toolroom which 
should be large enough to hold about twenty cards under each name 
in the enrolment of all the classes. 

The stock for the various exercises should be kept in the toolroom 
and issued onh- in exchange for a properly executed card. 



THE ASSIGNMENT BOARD. 

The purpose of the assignment board. Fig. 3, is twofold ; first, it 
shows what machines are being used, and second, by whom they are 
used. Each piece of equipment should he marked with a nvnnher in a 
conspicuous place. A record is made on the assignment board by 
numbered pegs which fit in holes opposite the slides which are to receive 



226 M.LM.II. TK ll.\l.\c: M.IC.I/IXE 

the carils. Tlu'if should he as many slides as there are pupils in all 
the classes. It is ailvisahle to ha\e as nian\ sets of pe^s as classes, for 
tho assiiinnuMit often runs da\s at a time without chan^inii; entirely. 

If the equipment is lar^e, sixty or eiizhty pieces, and the enrolment 
iarize. tun hundred or more, it ma\ he adxisahle to run a demerit sheet 
whicli is posted once each week. On this sheet are posted the common 
irreiTularities with their demerit values together with the ilemerits for 
the week. This aids the student to rememher to lea\e the equipment in 
proper shape. 

To illustrate the workuiL: of the system, we will take up in their 
order the steps taken hy a stutient in makiniz a hexagon nut exercise. 

The instructor assigns the exercise to the student ami at the same 
time assigns him to a machine. This is tlone hy putting the numhered 
peg which corresponds to the machine, in the hole in the assignment 
board by the student's name. The stuilent gets the hlwe-print for the 
hexagon nut from the rack and he sees at once that he will need a 
casting of suitable size and shape. Then he goes to the desk and takes 
two cards, a stock card and a time card. The stock caret he fills as 
follows: XtJ/nc, John Smith; Da/t, February 11, 1912; ./o//, Hexagon 
Nut: \utnbtr of Puces. One; Kiml of Stock. Size, etc.. Casting for 
1'.." Hexagon Nut. 

(^n the time card he makes the following entries: Nnrtie, John 
Smith; Pd/c February 11; Joh. Hexagon Nut. This card is then 
placed in the untmished work case until the end of the period. 

The stock card is then approvetl by the instructor and the student 
draws the casting from the toolroom, leaving the card which is filed 
under hi> name. 

The student then proceeds w ith his work. At the end of the period 
he enters the time on the time card in the proper place opposite the 
name of the machine in the column under the proper day. 

At the beginning of the next period the student looks at the assign- 
ment board to find his assignment. In inanv ca^es the assignment is 
not changed until the student has completed all the lathe work. When 
the lathe work is coinpleted, the student enters the total of the time 
put (jn the lathe work in the proper coliuiin ruid reports to the instructor 
for assignment to the milling-machine. This i^ done h\ changing the 
pegs as before. 

At the conclusion of all the operations the student completes his 
time card, and puts it in the finished work case. He stamps his name 



RECORD ,I\D COST KEEI'I\G 



227 
If the work 



on the work and hands it in to the instructor for approva 
is satisfactor}', new work is assi^^ned at once. 

The object of the assignment board is to enable the instructor to 
tell at all times who is responsible in each section for each machine. 
This enables him to place the blame for any unreported breakage, any 



SCHOOL SSoich 




SEMESTER 


CJCtytyOyt 




WANEC&«-«^ ,<^^ 


DATE //-/^ 




1 




EXERCISE 


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REMARKS 


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FIG. 4. THE CLASS-BOOK. 



neglect m proper cleaning or other irregularities. The instructor is 
also able to assign in advance the proper machine for each piece of 
work, when he is planning the work for the period. This avoids the 
delay at the beginning of the period of several men waiting to be 
assigned. This is a serious matter when the class is large. The in- 
structor can alwajs tell at a glance if he has any place for those who 
desire to do extra work. 

THE CLASS-BOOK OR LEDGER. 



The data contained on the time cards should be entered in a class- 
book, using a form similar to that shown in Fig. 4. 

The heading of the page has a place provided for the name of the 
school, where is entered the course the student is enrolled in, as Stout, 
Trade, High School, etc. After Semester is entered the semester or 
term. After Name is entered the name of the student; after Date the 
date as, 1911-12. In the first line is found the headings of the columns, 
the use of which is obvious. If the time is kept to the nearest one-fourth 
hour, the results should be sufficiently accurate. 

A study of the pages of the ledger will enable the instructor to 
discover the following facts : The average time of the class on the 
lathe work of the hexagon nut exercise is ten hours. It is evident at 



22S 



M i.\L .11. TR.iiMxc: M.u;.i/i\i-: 



onci' that John Smith was beU)\v the chiss averajje on the htthc work. 
If his hithe work sliows a low average for all the exercises, it will 
indicate that he needs assistance or additional practice in this subject 
to bring his work to the proper standard. A later investigation will 
generally locate the trouble so that it may be correctetl. It is likely 
on some of the other work tiiat jcthn Smith is abt)ve the average. 
This fact is also immediateh seen. 

The time put on each operation on each machine is recorded and 
this makes it easy to organize the work for each student so that he gets 
a well balanced experience. The instructor can at any time tell the 
exact condition of each of the men in his classes, and assign the work 
so that each student gets practice in the particular phase of the subject 
which is most in need of development to round out his experience and 
make him equally efficient in all branches of the work. 




SMEET-MfCTAI. WORK DONF, BY nOVS AT 
THE STATE REFORM ATORV, PONTIAC, 

n.i.ixois. 



THE PRESENT STATUS OF VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS IN 
THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA. 

E. E. Lewis. 

THE latest general revision of secondary education is manifesting 
itself in at least two important ways. First, b}' the establish- 
ment of secondary' schools of a special character, variously called 
mechanical, polytechnic, manual training, commercial, agricultural, 
domestic art, and industrial high schools. This movement began about 
the year 1880 with the organization of manual training and commercial 
high schools. It marks the beginning of schools of secondary rank of a 
vocational character. 

The second way in which secondary education is being revised may 
be described as internal rather than external. The old classical cur- 
riculum of the high school is gradually being forced to accept on a par 
with itself the new vocational subjects. In other words, the revision 
takes the form of changing the subject matter rather than setting up a 
new kind of school. This manner of changing and revising high school 
education has been practiced from the very beginning of such schools, 
and has recently assumed such proportions as to challenge the thoughtful 
attention of every one interested in secondary education. 

The term vocational, as used in this paper, is the broadest possible 
term that can be used to described several forms of new subject matter, 
such as industrial, commercial, domestic, professional, agricultural, 
mechanical, etc. In other words, vocational subject matter is any and 
all subject matter which more directly prepares for efficiency in a craft, 
business, or profession. This definition does not aim at finality, yet 
affords a basis for the classification of subjects as they appear in the 
high school curriculum. 

In the state of California there are about one hundred and ninety 
joint union district, county, and city high schools. The data for this 
paper was secured by H. C. Greenwood, a former graduate student in 
the Department of Education of Stanford University, California.^ Mr. 
Greenwood sent out a general letter to the principals of all the high 
schools of the state, asking for the names of the vocational subjects, the 

^ This paper is taken almost in toto from Mr. Greenwood's data, and the 
writer makes the proper acknowledgment here. The data seemed too valuable 
to be lost in the file of student reports. 

229 



230 M.IM .11 TRIIMXC M ULI/lXh: 

number ot teachers in the school, aiul the enrohiient ot the school. By 
contituieii correspomlence anii by consulting the printed courses of stuily 
and the reports ot count\ and cit\ superinteiulents a fairly complete 
in\i'stiiiatii)n was made possible. Returns were secured from 165 
ditterent hiixh schools in the state. 

Krom those returns it appears that the following vocational subjects 
arc to be fouiul quite generalU' in the curricula of California secondary 
schools: geometrical drawing, mechanical drawing, bookkeeping, short- 
hand and tvpewriting. conunercial history, geograpln ami law, wood- 
work, domestic science, forge-work, machine-shopwork, foundry work, 
and architectural drawing. These eleven subjects are recognized as 
suitable for entrance b\- Stanfortl l"niversit\ and a few of them by the 
University of California. 

In addition to these there are *i\e subjects that have not as yet won 
university recognition, namely, commercial arithmetic, advanced short- 
hand and typewriting, commercial English, penmanship and spelling, 
advanced bookkeeping ami commercial correspondence. The following 
27 subjects also appear tho they are not yet recognized by the universities 
as worthy of entrance credit, as many of them are taught in but one 
school, while none of them is present in more than two. They are: 
mechanics, strength of materials, application of heat ami electricity, 
electricity and its practical applications, pattern-making, cabinet-making, 
carpentry, wood-carving, sewing, machine drawing, graphic statics, 
minerolog), assaying, surveying, clay modeling, brick-laying, plumbing, 
plant propagation, poultry raising, horticulture, dairying, soils and fer- 
tilizers, animal husbandry, irrigation, agricultural chemistry, farm build- 
ing drawing. Taking each of these subjects in ortler we find their 
present status in the high schools of California to be as follows: 

GI'OM liTRICAI, DRAWING. 

The subject known as geometrical drawing occupies the first place 
as to numerical importance on the list of vocational subjects, which are 
common in the schools considered. While it is not as broad and rich 
a subject as are some of the others on the vocational list, it has been 
taken up more cxtenNixclv b\ the secondary schools than any other 
subject of n vocatifinai character. The principal reason for its promi- 
nence is, I think, that it Ik'ls been re(iuired by the University of 
California for several \cars for cufraiu'c into the I'.iigiiicering Colleges. 
This subject in comparison with other \ocation;il subjects is also much 



rOCATIONAL SUBJECTS IN C.lUlOliM.I l/ICU SCHOOLS 231 

cheaper to introduce. There were 122 high schools, or 74 per cent of 
the total number in the state replying to the inquiry, offering geometrical 
drawing. These schools have an enrolment of 24,565 students, or 87 
per cent of the total enrolment of all the schools, with a force of 1,148 
teachers, or 81 per cent of the total force. 

MECHANICAL DRAWING. 

Second and almost equally popular among the vocational subjects 
is mechanical drawing, which is taught in 121, or 73.8 per cent, of the 
high schools considered, with a student enrolment of 24,446, or 86 per 
cent, and a teaching force of 1,141, or 80 per cent. Geometrical and 
mechanical drawing are usually taught in one course or in separate 
courses in the same schools. 

BOOKKEEPING. 

Instruction in bookkeeping was offered in 106, or in 64 per cent, of 
the 165 California secondary schools considered, and in these schools 
there were 16,919 students, or 60 per cent, with a teaching force of 
845, or 59 per cent of the entire force. In the majority of these schools 
bookkeeping is elective. 

SHORTHAND AND TYPEWRITING. 

Together these really separate subjects occupy the fourth place in 
the number of schools giving it, as 58 per cent of all the schools con- 
sidered gave courses in this subject. There were 12,682, or 45 per cent, 
of the high school students of the state in these schools, and 631, or 44 
per cent, of the total teaching force. This subject is more popular with 
the smaller high schools than with the larger ones, and the subject is 
elective. 

COMMERCIAL HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY, AND LAW. 

This combination of studies occupies the fifth place in importance 
in the number of schools providing instruction in them. It is taught in 
81, or 49 per cent, of the schools considered, and these schools have an 
enrolment of 13,233, or 54 per cent of the students, and a force of 704 
or 49 per cent of the teachers. It will be seen by comparing the 
percentage of schools offering the subject with the percentage of the 
total enrolment that the schools teaching it are far above the average in 



:5: M.IM.IL TR.llMXG MJUIZIXE 

itize. The increasing; popularity of this combination of subjects is best 
indicated by tlie fact that there was an increase in number of schools 
teaching it in I'lUIS-^l over those offeriiii: it in l'^07-8 of 21, or 13 per 
cent. 

woomvoRK. 

This subject occupies the sixth phice in importance in the list of 
vocational subjects common in the 165 high schools considered. There 
were 25 schools teaching woodwork, or 15 per cent of the total number 
considered. These schools have an enrolment of 8,521 students, or 30 
per cent of the total, and a teaching force of 376, or 27 per cent of the 
teaching bod\. Hy comparison it will be readily seen that the schools 
offering woodwork are far above the average in size. This subject is 
elective except in strictly manual arts schools, where of course it is 
required. 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE. 

The subject that has the honor of seventh place on the list of 
common vocational subjects in 165 high schools considered is the com- 
paratively new subject known as domestic science. Domestic science 
was taught in 2i, or 14 per cent, of the schools last year. These schools 
had a total enrolment of 8,745 students, or 31 per cent of the enrolment 
in all the 165 schools under consideration. Nine high schools added the 
subject to their curriculum in the last \ ear. This is evidence of its 
p«jpularity. 

FORGE-WORK. 

Korge-work. like sevc-ral other subjects of a mrchanical or manual 
nature, is not very wide spread because, in all but the larger schools, 
the equipment is too expensive. EIc\-en high schools offered this subject; 
these schools have 18 per cent ot the students and 15 per cent of the 
teachers. 

M.\CHINI--SnOI'\V()RK. 

Machine-shopwork is another subject tiiat recjuires an equipment of 
cc»n>i(lerablc value, and also a special instructor, liecause of these two 
rravins it i>» nf»t '.urpri>ing to luid it is not ;i coinnion sidiject. It was 
offered in 7 of the best e(|uipped schools of the state, and has produced 
g«K)(i results in each. These seven schools are far above the average in 
rnrolm<-nt so that the subject is oi greater imjiortance than the number 
of schools giving it wfiuld indicate. 



VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS IN CALIIURMA lllCJIl S(AI()(JLS 233 
FOUNDRY WORK. 

Owing to the lack of equipment, many of the secondary scliools of 
this state which would otherwise teach foundry practice are unahle to do 
so. Nevertheless, this subject occupies the tenth place as to numerical 
importance, among the vocational subjects. It is found in six schools, 
or 4 per cent, with 14 per cent of the entire enrolment and 9 per cent 
of the teaching force. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING. 

This subject has not been recognized as one suitable for secondary 
school instruction except for the past two years, and has not therefor, 
been taken up by many schools. It is taught in 6 schools only, and is 
eleventh in numerical importance. 

Of these 11 subjects recognized by the University the most prevalent 
and best established are the drawing and the commercial branches. 
There is both an economic and a historical reason for this. Commercial 
and drawing branches have been longer organized; again, the cost of 
equipment is slight in comparison to the cost in the manual branches. 

The following five vocational subjects seem to figure somewhat in 
the curricula of many of the secondary schools of California. They 
are commercial arithmetic, shorthand and typewriting — in advance of 
the unit credit recognized by the university; the combination course 
made up of English, penmanship, and spelling; bookkeeping, in advance 
of one entrance unit recognized by Stanford ; and commercial cor- 
respondence. 

Commercial arithmetic was taught in 10 schools during the year 
1908-9; advanced shorthand and typewriting, in 10 schools; commercial 
English, penmanship, and spelling, in 9 schools; advanced bookkeeping, 
in 7 schools; and commercial correspondence, in 3 schools. 

PERCENTAGE OF SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS. 

During the year there were 24 schools offering no vocational sub- 
jects, or only 14.5 per cent of the total number of schools considered. 
37 schools whose curricula were from 1 to 5 per cent vocational 
21 schools whose curricula were from 5 to 10 per cent vocational 
44 schools whose curricula were from 10 to 15 per cent vocational 
23 schools whose curricula were from 15 to 20 per cent vocational 
10 schools whose curricula were from 20 to 25 per cent vocational 
6 schools whose curricula were from 25 to 46 per cent vocational 



:34 u./.vr.// triimm; m.ic i/.i.\e 

riu'so tiixuros aro coniputoil on tlu' basis of year subject. For 
e\;uiiplo. sav a certain school izivos tour \i'ars \\x)rk, or 4 units of Latin, 
and .^ units of Greek, 4 oi English, .^ of mathematics, 2 units of book- 
keepinii, 1 of cenmetrical draw in iZ, we unuUl have 17 years of work. 
i^i tliis, 14 \ears or units wouKl be non-xocational in nature, ieavinjz; 
.^ \ears for units of vocational work. The course would be 82 per cent 
non-vocational, and IS per cent \'ocational. The median high school 
has a curriculum that is from \0 to 1 "> per cent xocational. 

sic.NiriCANCi-; ok tuksk facts. 

It seems to me that these facts iiulicate a distinct \<)cational educa- 
tional tendenc\ in seconilar\ education in the state of California. The 
so-calleil cultural high schools are beginning to absorb this new educa- 
tional material. They are beginning to respond to the demands made 
upon them b\ industrial and economic interests. It is significant that 
as many as eight units in vocational subjects may be submitted for 
entrance to the universities of the states. The universities are also 
beginning to respond to the demantls, and are trying to make the 
vocational road easier for the high schools by giving due credit to 
vocational work in their entrance requirements. The predominance 
of commercial and drawing branches may indicate how, in the intro- 
duction of this new work, high schools are following the line of "least 
cost", as equipment for these courses is less expensive than for many 
other vocational subjects. It should be remembered, however, that 
manual training and domestic science are finding a place in a liigh 
percentage of California high schools in spite of the financial hindrance 
to their introduction. Possibly the most significant fact brought out by 
this is the fact that agricultural subjects are chiefly conspicuous by their 
absence. This is a sad reflection upon the secondary schools of 
California in \ icu oi the state's great agricultural interests and re- 
sources. 



ROOMS IN PAPER. 
PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN.^ 

V. 

Nama a. Lathe and Esther Szold. 
ORIGINAL DESIGN OF DOORS AND DRAWERS. 

THE choice of the arrangement of door and drawer spaces for 
such furniture as buffets, dressers, and desks presents a funda- 
mental problem in design in a concrete form. Even young boys 
and girls realize the necessity, in this case, for limitation to horizontal 
and vertical divisions within the rectangle. This problem of proportion 
of rectangles to each other and to the enclosing rectangle is the basis 
of design in the building arts and may be traced in such masterpieces 
as Giotto's tower, Ghiberti's gates, the cathedral of Notre Dame in 
Paris, and in the most desirable modern buildings. In the magazines 
one may find pictures of many excellent designs for judgment and com- 
parison. 

The design for the drawer faces and doors must aim not only at 
good space relations ; the arrangement must also be consistent with 
strength ; the size and shape of the parts must be governed by their use, 
and this, in turn, governs their position. Fig. 29 shows examples of 
spacings for the front of a buffet, which conform to the conditions im- 
posed. 

The drawer-pulls are small round-headed brass paper fasteners. 
The spacing of these must be considered and experimented with when 
planning the spacing of the front. Time can be saved by marking their 
position accurately before the plan of the facings is cut into separate 
pieces. They may not be placed so near the sides of the drawers that 
their shanks will have no room to spread. 

The effect of moldings and panelings may be added by planning well 
proportioned borders within the shapes and penciling the lines of these 
heavily to show thru the stain. See Fig. 29(A). 

Several trials should be made, sketching freehand. The most 
promising suggestion may be sketched on the front of the frame or on 
another piece of construction paper of the same size and shape. When 
the spacing is determined, rule the lines accurately. If the plan has 

iCopyright, 1912-1913, by Nama A. Lathe and Esther Szold. 

235 



230 M.iM .11. ir.ii.m.m: .m la.i/.ixi-: 

been made lui a separate piece of paper, the drawer and door faces maj' 
be cut out directly from this, iiuide marks phiccil on the frame, and the 
faciiiiis ^lued in phice. 

If, in making a piece of furniture, the main emphasis is phicetl upon 
its design, httinji it with drawers is uiuniportant. The construction of 



ILjc-JI ^ 1 



ZD 



Sugge9t<o^^ fei 
Spacing the 
Front of a 

Buffet 




FIG. 29. 



a model having many drawers would invohe a rather futile expenditure 
of time. If. on the other hand, the mechanics of the problem is deemed 
more desirable, the design may wisel\ he kept simple. Self-reliant and 
rapid workers would be quite happy in the privilege of making drawers 
for their pieces during the intervals which they would otherwise spend 
in waiting for the plodding hod\ of the class to catch up. And there 
is a satisfaction in making a piece "that works." The slower members 
of the class ma> be hinited to using merel\ the facings for drawers and 
doors. 



CALCL LATKJN FOR ()RI(,I\ \L l)R \\\ 1 R CONSTRUCTIONS. 

Drawer features arc pjaruu-d in the following general order: Design 
the spacing. Rule the lines for the openings i',," to I" within these 
spaces. The drawers themselves must be |',./' less in width and height 
than the openings. The depth of the drawer from front to back must 
be less than the depth of the piece of furniture in order to pernut the 
facings to be flat against the front of the frame. 

'I'he original designs for the side panels of the buffet, w hich support 
the upp<-r shelf may deal with the outline of the shape or with the 
openings, or both, 'i'he paper-cutting method suggested for the design 



ROOMS L\ PAPER 



237 



for chair-backs ma\- be used here. If desired, the shelf may be omitted 
and the upper portion of tlie buffet otherwise treated. 




FIG. 30A. 



BUFFET. 

See Figs. 30, 30A, and 31. 

ORDER OF STEPS IN CONSTRUCTION. 

Designs: — The spacing of the drawers and doors and of the panels 
at the top of the side sections of 
the frame may be original if de- 
sired. The design decided upon 
may then be carried out following 
either of the two constructions 
outlined below. 

Draw the pattern after the 
method indicated in previous 
models. 

C n s t r u c t i n. Omitting 
Drawers: — The effect of drawers 
and doors can be successfully 
shown by simply pasting the 
drawer facings and doors to the 

front of the frame, as indicated in Figs. 30 and 30A, without making 
the actual drawers. 

Draw the pattern of the frame. Fig. 30, omitting the heavy lines 
of the drawers and door openings and all the pairs of pasting lines on 
the side sections. 

Score, cut, and fold. 

Pasting: — Double forward the vertical laps along the inner edges 
of the panels at the top of the side sections. Paste against the ad- 
joining strip. 

Put line pinpricks thru the frame just inside the corners of the 
rectangles drawn for the drawer and door facings. 

Turn the frame right face up. 

Paste the facings to the right side of the frame with their corners 
just covering the pinpricks. 

Mark where the pulls are to be inserted. 

Prick pinholes thru the front at these points. 

Paste the side laps of the top section of the front to the side sections 
on the level of line A'. 



23 S 



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ROOMS IN PIPER 



239 




j4^» M i.\i .11 TKiiMXc; m.ic;.i/.im: 

Rc';ul iliroctions tor toinuiiiZ the back aiiil the UhIlic under l\(itiin's 
Common to Both Constructions. 

Thi Beuk: — Fit the back to the traiue aiul mark as directed. Re- 
move the back. 

Spread izlue along the long horizontal lap at the back ot the frame. 

Replace the back and lay the buffet on its back. 

Put the hand up into the frame and press the lap in place. 

Paste the ends of the top shelf in place. 

Paste tlie long vertical laps o\ er the back. 

LtiJt^t-: — Fit the ledge to the frame as tlirectcil. 

Paste in place. 

Stain the buti'et. 

Insert the drawer and iloor pulls anil clamp them on the inside. 

Shtlf: — One shelf like the pattern in Fig. M is needed to brace the 
tranu- at the bottom. 

Turn the butitet on its back. 

Spread glue on one <if the long laps of the shelf. 

P.-Lste this lap along the bottom edge of the inner face of the back. 
The lap shouhl turn downward. 

Press until dry. but avoid pushing the loose edge of the shelf up- 
into the frame during this operation. 

Spread glue just inside the base of the other three siiles of the frame. 

Push the shelf cautiously into place. Press the laps against the 
plued sections. 

(jonstrmtion uitli dranirs and limited doors: — Draw the pattern of 
the trame as shown complete in Fig. 30. 

When locating the three pairs of pasting lines shown in the side 
sections of the frame note that the upper lines of each pair are con- 
tinuations of the lower lines of the openings of the front. 

Score, cut, and fold as indicated. 

Pasting: — Double forward the vertical hips along the inner edges 
of the panels at the tDj) of the si(h- sections, i'aste against the adioim'ng 
strip. 

Turn the frame right face up. 

Paste the tloors on the ':" laji left for that jinrpose. 

See that the hack edges of the iloors come e\a(tl\ to the crease of 
the lap and that 1" of the tloors extends ;ibo\c and below the opem'ngs. 

Shilnf: — Three shelves like the one in l""ig. .^1 are needed to 
M-rvr a.s supports for the drawers and as ;i base (oi the i ii|)l)oar(l below. 

'I*i:rn the frame right t;i(c down. 



ROOMS IN PAPER 241 

Paste a long lap of one shelf to the inside of the front on a level 
with the lower edge of the highest drawer openings. The lap of the 
shelf should turn downward. Note the position of the top pair of 
pasting lines shown on the side sections of the frame. 

Paste the remaining shelves in the same relation to the remaining 
openings, the bottom shelf last. 

For strength at the door fastenings paste a V strip of paper on tlie 
inside of the vertical strip between the doors. 

Note the directions for pasting the shelves of the book-case and 
follow the same method in pasting the shelves and the top section of 
the front of the buffet to one side section. A pencil or ruler may be 
found helpful in pressing the laps into place. 

Do not paste the long vertical laps at the back of the frame to the 
shelves. 

For pasting the shelves to the second side section it may be found 
better to spread glue quickly between all the pairs of pasting lines and 
under line X at once and push the laps of the shelves against the paths 
of glue. 

Read directions for forming the back and the ledge under Features 
Common to Both Constructions. 

The Back: — Fit the back to the frame and mark as directed. 

Remove the back. 

Spread glue quickly along all the horizontal laps at the back of the 
frame. 

Replace the back. 

Lay the buffet on its back and press the laps into place with a ruler 
or pencil inserted thru the drawer and door openings. 

Paste the ends of the top shelf in place. 

Paste the long vertical laps over the back. 

Ledge: — Fit the ledge to the frame as directed. 

Glue in place. 

Drawers: — Mark on the drawer faces where the pulls are to be in- 
serted. Prick to preserve the marks. 

Paste the drawers into shape. 

Lay, right face down, the drawer face corresponding to one of the 
drawers. 

Adjust the proper side of the drawer against this, taking care that 
the margins of the projecting face are even. Mark with a pencil the 
position of the drawer on the face. 



242 



M.LM .11. TR ll.\l.\C .M.n; l/l.\F 



Spread iilue dii the sido of rhc iliawor aiul paste in place. 

Repeat with the reniaiiiiiiii ilraweis. 

Stain the buitet and drawer faces. 

Prick pinholes thru the drawer fronts at the points for the pulls. 

Insert the pulls and clamp on the inside. 

Place the "door knobs" so that b\ turning the head on the outside 

the spreading shanks on the inside 
can be made to fasten the door shut 

L^ ^^ by slippiiiLi; uiuler the central strip 
^ — '':T^^^^^^^^^^r\ "f fhc front. 
— ® I 

It the knob does not turn reailily 

use the spreading!; shanks as a handle 

to turn until the movement is free. 

Itdtuns Cjdinnion to Both Coii- 

.^t ructions. 

The Buck: — See Fii^s. 31 and 
.■?0A. Double forwartl the ,-\r" strip 
at the top of the pattern of the back 
and paste it a<iainst the j " strip ad- 
joining it. 

I'he foKlinu; line marking the 
lower ediie of the -y strip of the 
ilrawinu falls at the top of the patft'rn of the back; if this is folded as 
indicated, and i" below the top. a '■'[" shelf will project forward. 

Spread glue all along the ;'" strip, double it forward, and paste to 
the section below it. 

Paste the square laps under the sliort strijis at the ends of the shelf. 

Mirror: — A "mirror" of silver paper ma\ form an attractive feature 

untirr the shelf. If one is to be added, measure now on the back for 

it. Allow for a Mutable margin of "wood" all aiound the "nu'rror" but 

do not glue the latter in place until the buffet is completed and stained. 

.hi justing Back to the Frame: — Turn the pasted frame to face you. 

Place the back against it, allowing the long vertical laps at the 

siticN of the frame to fold outside of the back. 

Line -V of the hack is the pasting line for the broad le\cl top of the 
franir. 

Holding the buffet in this position, note and mark the places where 
the rnds of the narrow shelf should b<- jilaced on the side panels. 
Pr<K"eed as directed under the sejiarate cruistnirtions above. 




nc. 1 2 A. 



ROOMS IN PAPER 



243 




244 M,l.\L .11 TR IIMXC M.ia.l/IXF 

Tilt Ltii^t : — Double forward the ij" laps of tlu- Icdj^i' and jz;lue in 

place. 

The li'diic should Hr the top of the buffet, \\ ith the doubled edges 
prt)ieciini: sliizhtlv at the open part of the sides and at the front. 

Tht- Lf^s: — 1 he streivjth of the leirs is ixreath' increased by folding 
strips of paper atul ulueini: them into the angles from the lowest shelf 
down. 

rm- si;R\i\r. table. 

See Fiiis. .^2 and 32A. 

Follow the order of construction indicated in pre\ious patterns — 
especially the buft'et. The panels at the ends of tlie table may be either 
omitted or oriizinal in desiixn. 

Spfcinl Ftd/utts: — If a drawer is ilcsired, rule lines for the opening 
on the front rail I" insiile the lines of the rectangle indicating the size 
of the drawer facing. 

Cut out the inner rectangle. 

Plan the bottom of the drawer ,',./' less in width than the width of 
tlie opening, and at least [" less in depth than the depth of the table. 

I'lan the rim around the bottom of the drawer ,',," less than the 
height of the operu'ng. Compare the proportions of the drawers of the 
buffet with their openings. 

Cut the drawer face the exact si/e of the rectangle tlrawn for it. 

A shelf is added at the level of the low hori/nntal braces between the 
legs. 

For a model with a drawer a second shelf is needed to support the 
drawer. This is glued at the le\el (if the lower edge of the tlrawer 
opening. 

In pasting the top section nf the front and the shelves into the 
t'ranie, and in other operations, follow the order of construction described 
under Coris/rm tirj/i niih Draiurs for the buffet. 

Double over and pa>te in place the ij" strip at the top of the back 
pattern before pasting the back In jiiace. 

Line .\' of rhe back falls on a lc\cl w ifh line X of the frame. 

' To hf I nriliiiucil. ) 



WHAT THE MANUFACTURER SHOULD EXPECT OF 
THE MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL GRADUATE. 

Wilson H. Henderson. 

IN the October number of "The Furniture Manufacturer and 
Artisan'' a manufacturer raises a question regarding manual 
training schools. He cites a case of an educational institute in 
a village near New York Cit}" that started a night class of forty boys 
in wood\\orking and cabinet-making. Of the forty, nine stayed thru 
the entire course of three years, but not one had the idea of continuing 
in the trade. He uses this to show that boys of the present generation 
do not want to earn their living in the trades. The following is 
quoted from the article : 

The teaching of the child by the parent is always done with the many wrongs 
they seenn to feel in nnind. They have passed thru many hardships, and the point 
of view they take of the question is directly opposite to that of the seeker of 
intelligent labor wlio, they seem to think, wants the boy to learn a trade so as to 
be able to exploit him to the employer's advantage. No; their child is not going 
to learn a trade; employers' sons will become professional men — lawyers, doctors, 
etc. You do not see rich men's sons learning trades with which to make a living. 
They do not have to. Most of the fathers did not earn what they have by day's 
pay. They made it by their brain 

Education has made the boys think and observe what is going on around 
them, and when they see the older members of another generation who have been 
at the bench all their lives, and figure out what the reward and recompense has 
been, their ambitions run in a direction opposite thereto. They want to get out 
of the factory into a higher social scale and secure a financial return earned by 
mental labor without the manual labor. Education having done its work, the 
others are in the ruck we who have to hire help get into. Now, if they have 
not the mind to see that education would have prevented them from working 
for us, how are we going to do it by education? 

Education and manual training together are not going to succeed unless the 
plain education — "book learning"^ — does. The best we have of the old-time 
mechanics of the old school, and the loss of which is the real reason of our 
worry, had no education. Most of them hardly knew how to add. 

We are all more or less slaves of tradition, and tradition has taught 
us that the white collar is an emblem of aristocracy and that overalls 
mean servitude. The manual training schools must break away from 
this tradition as they have from educational tradition and they are 
rapidly doing so. They are teaching the rising generation that only 
that knowledge that can be applied is power. No one knows better 

245 



246 U./.Vr.//. TR.HMXC MIC l/I.\H 

than a school teacher that "book, know l(.'il>2;c" docs iiot mean easy money. 
E\cry citv has hundreds of yovini: men workinii: in offices at from $40 
to SbO a month, w hile men in the shops with less training are working 
for S^KI to >125 a month. The man in the office pays more for his 
clothes and gets less for his work. I'o he svire he wears a white collar 
but he has to \\\\ the huindr\ hill. The pathetic attempts of >oung 
professional men to keep up an air of prosperity are proverbial. I am 
very well acquainted with two young attorneys whose combined receipts 
for three months were less than SI 00. To be sure they always wore 
white collars and had creases in their trousers. That is part of the 
game. If they had been real busy they would not have had the time 
to press their trousers every morning. One of them finally went to 
work as a bridge carpenter at $\20 a month. The other is still 
struggling along collecting rents, etc. 

The statement that rich men's sons are all entering the professions 
is not correct. The son of the Go\ern()r-elcct of Illinois is a steam 
titter. A ver\ prominent State Superintendent of Schools stated to 
me that he wouUl like to ha\ e his son learn a trade. Alore than one 
millionaire's son is working in the shops. Good business men know- 
that the\ can hire lawyers easier than they can get competent foremen, 
machinists, or e\en kitchen lielp. 

A certain large manufacturing concern recently sent its superin- 
tendent to Detroit with orders to hire 100 machinists from the auto- 
mobile works. His orders were not to pay more than necessary but 
to get the men. In that same town they could have employed a car 
load of clerks in a half-day at their own price. A printing establishment 
in the same cit\ is ativertising for printers ami will bear the moving 
expenses and pay them $100 a inonrli. They could get a train load of 
school teachers with that offer. 

The one thing that is in demand is skill. Knowledge alone is not 
worth much and neither is jihxsical strength, but the knowlegde of how^ 
hot to use the physical strength is the high-priced article. A physician 
can tell me that I ha\c appendicitis and will gladly do so for two 
dollars, but the man who can oiicratc on me and cure the ailment will 
charge me $2< <». 

Apparentl\ the maiuifactiirer is afraid that the manual training 
schfxiU are going to prevent his getting com|)ctcnr help. It seems to 
me to be an indictment of an\ establishment to say that an educated 
man would not work in it. If that is the case, the sooner such a concern 
fmds itsrif without help, tin- better. 



iniAT THE MAMFACTIRER SllOl I.I) EXPECT 247 

The real producer of all wealth is the laborer. The man who 
makes his living with his brain (I do not mean by his wits), iloes so 
by organizing or directing productive effort. I'he leader is the man 
with the greatest power or ability to organize and direct, but he alone 
does not produce anything. The greatest manufacturing concerns are 
recognizing the fact that their engineers and mechanics are just as 
essential to their existence as their board of tlirector^ 

Manufacturers could -learn one lesson from the manual training 
schools and that is that the best way to get good work, both in qualit\' 
and quantity, is to enlist the interest of the worker. No p.rson will 
do his best when he can see nothing beyond the operati(jn in hand. 
One large commercial establishment has soKed its labor problem in this 
way: A savings association is operated in connection with the business, 
and each employee is urged to put a part of each week's pay into stock 
in the savings association. When stock in the savings association matures 
it may be exchanged for stock in the company. This stock receives its 
semi-annual dividends the same as other stock. In this way every 
employee becomes vitally interested in the welfare of the business. He 
speaks of the company as "we" instead of "they" which makes a world 
of difference. There has never been a strike or a walk-out in this 
establishment since it adopted this policy. That it pays is demonstrated 
by the corporation's paying 14 per cent dividends on fifty million 
dollars of stock. 

The manual training school graduate will not fit into the place of 
the "old-time mechanic of the old school" who "had no education" and 
"hardly knew how to add." Why should he? Our compulsory educa- 
tion laws were made to stop the production of such men. Our schools 
are adjusting themselves to modern conditions and the factories will 
have to do likewise. 



Ml rAl.WDRK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
ciRAMMAR AND HIGH SCHOOLS. XI/ 

Arthi R F. Payne. 

IN the hu^t articK" ot this series the method of niakinj; a seamed 
vase was described. That nietht)d of "phiin seamirii:;" is perfectly 
satisfactory for a vase that does not ha\ e to have its general shape 
chanjied very much from the lines that it had when it was seamed. 
But that method of seaniinii would not work satisfactorily with the vase 
in the first illustration, shown herewith, because the top and bottom 
has been hammered out so far that if it had been made with a plain 
seam, the seam would certainly ha\c broken. 

To avoid that serious difHculty we must make use of a slightly 
ditterent kind of a seam. This type of seaming was known among the 
old English metalworkers by the name of "cramp seaming." On every 
piece of genuine old English metalwork, and on kettles particularly, 
one can readily find the characteristic zig-zag mark of this seam. On 
the vase in the secoml illustration the seam has been soldered with 
silver solder, and is easily distinguished. 

This kind of scam is readily uiulerstooil aiul is easily made, the 
method being as follows: After the pattern has been developed, and 
the metal cut out. as described in the last article, a line must be drawn 
with compass or dividers parallel to each etlge of the seam. These 
two lines must be drawn on opposite sides of the piece of metal, and 
may var\- from \" to ','" from the edge of the metal, depending, of 
Cfjurse. upon the si/.e of the \ ase. ilien, with a coarse Hat file thin 
down the edge to the line that was drawn parallel to the etlge. The 
foregc)ing directions are illustrated at 1 in the drawing. The thick- 
ness of the metal is nuich exaggerated so as to show more easily the 
way in which the edge must be filed down. i he next step is to lay 
off along the entire length of one edge spaces about !/' apart, and with 
a pair of ^lH•a^s eut down to the line that was drawn parallel to the 
edge. The next step is to bend each alternate piece of metal up and 
the other piece- down. Bend them with a pair of |)ilers just enough 
to allow the other edge to slip it) between when it is bent around, thus 

« CopyriKtil l>v .Artliiir I- . Payiic, 1 'V I J, 1VI3. 

24X 



METALU'ORK IflTIl LXEXPENSIIE EQUIPMENT 



249 



brin^in^ the edges of the seam together. These directions are ilhistrated 
in the sketch at 2. The next step is to bend the metal around S(j that 
the two edges are together, and sh'p the edge that has been filed thin 
but not cut between the small pieces or "cramps" that have been bent 
up and down. Hold the edges firmly together and place the vase over 
a round stake and with a raw hide or a wooden mallet hammer the 
cramps down. Next bind the edges together with wire as illustrated 




VASE WITH CRAMPED SEAM. THIS VASE 

COULD NOT HAVE BEEN JvlADE BY THE 

METHOD OF "PLAIN SEAMING". 



"cramped" SEAM VASE READY FOR 
SHAPING. 



and described in the last article, and solder with silver solder as des- 
cribed in the issue of April, 1912. The vase is now ready for shaping 
and fluting. 

The extent to which this kind of seam can be beaten out is shown 
in the third picture of the vase. The vase is 14" high and, as shown 



250 



M I.M .11 TRUMXa M IC.I/.IM-: 



in tlu- stviuul phtitoiiiaph. the bottom nioasurcil 4';" across: as shown 
in thf third photoiiraph. the hottmii has been haninuMTil aiul stn-tchcd 
out until it measured 7:,'" across. The vase was Huted in the same 
manner as shown tor nut-howls, and the bottom was "lapped" on as 
shown tor candlestick bases, earlier in the series. To make the bottom 
water tiiiht the bottom edsze of the \ase was coated with soft solder 
applied with a solderitiil iron. Then the bottom was "lapped" on 
and hnalh the lapped seam was held in the flame of a bunsen burner 
nu'ltinii the solder and making the vase water ti^ht. The vase was 
then polished with emery cloth, colored dark with 
the potassium sulphiile solution, tlie finish was re- 
liextd with emery cloth, anil finally the \ase was 

1L:i\cn two coats of wax. 
There is one other method of makiiiij; a shape 
that cannot be made by any of the six methods pre- 
\i()usl\ described, and that is the method used in 
makiiiL: the Howcr jar shown in the fourth illustra- 
tion. This piece is square, with sharp corners, ain! 
ir would be \ery difficult, if not impossible, to make 
it by an\ of the previously described methods. So 
a pattern is developed from a drawing, ami laid out 
on a flat piece of metal : the metal is cut to the 
pattern, the four sides arc bent to the shape of the 
original drawini:, ami the corners are soldered 
toiiether with silver solder. Ihe white silver solder may be seen on the 
corners of the jar as the jar was not polished or colored when the 
picture was taken. 

The details of this method of pattern development are as follows: 
First, ilraw an accurate full size outline of the desired shape, as shown 
at J in the sketch, and draw the center line ,7 /). Carefully divide 
the center line into [" spaces with the pencil dividers, and draw lines 
clear across the drawing on the }" points. I<:nore the feet as thev can 
r.tsiU be beaten out when the shape is finished. Startin^i at the bottom, 
number the lines /. .J. ■! . etc., as shown in the sketch. Next, draw a 
new center line (1 I). ;is at 4- With the i)',Muil dividers carefully 
measure the (li>tanic on sketch ■> from the point where the line / inter- 
sects the outline (where the arrow mark is) to the point v\ heic line No. 
2 intrrsrets the oiitliru-. La\ this distance off on the mvv tenter line 
(1 I), and number the points / and 2. respectivciv . Continue with the 



SHOWING EXTENT TO 
WHICH A CRAMPED 
SEAM WII.I. STRETCH. 



METAUroRK IIITII IM-XPEXSllL EQLUWIENT 251 




MiM.n TR UMSc; M.u:.i/.i\t: 




METAUrORK ft'irn INEXPEXSIIE EQlll'ME\r 



253 



remainder of the points, reniemberinfi: always to measure the distance 
on the outside line of sketch No. 3 and to lay it off on the center line 
C D of the sketch No. ^, being sure to number them as you lay them 
off. This work must be done accurately or your vase will not be the 

shape desired. When the trans- 
ference of points is completed you 
will have on the new center line 
the same number of points that 
you did on the old center line but 
they will not be equally spaced. 
The next step is to place one leg 
(jf the dividers at the point where 
the center line and line No. 1 in- 
tersect on the No. 3 sketch, and 
measure the distance to where the 
same line intersects the outside line 
(where the arrow mark is). Lay 
this distance off on both sides on 




CHASED COPPER PLATE, SHOWING AN 
APPLICATION OF THE METHOD OF BEAT- 
ING DOWN THE BACKGROUND WITH THE 
PLANISHER CHASING TOOLS. 



line No. 1 



the No. L. sketch. 



Do the same thing with all the 
other lines, and you will have a 
series of points the same as on the left side of the No. ^ sketch. 
Connect these points, as on the right side, and you will have a pattern 
of one side that when bent to shape will he the shape and size of the 
original sketch. With a piece of 
transparent tracing paper copy the 
outline of the pattern of the side, 
and then lay off a square the size 
of the bottom of the flower jar and 
transfer the pattern of the side to 
each of the four sides of the square 
bottom, as shown in sketch No. 5, 
and you will have a completed 
pattern of the flower jar. 

Stick the pattern on to a flat 
piece of 18 B & S gage copper, or 
transfer it to the copper with car- c^^^"^" blotter, in which the back- 

GROUND WAS BEATEN DOWN FROM THE 

bon paper, and cut or saw the metal front, and also the design beaten up 
to the same shape as the pattern. '^^'^^^ ™'^ '^^^'^• 
Carefully file the edges to the cor- 




!54 



M.l.M .11 TR ll.\l.\C M U:.l/.l.\H 



rtvt shape aiui also tile tluMu xo a bi-\cl st) that tlu\\ will fit tom'ther at 
tin- ciirm-rs. Hfiul each siile upward, aiul iiiwanl until the corners come 
tom'thcr. thin soKler with silver soKler the tour corners as far as they 
tit together, then hemi each siiie upward and inward a little more and 
solder aiiain, continuini: this process until the top is reached. Remember 
to keep the seams clean and tree from dirt or L:;rease of an\ kind; it 
is bt'st to ct)ver the entire leniith of each seam with borax, which will 
keep it clean, ami also protect it from oxidation. 




KRIsT PRDCES^RS I\ CHASIXG. THE RIGHT HAND SUM. SHOWS THK STUDENTS FIRST 

ATfE M PT. 

After it has been "pickled" and cleaned, if it is to be left iilain it 
is rea«iy for "■planishinj:." In such a complicated shape it will probably 
be advisable to till it with pitch and planish the metal smooth on the 
pitch after it has become hard. This method of iilanishiiTj; was des- 
cribed in the last article of the series. 



Rl I'OL SSI. AM) ell \SI\(, ON riicii. 

Rcpf)usse and chasing are synonvmous terms for the same kind of 
work an<l prruess. Repousse is the b'nnch term, ;md chasini:; and 
cbased w(»rk are the F.nylish terms. As the term chasin;z is that which 
is in common use in the trade, and in the supply catalogs the tools are 
df-siynated as (basing' tools, it seems best in this svries to use that term. 

In th«- issue of June. 1911, instructions were ^iven tor the most 
rlnnentary method of ehasinji, that is, cha.sinti on a piece ot soft wood 



METALirORK lllTll INEXPESSIIE EOVII'MEST 255 

instead of pitch. Chasin*: is sculpture in metal, it is the fine art of 
metalworkinj;, it is the makin<i; of has reliefs in metal, and it requires 
training and ability to see and think in three dimensions. Saw piercing 
and en^^ravinti require only two dimensions, length and breadth ; chasing 
requires the third, thickness. 




SILVER CUP, FLAT CHASING, SHOWING THE EXTENT TO WHICH 
SIMPLE CHASING MAY BE CARRIED. 

An explanation of the technical processes of chasing is very simple 
and is easily understood. The metal with the design drawn on it is 
embedded in chaser's pitch, and the design is outlined with a chis?l-like 
tool called a "tracer". The metal is then removed from the pitch, 
placed face downward on a piece of soft wood, and the raised parts of 
the design are beaten up from the back. The metal is then "annealed" 
and placed back in the pitcli. The design is then modelled into shape 
with the proper tools. 

The chasing toois used are made of tool steel \" or {\.;" square and 
4" long. A well selected set of 50 chasing tools may be bought from a 
dealer in such tools for $7.50. But it would be just as well for a 



256 



l/./.Vr.V/. TR.II.MXC M.IC.I/.IXE 



bejrinner tt> bu\ a straight aiul a curvi'd tracfi, a lar^e ami a small 
planishcr. loarii to use them, ami make the others as he needs them. 
When makiiiiZ them, after the\ ha\e been tileil to shape they must be 
barileneii b\- heating the points red hot am! plunLrin^ in cold water, 
and theti polisheil briiiht with emer\ eloth ami tempered by slowly 




CHASED FIX)WER JAR, "TRACED AND SNARI.ED". THIS PHOTOGRAPH SHOWS THE PRE- 
LIMINARY STEPS IN THE WORK, WHICH IS SHOWN COMI'I.I-TKD ON PAGE 252. 



Iieatin^ them to a dark straw color and ajzain plun^in;i; into water. 
Chasinp tortls ma\ be rouLihly divided into tour lar^e divisions : tracers, 
st^ai^ht and curved, that are used to make lines; planishcrs, of numerous 
shapcN and sizes, used to beat down the background and for modelling; 
matts, simiiiar in shape to the planishers, but with matted or grained 
surfaces which are transferred to the metal when the tools are used ; 
beads, rosettes, and special tools that are not of any great value to the 
beginner. A bo\ rif chaser's tools is shown in the illustration. 

Chaser's pitch i; made of equal parts liurgundy pitch and plaster 
of I'aris melted together. To every 5 pounds of combined pitch and 
piaster add a piece of tallow the size of an English walnut. Melt the 
pitch first, and slowh add the plaster, stirring it in as you add it to 
the pitch. 



METAL WORK iriTll IS'EXPKNSIVE EQUIPMENT 



257 



For larjif Hat pieces the pitch may he poured into a square cake 
tin, or an onh'nary hreail tin. For small fine work it is hetter to use 
the round pitch block and rin^ that is shown in the illustration. A 
cheap pitch block can be made from an ordinary puddinji pan about 6" 
or 8" in diameter. The bottom should be beaten out njund so that it 
will set firmly in the rinjj; and be readily turned and tilted when 
necessary. 




CHASED FLOWER JAR, BACKGROUND BEATEN DOWN. A LATER STAGE IN THE PROCESS. 

A chaser's rin^ is a rinji; that holds the pitch block in position while 
the piece is being chased. A very satisfactory one may be made by 
taking a piece of copper 2" wide and about 20" long and riveting or 
soldering the ends together so as to form a circle. Then wind around 
this ring strips of cloth until the pitch block fits in snug and tight, as 
is shown in the illustration. 

After the design is drawn or transferred onto the metal, the 
edges of the metal should be turned under with a pair of pliers, and 
then placed on top of the pitch and warmed with the flame of the 
blowpipe ( :r bunsen burner. The heated metal will slowly sink into 
the pitch. Care must be taken that the metal is not too hot, as it is 
likely to sink in too far. When the metal is cold start to chase the 



258 



M.LM.^L TRrllMXG MAGAZINE 




METALU'ORK JflTII IXEXPEA'SIl E EOIIPMENT 



259 



outline with the tracers. He careful to hold the tool in the position 
as shown in the photof^raph, have the fourth and third finders resting 
on the metal, the second and first fingers and the thumh holding the 
tool. Do not hold the tool perfectly straight, hut tilt the top slightlj' 
away from the direction in which you want to move. 

The first attempt at tracing will almost surely he a failure, hut 
after an hour's practice control 
will be acquired. The right-hand 
side of the illustration on page 254 
shows a student's first attempt at 
tracing. The next illustration, a 
silver prize cup, shows the extent 
to which simple tracing can be 
carried. The left-hand side of the 
preceding figure shows the next 
step which is beating down the 
background with the planisher 
chasing tools. This is sometimes 
done instead of beating up the de- 
sign from the back. An applica- 
tion of this method is shown in the 
illustration of a chased copper 
plate. But in the case of the 
blotter both methods were used. 
After the planishing of the back- 
ground, the metal was removed 
from the pitch by warming it 
slightly and lifting it out with a 
piece of wire. It was then an- 
nealed, and the design beaten up 
from the back on a soft piece of 
wood, set back in the pitch, and 

modelled to form with the small planishers. If the design is beaten up 
very high it will be necessary to fill the high places with pitch before 
setting back in the pitch pan, as the air is likely to become enclosed in 
the high places and the metal will sink when an attempt is made to 
chase it. 

The chasing on the flower jar, shown on page 252, is also a student's 
first attempt at chasing. The accompanying illustrations show the 




RECESS CHASING. COPPER VASE. 



260 



.\LL\L .11. rR.n.\l.\G .\1.!C.IZI\E 




FONT uiiii CM \si;d dixoration. 



METALllORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 



261 



earlier steps on the same piece. To raise the design on pieces like this 
it is necessary to use the "snarling iron," as illustrated and described 
in the April, 1912, issue. 



RECESS CHASING. 



The next illustration shows a slightly different type of chasing that 
is comparatively easy of execution. It is known as "recess" chasing. 




SILVER FRUIT DISH, CHASED CARNATIONS. 

The rings that run clear around the vase are simply two lines close 
together made with a "tracing" tool. The outline of the decoration 
in the middle of the lower band was first outlined with the tracing 
tool and then parts of it were beaten down with a planisher lower than 
the level of the surface, making a recess that forms an effective and 
simple decoration. 

The photograph of the holy water font shows an effective application 
of various kinds of chasing. The front and the small rosettes show 
a consistent use of the raised relief chasing, sometimes called "repousse". 



jt.j M,L\L\n. tr.hmm: m.u:.i/i\e 

Vhc chasoil line coniuvtiiii: the rivets is niaile with the straight tracing 
tool, aiiil the dittereiit texture on the hackground is made with a planish- 
inii tool, making a sott contrast that sets off the entire design. 

The silver fruit dish with the chaseil carnations is a fair example 
of the extent to which this interesting process can he carried. But it 
should he rememhered by the beginner that such results cannot be ac- 
complished b\ a few hours' practice. Chasing is the highest type of 
metalwurking, and it requires atul re\eals the spirit of patient skill and 
intense interest as no other process does. It is (as always) best to 
start on the simpler forms first, get acquainted with and acquire a 
master\ of the tools and their capabilities, gradually working up to the 
more difficult forms, and the result w ill be sure and satisfying. 

( To he iontinufJ.) 




I.A.VIP WITH "cramped" SRAM BASE. 



EDITORIAL 

WK wish to call special attention to the changes that are takinjj 
place in manual training work of the elementary schools as 
shown by the data presented in the Current Items department 
of this issue. The data is not as complete as we had hoped that it 
would be, but it suggests a few tendencies, and invites comment and 
discussion. The general shaking up of educational ideas that has come 
with the movement for vocational education seems to have reached a 
stage where we begin to see some of its effects. The first of these, so far 
as the manual arts are concerned, is a little better time allowance for 
the work, and a more general willingness to consider questions of time 
and educational values on their merits. Prejudice is less active. The 
greatest drawback to the manual training work of this country is the 
fact that it does not have enough time in which tcj accomplish the 
results expected of it. It has been trying to do the unreasonable — the 
impossible. On this point the data given is encouraging, tho it shows 
that \\e are yet far from the goal of our endeavors. In the second 
place a noticeable change, partly due to the vocational movement, but 
more largely due to forces quietly at work before that movement broke 
upon us, is the revision of the subject-matter of the manual arts in the 
elementary school. The new movement, in encouraging specialization, 
is having the effect of bringing within the reach of the elementary 
school a richer body of subject-matter, and this is quite in harmony with 
the thought previously developed that the manual arts work of the 
elementary school should not consist merely of woodworking, or even 
of the mechanic arts alone, but it should include also the plastic arts, 
and the book-making arts, the graphic arts and the textile arts. At 
any rate, a richer manual arts offering seems certain thruout the 
elementary school. ^Moreover, the data collected suggests certain places 
of emphasis for the several arts taught. 

Changes It '^ pefectly clear that for boys the mechanic arts hold 

and the chief place in the grammar grades. Of these arts 

Tendencies benchwork in wood is decidedly the most popular subject. 
But we find two tendencies to modify the offering of these grades, — 
one by adding metalwork or some other craft to the woodworking, and 
in the same shop, the other by offering separate and specialized pre- 
vocational courses, such as plumbing, electrical work, printing, etc. It 

263 



264 M.IM.n. TR.UMXC M.IC.IZIXE 

is equalh clear that in the primary iirados tlie tendency is to keep the 
work broad, covering simple work in the plastic arts, the textile arts, 
and the book-makinii arts. In a tew places, not reported in the data, 
there is an attempt to adapt some of the processes oi the mechanic arts 
— woodworkinix, for example — to the needs of the primary grades, but 
the general opinion seems to be tliat the mechanic arts may better be 
reserved for later grades. The section of the school where there is the 
greatest change and uncertainty is the intermediate grades. The data 
g:ithered would indicate that the strongest tendency here is toward in- 
creasing the work in the mechanic arts, especially benchwork in wood 
and saw and knife work in thin wood. The book-making arts take 
second place. The difficulties in these grades are especially complex be- 
cause of the fact that here are found many over-age boys. In some cases 
the introduction of benchwork into the sixth grade has come because of 
the desire to meet the needs of these particular boys. If, as we may hope, 
there will soon be special schools adapted to their needs, as there are 
alreadv in a few places, the question of benchwork in any of the inter- 
mediate grailes ought to be more easily settled. With more time for 
the shopwork of the grammar grades and the over-age pupils removed, 
it niav be questionetl whether in the intermediate grades benchwork in 
wood cannot well give way to the book-making and the plastic arts. 
There is certainly developing a rich field in bookbinding, paper box 
making, and the construction of miniature furniture and toys out of 
heavy paper, apphing the principles of steel construction and teaching 
the elements of gooil design, also in clay work, including the elements of 
modeling and pottery. 

We believe that, for the most part, the changes that are taking 
place in the manual arts work of the elementary school are in the right 
direction. We are confident that the future will give more time to the 
work, that it will bring into the work more problems of real social 
significance and value, and that it will eliminate the trivial things that 
have characterized some of the work in the past. — C. A. B. 

Cleveland is developing what proiuises to be a very sig- 
Vf>c.Ttif)nal , .■ • i i • ■ i e 

f...A..^... nincant contribution to the solution of the problem of 

In Cleveland vr)cational guidance. 

The movement was inaugurated by a request from the 
Cleveland Chamber oi Commerce, prompted by its educational com- 
mitter, to the Y'oung .Men's Christian Association of the city to 
establish an experimental vf)catif)nal bureau under competent direction. 



EDITORIAL 265 

"and to devise a system of collecting and disseminating widely" in- 
formation concerning the requirements and opportunities of industrial 
and commercial vocations open to young people, with provision for 
competent advisors. It was the belief of the committee that the 
specific plans should have a broad general basis, thoroly organized, and 
that the large responsibility of the work should become eventually a 
function of the Board of Education. 

The request resulted in the calling and organizing of a general 
committee of thirty on vocational guidance, composed of representatives 
of the public schools and other educational institutions, employers, 
labor organizations and the various social up-lift forces of the city. 
This committee determined upon the organization of an institute of 
one hundred members, composed or representatives of the various social 
interests of the city, which should make a study of the existing con- 
ditions in the field of vocational guidance and industrial education as a 
basis for report. A series of institute meetings was organized for 
October, November and December. A general plan of work was out- 
lined and the following committees were appointed to investigate and 
report upon important phases of the work : Study of Vocation Tenden- 
cies, Investigation of Occupations, Opportunities for V^ocational Train- 
ing in Cleveland, Auxiliary Aids;, and Placement. This and subsequent 
meetings were addressed by leading exponents of various phases of 
vocational guidance work, including Dr. Helen WooUey of Cincinnati, 
Jesse B. Davis of Grand Rapids, Mrs. Lucinda W. Prince of Boston, 
Miss Edith Abbot of Chicago, Aliss Alice Barrows of New York, Dr. 
Aleyer Bloomfield of Boston, Miss Winifred Jevens of London, 
England, Prof. George H. Mead of Chicago, E. W. Weaver of 
Brooklyn and Miss Edith Campbell of Cincinnati. The addresses were 
followed by general query and discussion. The meetings extended from 
four o'clock in the afternoon until nine in the evening with a recess 
at which time the members of the institute usually dined together. 
The expenses of the institute and meetings were defrayed by an assess- 
ment of five dollars from each member. The highest commendation 
of the comprehensive and thoro-going plan of procedure followed by the 
institute was given by each of the distinguished visiting experts. 

The result of the institute's work will be a report, probably issued 
in the spring, including a comprehensive plan for vocational guidance 
in Cleveland. In general the plan vv^ill contemplate an investigation 
of social and economic conditions relative to vocational guidance, which 
will cover some two years and give the basis for specific action. This 



266 Ml.M.n. TR.IIM\C MIC.IZIXE 

report >hoiiKi pro\o a valuable conrriburmn to rlie cause of xocatitinal 
and industrial education. 

In the meantime a special committee of the School Masters' Club 
of Cleveland and \'icinit\ is chavized with the responsibilit\ of re- 
portinji to the club in March a plan aiiii recommendations for voca- 
tional iiuidance. This committee has decided that its activities shall 
be independent of other ors^anizations. limited to work by and thru 
the public schools, but it has already developed in committee meetinijs 
that the scope of its report must be much broader than at first supposed. 
it will be interestinii to compare the findings of this committee of 
school men with the results of the larger movement. 

— W. K. Roberts. 

Another For several \ears we have been hopin^i: for the time to 

Step come when it would be possible to establish in this ma<^a- 

Forward ^j,^^^. .^ il^partment that would brin^ together items of 

current interest from other countries, especially from Enjjland where 
manual traininii traditions and many of the present manual trainin^i; 
problems are fundamentally just like those in America. We have 
believed that carefully selected facts stated from the English point of 
view would be interesting^, broadenintj;, and often definite!}' suggestive 
to our readers. From the first we have reali/.eil that the value of such 
a department would depend almost wholly upon the wisdom and literary 
power of the man secured to do the writing, and because of this fact 
v.e are especialh glad to be able to announce that, beginning with the 
present issue, we shall publish foreign notes prepared by H. Williams 
Smith of London, formerly editor of ]\Ianunl Trttinini;. When the 
way was open to establish such a departiiicnt we turned without 
hesitation to Mr. Smith, and with characteristic cordiaiitN he responded 
tavorabI\. 

We did not select .Mr. Smith because he has a long string of degrees 
attached to his name; we have never seen an\ there, rho one meeting 
him would need documentary proof to be coininced that he is not a 
university graduate. Neither did we select him because he expects to 
say the "last word" on manual training. On the loiitrary he is quite 
modest in his claims; he is merely a learner with rhc rest of us. How- 
ever, his background of practical expericm c, his teat hing, his reading, 
and his c<intact with men who bring things to pass, have given him a 
point of view that is (A value. It is n«)t the oflicial point of view but 
that of the progressive teacher and student of education who in England 



EDI TORI. n. 267 

is helping to re-shape education from the inside. Men of tliis type 
huild from the ground up instead of tyinji; to a hcnering hiplane that is 
sure to come down sooner or later. In a very real sense Mr. Smith is 
a typical English teacher of the manual arts besides being a happy turner 
of phrases. He is already known to our readers, but to make them 
better acquainted with him we present his portrait as a frontispiece and 
give the following details of his career : 

Harrv Williams Smith was born in 1868, "a man of 
H. Williams ,,,,.,., , ,, , . , . . 

Cy^j^jj Kent , HI which county he spent all his early years. After 

an elementary education he left school at fourteen and 
served an old-time apprenticeship of five years in the shop of a carpenter 
and joiner. When ''out of his time" he went to London and spent 
two years in a shop as "improver". In 188^ he left London for Canada, 
and lived five years in Toronto, three of which were spent as employer 
in a steam laundry business where he made himself practically familiar 
with every detail from washing a shirt to running the engine. He 
considers these years very profitably spent. In 1894 he returned to 
England and took up joinery again, working in several shops in the 
city of London. He became the "setter out", in a large shop, but not 
being fully satisfied with this as his ultimate goal, he spent his evenings 
in studies to qualify as a manual training teacher. 

In October, 1900, he was appointed an assistant instructor under 
the London School Board. Two years later he was promoted to in- 
structor. He is still actively engaged in teaching under the London 
County Council ; he also holds an evening appointment at the Com- 
mercial Travellers' Schools at Pinner. For two years beginning in 1909, 
Mr. Smith was a lecturer to the teachers' classes under the London 
County Council, but gave up this work to accept the appointment as 
Examiner in Theory of Manual Training for the City and Guilds of 
London Institute, For seven j^ears, from 1905 to 1912, he was editor 
of ]\Ianual Trainings the official organ of the National Association of 
Manual Training Teachers, at first dividing the responsibility with J. 
Scott Knight, but later taking the full editorial management. He 
still remains on the staff as an associate editor, tho the responsibility for 
the editorial work has been taken by John Arrowsmith of Halifax. 
For four years Mr. Smith has been a regular contributor to The School- 
jyiaster, in which he has a column devoted to manual training notes. 
From time to time he contributes also to Educational Handwork. This 
would seem to be enough to keep one pen busy, but when Dr. Hay ward, 



26S M.^M.IL TR.IIMXG M.IGA/ANE 

a London inspector, collected his material for the hook "The Primary 
Curriculum" H. Williams Smith w rote tlie chapter on manual training. 
We are aware of the fact that the ahove statements are not self- 
explanatory : another \ ie\\ of Mr. Smith s life is necessary to reveal 
how such training would produce such results: At school each day he 
is a teacher, but at home he is still a student. He is an enthusiastic 
reader of poetry, philosophy and biography — preferably books not on 
education; his library tells the story. He knows Emerson and Lowell, 
as well as his Ruskin. far better than most American teachers. He is 
a lover of music, pictures, and the historic, romantic London in which 
he lives. At his home in Hampstead is a wife that helps along his good 
work iuid three children each of whom has already won a scholarship 
for higher education in London. — C. A. B. 



The object of manual training is to lead the 
thinker to create more and the 'ivorkcr to think 
more. In doing so it icill cause the thinker to 
think more sanely and the ivorker to ivork more 
truly. Doing is essential to the highest know- 
ledge, and thinking is essential to the most 
effective doing. You never really know anything 
until you have done it, and you cannot do any- 
thing effectively until you know it; and, a 'wisely 
planned scheme of education will not separate 
the two. — Milton Clauser. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

NATIOiNAL SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION 
OF INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION 

The sixth annual convention of the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education was held at the Hotel Walton, Philadelphia, on Thursday, 
Friday, and Saturday, December 5 to 7, 1912. A strong program was presented 
and much significant work was accomplished. 

To teachers in the field of the manual arts perhaps the most interesting dis- 
cussions were those of Thursday afternoon on "The Training of Teachers," and 
an informal discussion on Saturday afternoon on "What Principles and Policies 
Should Underlie State Legislation for Vocational Education?" 

Tr.mning teachers for girls' work 

In opening the discussion of the problem of training teachers for girls' work, 
Mrs. M. S. Woolman, president of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 
Boston, and Miss Florence M. Marshall, principal of the Manhattan Trade School 
for Girls, New York, submitted the following list of theses: 

1. Vocational and trade schools for girls have problems peculiar to them- 
selves, and require especially trained teachers. 

2. The method of conducting vocational education should, of necessitv', differ 
greatly between such extremes as the school in the small community with no 
special industries and the great industrial city. One solution of the problem will 
not fit all needs. 

3. The training of young women for industry in the large industrial cities 
presents two especially serious phases: (1) giving them adequate and industrial 
efficiency with ideals of labor, and (2) making them healthful, effective women 
fitted for the duties of the home. 

4. To train girls to satisfactorily meet both problems takes time, and the 
pressure of early wage-earning makes short-time courses necessary because the 
prevocational preparation is not yet a good foundation on whicli to build; lience 
time muse be taken for preparatory work. 

5. We are not likely to secure the best teachers for teaching of the trades 
themseh^es by drawing them from the regular public school and giving them a 
short additional training in industrial processes. 

6. It is not possible to satisfactorily train industrial teachers in the ordinary 
normal school. 

7. Successful industrial teaching must be based upon real experience in the 
trade taught. 

8. Trade experience does not of itself make a good trade teacher, the diffi- 
cultj' being (1) a narrow point of view of the purpose of the training and (2) 
an over-emphasis on the product rather than on the pupil. 

9. The very best teachers and the most skilled trade workers are needed, 
but the combination is difficult to find at present. 

10. In training capable trade teachers, we must expect a greater per capita 
cost than we are in the habit of giving to the ordinary school teachers. 

269 



270 M.LM .11 TR lIMXa M.IGl/.lXE 

11. There are nian\ kiiuls oi teachers needed for industrial education — pre- 
vocational, secondary-vocational, and trades schools — requiring, in varying degrees, 
household arts training; eHiciencv training in trade shops; trade academic training 
to further industrial intelligence; trade-art training for industrial purposes; train- 
ing in h\giene in order to better conditions at present interfering ^vith the success 
of wage-earners, either at trade or at lionie ; practical social and economic informa- 
tion, and mucli investigation of iiuliistry to gain a knowledge of the needs of 
different itx-alities. 

12. Pixir health in women wlio work is a menace to the future of the coun- 
try. Special knowledge of h\gienic living should be given all teachers who will 
work in imlustrial schools. A physician should be in constant attendance in such 
schools, to ctxiperate with the teaching force and better prepare each wage-earner 
for the physical strain of the market. 

13. The idea of woman as a home-maker should be ever present when train- 
ing teachers, but it cannot be emphasized in the short-time tratie schcxil of indus- 
trial cities as it can in vocational schools in other localities. 

14. A new form of normal industrial education is needed, wliich will iiave 
connected with it a business institution where the teachers can have practical 
experience. Trade workrcwms cannot be expected to interfere with their regula- 
tions to attend to teachers who need to have practice; such normal school shops 
must be organized in a way satisfactory to business men and to labor. 

15. As skilled trades reiiuire for teachers those who ha\e had real and ade- 
(juate trade experience, the normal school should organize practical method and 
attcniiant courses for trade workers. Effective teachers can be obtained from 
industrx, if women are selected for broatl-mindedness, as well as skill, and then 
are traineil for teachers. Evening courses might help such intending teachers, 
but it would be only a partial volution of tiie problem unless opportunity for ob- 
servation and practice in teaciiing can be given. Trade ivorkrrs with executive 
ability are needed in trade school shops. 

16. The problem of giving experience on correct materials must be met. 
Neither the institution nor the teachers can solve it. Some corniection with trade 
is necessary. 

17. Teachers trained in good domestic art courses, and who ha\e taken trade 
experience, have been found to make good teachers for vocational schools or for 
the elementary and intermediate grades of dressmaking in a trade school. 

IS. The trade school and the high schools of a technical or vocational nature 
5hr>ul(l l>e fouiulations for future teachers in industrial schools. 'These sciiools 
5hniild al>o be utilized for practice and assistant teaching. CJermany and Helgiinn 
have tried this plan. Real trade experience, following such a foundation, would 
prepare the way for normal training, investigations of industry, practice teach- 
ing, and, iinally, assistant teaching. Such preparation niiglii pro\e effective for 
work below the trade "ichorjl shops. 

I'/. Supervisf)r^ and directors of itidusiilal scliooIs siiould (■()mi)iiie liroad- 
minded culture, knowledge of working conditions, interest in working people 
and their lives, modern, social and ecf)nomic intelligence, the relation of domestic 
•cierire to health and household arts to life, with a knowledge of trades fitting the 
•upervivir Hi r)rgatiize them and judge the value of the course conductetl in them. 



.-iSSOd.^TlOXS 271 



Training teachers for boys' work 



The following propositions were advanced in the discussions of teaclieis for 
boys' work, by Dr. David Snedden, commissioner of education for Massachu- 
setts, and Charles R. Allen, agent of the Massachusetts state board of education: 

1. One of the most serious problems of the industrial school of the future is 
to deal with adolescents, taking them as they come and fitting them for practical 
tests of social and industrial efficiency. 

2. The ordinary type of pedagogical training given to prospective teachers 
will not serve to adequatel\ prepare them for successful service in sucli industrial 
schools. 

3. Successful teaching must be based upon real experience in the line taught. 

4. Trade training alone will not make good teachers. 

5. The industrial school has problems peculiar to itself, which call for 
special training for teachers in such schools. 

6. We are not likely to secure good teachers for industrial schools by draw- 
ing teachers from regular public schools and giving them additional training. 

7. Pseudo-experience, such as is gained by ordinary students in school and 
college shops, will not replace actual practical experience. 

8. "Student" experience under real conditions, such as is gained by a short 
period of contact with industrial environment, will not replace real experience. 

9. A person who has passed thru college, whether general or technical, by a 
continuous school process, is not likely to make a successful industrial school 
teacher, nor to afford good material for a special training course for such teachers. 

10. We cannot secure, as teachers in industrial schools, those competent to 
hold desirable and profitable positions in industry as long as we pay them on the 
same basis as regular public school teachers. 

11. In training competent industrial school teachers, we must expect a great- 
er per capita cost than we are in the habit of expecting in the training of ordinary 
school teachers. 

12. A scheme for training industrial school teachers, starting with adults 
who have alreadv had successful experience as teachers in regular schools, is not 
likely to succeed. 

13. A scheme of training will not be efficient which proposes to deal with 
those who bring to it only a general secondary school preparation, and which 
proposes to give them during the college phase of their education all necessary 
training to fit them for successful teaching in industrial schools. 

14. The evening course, which proposes to train persons with experience 
employed during the day, is only a partial solution of the problem, owing to its 
inability to afford an opportunity for observation and practice in teaching during 
the course. 

15. The German experience shows that the most effective teachers must be 
drawn from the industries. 

16. The most effective scheme known thus far is the German scheme, involv- 
ing the following steps: (a) A technical training in the middle technical school, 
followed by (b) a prolonged experience as an actual worker in the industry which 
is to be taught; (c) a return to a training course giving special training for teach- 
ing in an industrial school, accompanied by an experience as an assistant teacher in 
an actual school. 



272 M.IM .11 TR.n.MXa M.IC.I/.IXE 

l~. In view of tlie tact tliat (a") we imist cei our erticient teachers from the 
industries, and (b) that tliese people cannot afford to take full-time day courses, 
the most promising plan would seem to be a course which provides for a series of 
evening unit courses, each unit dealing with some specific phase of the special 
instruction required for an efficient teacher; following this by employment in in- 
dustrial schools as an assistant teacher, with an obligation on the part of the 
industrial school to conduct a certain amount of further normal training work 
with these assistant teachers. 

IS. The most promising plan for training teachers for industrial schools 
would involve the following steps: (a) The gatliering of the pupils with success- 
ful experience in the industries; (b) evening unit courses for the student while 
he continues to work at his calling; (c) each unit dealing with some phase or 
factor of the preparation required for an efficient teacher; (d) followed by em- 
plovment as an assistant teacher in an industrial school; (e) with obligation on 
the part of the school to give a certain amount of additional normal training to him 
after he enters the service. 

The general discussion wiiicii followed ilie presentation of tliese leaders 
was the most animateil and profitable of tiie entire convention. 

At the Fridav morning session, Secretary Charles A. Prosser of the National 
Societv, and Dr. E. G. Cooley, special investigator of the Chicago Commercial 
Club, discussed the "Principles and Policies which Should Underlie State Legisla- 
tion for Practical Education. " This discussion was followed by careful study on 
the part of a committee at several sessions, and its report was presented on Sat- 
urdav afternoon. As the result of the deliberation at that time, a statement 
of principles and policies was fornuilated, for publication and distribution by 
the Societv. This is periiaps the most important piece of constructive work 
that has been accomplished tiuis far in the movement for industrial education. 

At the business session on Saturday, the present ofHcers were reelected as 
follows: president, Hon. William C. Redheld, vice-president American Blower 
C"o., New ^■ork ; vice-president, Howell Cheney, South Manchester, Conn.; 
treasurer, Frederick B. Pratt, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. It is understood that Mr. 
Prf)sser continiies as secretary. The filling of this position by appointment is 
committed by the Constitution to the Board of Managers; the same is true of the 
selection of the time and place of the annual meeting. — W. T. Bauden'. 

SCHOOL CRAF'FS CUB. 

'I'hc School Crafts Club of New 'S Drk Cit\ has iield two meetings. I'iie 
firM, on Friday, November 15th, was taken up ciiiefl> witli the report of a com- 
mittee on interrelation of clubs, which was jiresented li\ the chairman, A. VV. 
Richa^d^ of the Kthical Culture School. 

.At the .May meeting of the Club, it was voted thai a committee be ai)p(iiiited 
to take *tep«> toward realizing) a scheme of cooi)eration between the various chd)s 
and as*f)riaiiori<. engaged in similar lines of work. Fhe committee recommended: 
(1) 'I'hat other clubs be invited to send periodical report of their proceedings 
to our lecretary; and (2) Fhat the School Crafts (Jul) pie^enl specific (piestions 
to frther clubi for r'»t)tideralion anil action, 



ASSOCIATIONS 273 

The second meeting occurred on Friday evening, December 13th. The pro- 
gram consisted of four round table discussions, with the following leaders and 
topics: (1) Elementary school subjects, textbooks and shop notes, blackboard 
illustrations and charts, by Frank I. Frishberg and Ezra Putnoi ; (2) The most 
direct and efficient manner of teaching color and color harmony in the first year 
of the high school, illustrated with drawings and charts, by P. A. Schwarzenbach ; 
(3) Subject-matter related to industrial and fine arts, and plans for presenting 
this material, by R. J. Leonard; (4) Supervision and gradation of work in the 
primary and elementary grades, by Charles R. Bostwick. 

ILLINOIS HIGH SCHOOL CONFERENCE. 

The manual arts section of the High School Conference was held at the 
University of Illinois on Friday, November 22. A goodly number of teachers 
were in attendance. 

The morning session was dev^oted to a discussion of design in the manual 
arts. Charles F. Kelly, instructor of design in the art department of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, presented a paper on "Design in Education," in which he em- 
phasized the need of thoughtful preliminary study of projects in manual arts 
before execution. The second address was made by Samuel J. Vaughn, State 
Normal School, DeKalb, who made a plea for more design in the teaching of 
manual training thru the logical development of the object to be constructed for 
a specified use and under definite conditions. He asserted that the term "applied 
design" is meaningless. "A good design is one that with good construction will 
serve the ends of utility, take its place in harmony with its surroundings, and 
satisfy the sense of good taste in the home or in the communit3\" 

Miss Clara E. Ela, State Normal University, Normal, gave some definite 
suggestions of methods by which the manual training and art teachers of the same 
school can cooperate m their criticisms of design by their pupils. The morning ses- 
sion closed with a general discussion of design and the best methods of cultivating 
taste among school pupils. 

Professor Frank M. Leavitt, L^niversity of Chicago, opened the afternoon 
program with an address on "Vocational Training in Illinois." Professor Leavitt 
emphasized the need of vocational teaching and asserted that it is desirable to 
have the schools in which the work is done under the common school organization 
rather than under the control of a separate board. 

The remaining time of the meeting was given to a discussion of the outline of 
a course of study for the second unit of entrance credit in mechanical drawing. 
The tentative course presented two years ago by Professor Crawshaw was con- 
sidered in the light of experience with mechanical drawing classes in some of the 
larger high schools. Frank S. Needham, of the Oak Park and River Forest 
Township High school, opened the discussion with a carefully prepared paper in 
which each division of the work was considered and suggestions made, based upon 
his long and successful experience. 

Assistant Dean H. W. Miller, College of Engineering, University of Illinois, 
presented an outline of work and explained its operation in detail. The con- 
census of opinion seemed to be in favor of attempting less work than the tenta- 



274 M.IM'.n TR !I\I\C M.IC.IZIXF 

live outline presented, and eliminating some advanced divisions of the proposed 
work. The whole question was referred to a committee for report at the next 
annual meeting. , 

It is expected that a detailed report of the proceedings of the High School 
Conference will be published by the General Conference Committee, which may 
be secured bv application to the ciiairman, Professor l\. A. Ilollister. 

E. J. Lake, 
University of 111. 

MlXNK.XroI.IS M.WUAL ARTS CLUB. 

The work of the Minneapolis Manual Arts Club is organized on a plan full 
of interest and suggestions to other groups of teachers and supervisors. The Club 
is first divided into six groups, or rouiui tables, with chairmen, as follows: 
Grade Shops, Mr. Ilarrigan; Constructi\e Drawing, Miss Stevens; Mechanical 
Drawing, Mr. Southworth ; Cabinet-Making, Mr. Moore; Pattern-Making, Mr. 
Libby ; Machinework, Mr. Barlow. 

Kach of these round table groups is responsible for two programs during 
the school year. In addition there are five general meetings of the Club, in 
September. November, January, March, and May. At each of these general 
meeting each round table group is responsible for the presentation of its particular 
aspect of the subject or question under discussion. 

The topic announced for the September general meeting was as follows: 
"Give a lecture in outline that you gave your class on some topic or division of 
the subject you teach. Give also the test that you gave the pupils on the lec- 
ture." This topic was duscussed by a representative from each of the six groups. 
Ten minutes is allowed for presentation by each leading speaker, with general 
discussion following. 

A similar plan was followed in the November meetmg with the following 
topics: "Discussion of the textbooks and books of reference pertaining to your 
subject. Tell how you make use of tliem in your classes and what reading you 
demand of your pupils." 

For the January meeting the subject of discussion was: "Shop organization 
as to handling of supplies, tools, finished models, time on models, working on 
class projects, etc." The question proposed for the March meeting is: "What 
should be the next high school in Minneapolis? Discuss the effect of such a 
high school in your work." 

SOUTHWESTERN OHIO MANUAL TRAINING ROUND TABLE. 

The 8th semi-antnial meeting of the Southwestern Oliio Manual 'I'raining 
Round Table was held at Hamilton on Saturday, December 7, 1912. Tlie follow- 
ing quc-tions were proposed in the printed program for discussion: 

I. How much forestry should be iii(lu(lc<l in a liigli school uKinual training 
cour*c ? 

2 Arc we doing too much woodwork in our niannal training courses and 
nmiting other subjects just as necessary r" 



ASSOCLITIONS 275 

3. Are the educational inducements offered young men to follow the trades 
what they should be? 

4. What course of reading should shop teachers pursue? 

5. Lesson plans for shop instruction. 

6. Equipment. How much? By whom? 

7. Standardization of manual training courses. 

8. Unity without uniformity in manual training courses. 

9. To what extent should the teacher care for the boys' tools, and to what 
extent should they be sent out? 

10. What, if any, new texts are being prepared to meet the requirements of 
manual training teachers? 

11. Can the average manual training teacher design his problems and teach 
his pupils the principles of design? 

13. Ornament and decorative design in connection witii 7th and 8th grade 
projects. 

13. A State Association. Kind of program. 

14. Title space for 8th grade and high school drawing. 

PITTSBURGH. 

The November meeting of the Manual Arts Association of Allegheny Coun- 
ty, Pa., at the Fifth Avenue High School, Pittsburgh, considered and discussed 
a report of the Manual Arts Department at the Chicago convention of the National 
Education Association, which was presented by Dean C. B. Connelly of the 
Carnegie Technical Schools. 

At the December meeting the subject was: "Stupidity versus Supernormality," 
which was presented by Dr. E, E. Mayer, professor of clinical neurology in the 
University of Pittsburgh. 

A report on the Dresden Convention of Art Teachers was presented at the 
January meeting by C. Valentine Kirby, director of art, Pittsburgh. The sub- 
ject proposed for the February meeting is "Household Arts in the High School," 
by Miss Irene E. McDermott, director of household economy, Pittsburgh; and 
for the March meeting. "The Advisability of Introducing Technical Subjects in 
the 8th Grade", by Frank H. Ball, director of industrial training. 

The Association publishes an attractive booklet containing the program for 
the year, the constitution and by-laws, and a list of names and addresses of 
teachers and directors of manual arts of Allegheny County, Pa. 

NEW YORK. 

The New York State Teachers' Association held its annual convention the last 
week of November. The Tuesday afternoon session of the elementary school 
section included the following program: "The Extent to which the Elementary 
School can Assist in Vocational Guidance," by Meyer Bloomfield, director of the 
Vocational Bureau, Boston ; "Vocation Training in the 7th, 8th, and 9th grades, a 
Buffalo Plan of Organization;" by Charles P. Alvord, supervisor of grammar 
grades, Buffalo. 

The Art and Manual Training Section held two sessions. On Tuesday 
morning the following papers were presented: "The Product of Vocational 



376 M.I XL n. TRllMXG MAGAZINE 

Soh»H>ls." In L. A. Wilson, State Oepartment of Education, Albany; "Kducational 
versus Wxrational Manual rraining," by F. G. Sanford, State Normal School, 
Dneoiita. On Tuesdax atternoon the following program was presented: "Draw- 
ing from the Cirade Teacher's Viewpoint," Elizabeth B. Small, State Normal 
School, Butfalo; "A Report from the Dresden Congress," Ruth R. Shutts, State 
Normal School, Potsdam; "Our Exhibit," Amelia H. Sprague, State Normal 
School, Biiifalo. 

At this ctinvention it \vas agreeii that next year all the forces interested in 
art. vocational training, manual training, and home economics, shall be united in 
one general session in the morning, with a speaker of general interest, and that 
in the afternoon there shall be division into smaller sessions with more special- 
ized and tedinical discussions. The entire group is to be known hereafter as the 
"Industrial and Home Education Section." 

For the January meeting of the Buifalo, New York, Manual Arts Association 
arrangements were made for H. B. Jergeson of the Rogers-Brown Co. of Buffalo, 
to speak on "The Steel Industry," the address being supplemented with moving 
pictures showing the operations of this industry from the mining of the raw 
material to the finished product. 

DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE. 

The Department of Superintendence of the National Education Association, 
together with numerous other societies, will meet at Philadelphia, February 25-28. 
The ciiairman of the local committee on arrangements and accommodations is 
Louis Nusbaum, 17th and Pine Streets, Philadelphia. The headquarters will be 
at the Bellevue-Stratford Hotel, European, rates from $2.50 up. Copies of the 
program may be obtained from Secretary D. \V. Springer, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

A strong program is being prepared for the next meeting of the Ohio Manual 
Training Teachers' Association %vhich is to meet in Columbus, February 15th. 
All manual training teachers of the state are considered as members of this 
organization and are requested to send their names and addresses to the secretary, 
in order that they may be reached witli announcements. 

The Kansas Manual Arts Association at its annual meeting, iield at Topeka, 
November 7th, appointed two committees to consider and report on the subject 
of uniformity of the course of study in shopwork and in mechanical drawing. The 
committee on shopwork, of which the chairman is Professor A. M. Burmann, State 
Manual Training Nfirmal School, Pittsburg, made a partial report at this meet- 
ing for grades 7 and S and the high school. The committee was continued for 
another year with the expectation of bringing in a complete report at the next 
meeting. Professor C. J. Smith, State Normal School, Hays, is the chairman of tlie 
committee which is to prepare a course of study for mechanical drawing. It is 
the purpose of the Association to standardize the work in the manual arts in the 
elementary and secondary schools. 

An exrcllcnt program is being prepared for the matuial arts and industrial 
education >ertion of the Alabama Educational Association, which holds its annual 
meeting at Montgomery, March 20 to 22. 



ASSOCIATIONS 277 

It is proposed to unite the Iowa Manual Arts Association and the Iowa 
Home Economics Association, and to hold a joint meeting on some Friday evening 
in February or March, followed by separate programs and sessions on Saturday 
morning. 

GREAT BRITAIN. 

The National Association of Manual Training Teachers of England will 
hold its annual conference and exhibit at the London Bay Training College on 
March 25 and 26th. Addresses will be delivered by the president of the associa- 
tion, Sir John A. Cockburn, K. C. M. G., M. D., and by other eminent advocates 
of educational handwork. 

The Manual and Art Branch of the Victoria, Australia, State School Teach- 
ers' Union was formed in March, 1912, with the object of advancing manual 
training, more particularly as a primary school subject and as a basis for 
future technical instruction. The association is particularly concerned with the 
establishment of a preliminary course of training broad enough to give an im- 
petus to the art or trade side of the technical work, while still being strictly edu- 
cational. The Manual and Art Branch meets monthly at 227 Little Collins St., 
Melbourne. At each meeting a paper is read on some subject of interest, which 
is followed by general discussion. 

Manual work was introduced into Victoria about twelve years ago by an 
organizer procured from England. He introduced the sloyd system. Since then 
this system of work has been carried on in the primary schools, tho a course more 
allied to carpentry has been carried on in technical and preliminary trade schools. 
Very little departure from the Naas course of work has been allowed in the 
primary schools until recently. Now the authorities are beginning to recognize 
that the boys should be allowed scope for originality, and this has been accom- 
plished by introducing a scheme of exercises in which the boys are invited to 
construct models for themselves. 

H. M. Crimp, 
Hawthorn, Victoria. 

The Illinois Manual Arts Association will hold its annual meeting February 
14th and 15th, at the State Normal School, De Kalb, Illinois. The program 
is as follows: Friday afternoon, at two-thirty, (1) Manual Training in the 
Elementary Schools. (2) The Use of Books in the Manual Training Class- 
Room. 

(a) Text-books and How to Use Them. 

(b) Reference Books and How to Use Them. 
Appointment and Election of Committees. 

Fridav evening a banquet will be given at 6:15 followed by an address 
of welcome and inspiration by Dr. Cook, the president's address by Professor 
Frank M. Leavitt, and an address on "The Measurement of the School Product 
by Business Standards" by George B. Miller, head of the employment bureau 
of Sears, Roebuck and Company of Chicago. 

Saturday morning there will be given brief descriptions of experiments in 
vocational education recently inaugurated in Illinois. Ira S. (Jrifhth, of Bradley 



278 



MIX III. TR.llMXG M.IGAZIXE 



Institute, Peoria. Kiiieiy V. Filbv, of tlie School of Education, University of 
Chicago, and S. J. Xauglin, of De Kalb, will be the speakers. Members who 
have "started anything" are requested to send in names and topics to the 
secretary, and a place will be made for them on the program. 

Reports from committees and the election of othcers will conclude the 
meeting. The present officers are, Professor Frank M. Leavitt, president; A. P. 
Laughlin, Peoria, vice-president; A. C. Newell, Illinois State Normal University, 
secretary -treasurer. 

Tlie Michigan Industrial Science and Arts Association holds its next meet- 
ing at Muskegon, February 7th. The papers to be presented are: "The Need 
of Design in Industrial Arts," by Harry M. Kurtzworth, instructor in art, 
Hackley Manual Training School, Muskegon; and "Efhciency in Printing," by 
Henry Danna, instructor in printing, Hackley Manual Training School. 

The last meeting of the school year will be held at Kalamazoo, May 2d, 
at which time the subject for discussion will be "Continuation Schools." 

The Connecticut .Manual Arts Teachers' Association has had a committee 
at work this year preparing a traveling exhibit of art and manual training work, 
for circulation among members in the state. The exhibit is classified by subjects, 
and work is contributed from various cities whose supervisors are members of 
the Association. Transportation charges are paid by the school receiving the 
exhibit. It is hoped to make this exhibit a permanent feature of the work of 
the Association, and to add to and improve it from year to year. 




THREE OF TE\ 8 II. P. 2 CVMNDER, VKRIICAI, HIGH SI'KKD GAS ENGINES 

MADE I\ SHOPS, 1912, IN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, 

UNIVERSITV OF ILLINOIS. URUANA. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

Geo. a. Seaton, Editor. 

CAMP STOOL. 

The camp stool shown by the photograph and drawing has been used by 
W. H. Henderson while at Springfield, Illinois, as a first problem in planing. 
One piece of stock for a top cross-piece is given to each boy, who planes it 

to dimensions, proceeding as each pro- 
cess is explained by the instructor. 
When this has been finished, the second 
cross-piece is given out and is planed 
to dimensions without instructions. 
The stock for the legs is given out in 
one piece which is planed ^" x 5^" 
X 23". From the joint edge lines 1^4 "i 
11/2", 2^", 3", 4>4", 41/2" are made 
with the marking-gage. Each boy 
saws between these lines and then 
planes the edges to the marks. The 
legs are made 1" longer than required 
so that if the tenon is not correctly 
made at first, it may be sawed off and 
cut again. The circle for the end of 
the tenon is made with a ^" bit, 
boring until the spur of the bit cuts 
a circle. 

This problem gives excellent train- 
ing in planing, sawing, gaging, cham- 
fering, chiseling, and boring, and if 




CAMP STOOL, 
the work is not absolutelv accurate, the usefulness of the finished article is not 



impaired. 



UMBRELLA RACK. 



W. E. Hackett of the Boys" High School, Reading, Pennsylvania, con- 
tributes the design shown for the umbrella rack. While its lines are severely 
plain, this is relieved by the engirdling metal bands which also serve to hold 
the sides firmly together. 



EMERY GRIXDER. 



This problem of the machine-shop shown in the photograph was designed 
by Henry S. Fichthorn, teacher of machine-shopwork in the Boys' High School 
of Reading, Pennsylvania. It is an interesting project, that should be suggestive 



279 



280 



M.-!XL\^L TRAINING MAGAZINE 




SHOP PROBLEMS 



281 




28: 



M.LM.IL TR.HMXG MJG.IZIXE 



to others in this line of work. In the drawing:, tlie shaft is shown the same 
size thruoiit, while the grinder photo>:raplied lias one end of the shaft tapered 
from s^" to ^i". 




EMERY GRINDER. 



GARDEN MARKER. 



The garden marker can well he undertaken at this time of the year so 
that it will be ready for use by the coming of spring. It will have especial 
value in such schools as are undertaking school gardening. As shc^wn in the 
drawing, it is intended to be pulled l)y hand to mark out the rows for plant- 
ing. The distance between the rows can be altered by changing the position 
of the outside markers. If all the parts are made heavier, the marker can be 
drawn by horse instead of hand. It was designed by A. D. Bailey for use 
on the schfKjl farm at Bemidji, Minnesota. 



SHOP rROBLHMS 



283 




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SHOP PROBLEMS 

BOOK RACK. 



287 



The photograph of the book shelve, show a se, made in the Reading 
Pennsylvania, high school under the direction of W. E. Hackett 




BOOK RACK. 



C I RRKNT ITEMS 

In this dcpartiiieiit, in April nt last year, some tacts were presented about 
jtandardization of courses in the manual arts. In a further effort to get in- 
formation on this important phase of manual arts teaching, we recently sent 
out a blank form covering desired information for all grades from the first 
grade thru the high school, for the past five years. The form was entitled 
"Changes in Manual Training Since 1907.'" The columns were headed "Sub- 
jects taught in 1907," "Subjects dropped since 1907," "Why dropped," "Sub- 
jects added since 1907," "Why added," "Time given to manual training in 
1907," "Time given to manual training now." These forms were sent to 
supervisors of manual training in seventy large cities in different parts of the 
countrv. The form was accompanied by a letter asking the following questions: 

1 — What general changes have taken place in organizing and teaching 
the work in manual training? ( Thoroness, correlation, vocational demands, 
etc. 1 

2 — What specific changes iiave taken place in organizing and teaching (a) 
primary, (b) intermediate, (c) grammar, and (d) high school subjects? (ex- 
ercise pieces, class projects, more or less time given to teaching design, pro- 
portion of individual to class instruction, etc.) 

This (juestionairre met the usual fate. Replies were received from only 
eighteen cities, and these were in many cases incomplete. From the data 
received the following charts were prepared. Tho limited in amount of data 
ihe results may be considered fairly representative since the cities reporting 
are from all sections of the country. These charts, and comments gleaned from 
letters and notes, are not presented as the last word on the subject but rather 
with the hope of eliciting more accurate information from a larger number of 
places regarding the progress that has been made in manual training. 

The cities reporting are Boston, Mass., Washington, D. C, Buffalo, N. Y., 
Indianapolis, Ind., Cleveland, Ohio, Trenton and Newark, N. J., Columbus, 
Ga.. Pasadena, Calif., Grand Rapids. Mich., Norfolk, Va., Great Falls, Mont., 
Covington, Ky., Austin, Texas, Valley City, N. D., Kansas City, Mo., Salem, 
Oregon, and Peoria, 111. 

TIME ALLOWANCE. 

In the ff>llowiiig tables the time allowance for inaiiiKil tiaiiiiiig lias been 
plarc<i in the first two columns, the first giving the time in minutes per week 
in 1907. the second in 1912. Comparison of the two columns in each table will 
give oomc significant information regarding the progress of manual training 
in the past five years. The importance of this time element caimot be over- 
eittimaied. Not until manual training has a time allowance on the school 
program cjual to that of the mf>st favored subject on the program can it prove 
ii« true value, and not until then should comparisons of results be made critically. 
It will be seen by the tables that while certain cities have greatly increased 
the time, the average for primary, intermediate and seventh grades has not 

288 



CURRENT ITEMS 



289 



BOOK-MAKING 

ARTS 



TKXTILE 
ARTS 



PL.4S- 
I TIC 
ARTS 



Primary 
Grades 


c 


~ 


Paper 
Cutliner 


>- .5 

re "o 


T3 .- 


1 


in g 


ca 




Austin 

Boston 

Buffalo 

Cleveland .... 
Columbus .... 
Covington .... 
Grand Rapids 
Great Falls . . 
Indianapolis . . 
Kansas City • ■ 

Newark 

Norfolk 

Pasadena .... 

Peoria 

Salem 




30 
60 

40 

30 
50 

60 
30 
30 


30 
60 

40 
60 

60 

50 

60 
45 

30 


* 
* 

* 
t 

* 

* 
* 

t 

* 
* 


* 

* 

* 
* 


* 
t 

* 

* 
* 

t 
* 

* 


t 
* 

* 
* 

* 

* 


# 
* 

* 

t 

* 


* 
t 

* 

* 
* 


t 

* 

* 
* 


Trenton 

Valley City . . . 
Washington . . 

Total .... 

Average . . 


40 
45 

415 

41 


60 

40 
45 

520 

48 


* 



* Subjects taught. 

t Subjects added since 1907. 

% Subjects dropped since 1907. 



Chart 1. 



290 M IM.Il. TR.IlMXa M ICIZIXE 

been increased over eleven ininiites in tlie five years. IMie eightli grade slio\vs a 
jjreater increase owing to the higliest initnber of minutes being used for Indian- 
apolis. Tliis allowance of 3bO minutes is gi\en only in se\en sc1kk>Is. Using 
the lower time given for tliat cit>, we rind an increase of t\vent\ -three minutes 
in the eighth grade a\erage. 

Taking each division separatel\, we rind in the time coiimin of the primary 
grades that four of the eigiiteen cities listed give no time at all to manual 
training, and two include handwork in the work of the drawing department. 
It is probably true, however, that in all of these cities handwork is a factor 
in the work of these grades. Of the remaining twelve the average daily time 
is not quite ter> minutes, when twent\ minutes is recognized as a fair time 
allowance for a recitation in other subjects. This indicates tliat manual train- 
ing work is not done every day. Five cities give sixty minutes a ^veek. The 
least time is given in Boston and Pasadena, one lialf-lunir a week. Of the 
cities having manual training in 1907, Cireat Falls is tlie only one tliat has 
greatly increased tlie time allowance. 

In the intermediate grades we rind an average time of seventy minutes a 
week in 1907 and seventy-nine in 1912. CJrand Rapids, Michigan, shows the 
greatest increase, the time having been doubled in the sixth grade. Norfolk 
and Cireat Falls also show an increase. Two hours a week is the largest al- 
lowance for these grades, an average of twenty-four minutes daily, which 
compares more favorably witii the time given other subjects. Still it should 
be kept in mind that the standard subjects such as arithmetic and reading have 
not only a thirty-minute daily recitation period bvit a study period as \vell. 
This two-hour a week allf)wance is given in only three cities. 

In the grammar grades we find, outside of the seven schools of Indianapolis 
with their allowance of six hours a week, that the highest time allowance is 
given in Buffalo, three hours a week, and tlie least, one hour a week, in Trenton, 
New Jersey, (irand Rapids is a close second to Buffalo. In a number of the 
cities listed, there are special schools in which manual training is being 
vocationalized partly or completely and in which a larger time allowance is 
made. It is a ([uestion if the establisiiment of such schools or centers should 
be allowed to halt the progress of manual training work in other schools. 
Should not manual training, considered merely as an educative force, if you 
will, be given a minimum time allowance of five liours a week in tlie grammar 
grades in all schools? Is this too higli a standard? 

In the high school the estimate of time is (■()nii)liia(e(l 1)\ llic tact that in 
Mime cities separate manual training liit;li scIkkiIs are inaiiiiainecl, so that the 
figures do not in every case represeiu ilic whole cit\. Mechanical drawing 
lime has been included in the time report from some cities, probably. Where 
known, mcchatiical drawing time was not included in making the average. 
The higher number of hours given for any city was used in computing the 
averages. This gives as a residt an average of 204 minutes a week in 1907, 
and of 352 minutes a week in 1912. This is an average daily period of 
»eventy minutes. Five cities on the li-^t show a daily average period of an 
hour and a half or more. It is evident that ohk h more time is given to maunal 
training in the high scIukiI in prfiportion than is given in the grades. It will 
I>e iKite<l that Washington, Boston, Buffalo, and Columbus, (Jeorgia, have not 



CURRENT ITEMS 



291 





TIME 


MECHANIC I ^•'°'-^- 

ARTS ^•^'^•'^^ 
! ARTS 

1 


c 

TEXTILE ^cn 
ARTS ^b2 




Interme- 
diate 
Grades 


o 

ON 

c 


C 


o 

o 

c 






c 


^1 


bt 

li 

can 


bt 


CO 


it 


is 



'15 'c 


Austin . . . 
Boston .... 




120 
60 
60 
50 

60 
45 
90 

60 
45 

75 

90 

80 

75 

910 

70 


120 

60 

60 

50 

75 
;— 60 
')— 120 

80 

90 
120 

60 

75 

75 


* 

* 

t 

* 

t 


* 
* 


* 
* 

t 

i 

5-t 
* 


* 

+ 
+ 


+ 

* 

t 

* 

t 

+ 
+ 

4- 
+ 


t 

i" 


+ 


t 

# 

+ 

i- 


t 




Buffalo . . . 






Cleveland 
Columbus . 






Covington 

Grand Rapi 
Great Falls 
Indianapolis 
Kansas Cit> 
Newark . . 


ds. 




Norfolk 




Pasadena 










90 

60 
80 
75 

1035 

79 


t 

* 


* 


* 
t 












If: 






Trenton 

Valley City ... 
Washington . . . 

Total 




Average . . 









Subjects taught. 

Subjects added since 1907. 

Subjects dropped since 1907. 



Chart 2. 



292 



.1/./.Vr.7/. TRrll.MXG M.IG.^ZIXE 



MICHAMC 
ARTS 



7th A\n 8th 

Gkaoks 



§ Austin . 
Boston . 



Buffalo 

Cleveland . . . 
Columbus . . . 
Covington 
Grand Rapids 
Great Falls . 

Indianapolis . 
Kansas City . 
Newark . . . . 

Norfolk 

Pasadena . . . 

Peoria 

Salem 

Trenton . . . . 
Valley City . 
Washinpton . 



Total 7 til 
Average 
Total Sth 
Average 



grade 



120 


120 


7—60 


7—80 


8—90 


8—180 


90 


90 


90 


90 


60 


80 


90 


135 


45 


80 




90— 


90 


360 


90 


90 


45 


9(1 


75 


75 


60 


75 


90 


90 


60 


60 


80 


80 


90 


90 


1235 


1415 


77 


88 


1265 


1785 


79 


111 



^^ 



7-t 



S Xtli grade in high school. 

• Sulijects taught, 

t Subjects added since 1907. 

t Subjects dropped since 1907. 



Chart 3. 



CURRENT ITEMS 293 

increased their time allowance since 1907. Columbus has a secondary industrial 
school. In addition to the time shown, several cities give from two to five 
hours a week to mechanical drawing. 

SUBJECTS AND ORGANIZATIUN. 

PRIMARY GRADES. 

Very little information was given in the reports regarding primary manual 
training beyond the list of subjects. Little change has taken place in the subject- 
matter of the work in these grades. Paper-cutting and cardboard construction 
seem to be the subjects most frequently taught. Reference to the chart will 
show the number of cities teaching any one subject. Two cities, Newark and 
Columbus, include card-sewing among manual training subjects. Chair caning 
is taught fourth grade boys in Trenton. Indianapolis has added stick and 
block printing to the work of the primary grades. In Covington, Kentucky, 
work in paper and cardboard has been made uniform thruout the city. These 
subjects are taught for their cultural and ethical values, ami in response to 
a need for such training in an industrial city. Buffalo reports the addition of 
clay work and weaving for the purpose of broadening the hand training and 
of giving greater variety. The last-named need seems to be well recognized, 
Boston being the only city in which the work seems to be limited to the use of 
one material. Lack of data makes it impossible to determine whether primary 
manual training work is more thoroly standardized than higher grade work, 
whether it is more closely correlated with other subjects, or whether there is a 
lack of organization and definite aim in the work. More information on the 
development of primary manual training and its relation to the general plan 
for the subject would be of interest. 

INTERMEDIATE. 

In the subject-matter of the intermediate grade manual training may be 
noticed a decided tendency toward woodwork, either thin woodwork or ele- 
mentry benchwork. Weaving and bent iron are being eliminated from these 
grades. Cardboard work is still favored in four cities. Bent-iron work sur- 
vives in but a single instance. Clay work is found in these grades in Columbus, 
and under the name, "pottery," in Indianapolis. Scroll-sawing is taught in 
Newark only, of the list; chair caning in Indianapolis, stenciling in Cjreat Falls, 
joinery in Norfolk, and mechanical drawing in Pasadena. 

Some details of organization or purpose are available from a few cities. 
In Boston woodwork was substituted for other subjects in the intermediate 
grades in order to provide more shopwork for boys who leave school at fourteen 
years of age. In Newark scroll sawing and simple benchwork were introduced 
so as to extend the pupils' knowledge of tools and processes of construction, and 
to give constructive experience in a more practical way. In Indianapolis, until 
this year, there were special teachers for the intermediate grade manual training, 
but this year the regular grade teacher is giving the work with the help of 
the supervisor who meets classes in each district at least once every three weeks. 



294 MJM.IL TR.UNING MAGAZINE 

Coping saw work is given in the first half of the fourth year. This is followed 
thru the fifth year, with thin woodwork with such models as a blue-print frame, 
f>ost card rack, and bird house. A few simple problems in bookbinding are 
given in these grades. 

GRAMMAR GRADES. 

Bencliwork holds an undisputed place in grammar grade manual training. 
It is supplemented by mechanical drawing in four cities. Indianapolis teaches 
printing, also, in these grades. The supervisor writes that in the sixth, seventh, 
and eighth grade l>enchwork, in Indianapolis, they are rapidh"^ doing away with 
the idea of a course of study based on certain, models, believing that the use of 
tools and tool processes can best be taught if the pupil is allowed choice from a 
group of models, which of course conform to the grade of work the pupil is 
taking. Metalwork is also taught in the grammar grades in Indianapolis. 
\'cnetian iron was still in favor for these grades as late as 1907 in two cities 
but has since been dropped. Intermediate work in advanced form is continued 
in Norfolk and Great Falls. 

A number of the cities in the list have prevocatioiial work, eitiier in 
separate industrial schools, in ungraded classes, or in certain sliop centers. The 
subject matter of this work differs with the locality. 

The need for a vtKational trend in grammar grade manual training is sug- 
gested in some reasons given for emphasizing woodwork: "The boys and girls 
are enabled to much more readily serve their apprenticeship with a higher 
respect for labor;" ''to prepare the boy to meet the needs of the time." 

In Peoria, several subjects which were being tried out in the grammar 
grades were dropped in order that benchwork and mechanical drawing might 
be standardized. The supervisor, A. P. Laughlin, believes that these subjects, 
bookbinding, printing, pottery, sheet-metalwork, will find tlieir places in the 
course of study again, but that the grade teachers and the public must first 
be made to see their value. 

We quote two replies which may throw light on grammar grade manual 
training problems. W. E. Roberts, supervisor in Cleveland, says: 

"In the regular manual training work of the four upper grades, there has 
been comparatively little change in the organization of the work since 1907. 
W'e have always given emphasis to thoroness and to correct manipulation in 
the use of tools and materials. In this sense, only, can we claim to meet 
vocational demands. Correlation is an exceedingly difficidt matter to handle 
where manual training is considered by the teachers as a tiling apart from 
the regular school work. Our efforts liave been, so far as possible, along tlie 
line of relating the work to ilie home, sch(K>l, play, and cnminunity interests of 
the child. 

No exercise pieces, as such, are given in any of our maiuial training work. 
Sf»me class project wf)rk is given in each advanced class, such as efjuipment for 
dining service in domestic science rooms, and furniture for sc1km)1 offices and 
halls. Partindar emphasis is giveti to the leaching of design in outline, form, 
and color as applied to wfKjdworking. I.mphasis is also given to the develop- 
meni of individual initiative on the part of the pupil. .'Ml work invoKing new 



CURRENT ITEMS 



295 



High School 



Austin 



Boston 

Buffalo 

Cleveland . . . . 
Columbus . . . . 
Covington . . . . 
Grand Rapids 
Great Falls . . 
Indianapolis . . 
Kansas City . 

Newark 



300 

90 

315 

270 



90 



IS 



Norfolk 

Pasadena 225 

Peoria 

Salem 

Trenton 

Vallev Citv 



Washington 



200 
100 
200 



400 

90 

315 

270 



60 
450 
450 



450 



120 
360 
150 
900 
450 



270 
120 
240 
100 
200 



Total I 184014935 

Average 204 352 













. „ 




bt 








bt 


^ 


c 




a. 
o 




B 

'Si 


o 


s 




B 


hi 

c 
'5 




c 


C 

IS 


c 


"5 


S 


m 


o 


o 


P 


cu 



* Subjects taught. 

t Subjects added since 1907. 

+ Subjects dropped since 1907. 



Chart. 4. 



296 Ml. Mil TR II.M.m: MICl/lM- 

principles is caretulK iiresenteil thrvi class iiistniction aiui deinonstratioii. Much 
importance is attaclied to the work, of tlie leaclu-r with tlic iiuli\ itiual pvipil." 

Kh Pickwick, Jr., of Newark, writes: 

'■\^'e have always insisted on old-fasliioiied, tlioro wink, ami liave al\vays 
related our work to tlie tliought of the school where possihie. 

We make very few exercise pieces. .Ml the work is on teal things. Our 
manual training teachers have nearly all taken courses in design, so that with 
no more time given to design we get more artistic construction. Uur mechanical 
drawing, in the elementary grades, is given by class instruction. The shopwork, 
after the first lessons, is given by indiviiiual instruction." 

HIGH SCHOOL. 

Among high school manual training subjects wood-turning seems to be 
most favored, being taught in ten of fourteen cities. Mechanical drawing, 
machine shop practice, and benchwork are next in order. Lack of facilities 
affects foinuir\ work. .Art and sheet metalworkiiig are taught in surprisingly 
few places. Dne city in the list, Pasatiena, has recently ailded printing, a 
subject of growing popularity. Newark has the greatest variety of subjects. 
Washington, D. C, gives applied design a place as a subject in manual training. 
Comment in the reports indicates a growing recognition of the importance of 
design in its relation to constructive work. Data for Cleveland, Ohio, is not 
shown on the chart. R. 1.. Short, principal of the West Technical High School 
of that city replied to the enquiry: "We teach no manual training. As far as 
possible we devote shop and drawing time to trade lines. We teach no turning 
and onlv one half-year of cabinet work. ()ur work is pattern-making, foundry, 
forging, machine shop, electrical construction, and all t\ jies of mechanical 
drawing." In what way these subjects differ in conieiu or methoil of teaching 
from the subjects, given imder the same names, as parts of manual training 
courses in high schools in other cities is a point which needs elucidation. 

The reasons given for the introduction of new subjects may be of interest. 
The new subjects in Pasadena were added to fill a deinand for a polytechnic 
course so that those desiring such v.nvk would not lia\e to attend a private 
institution. -Art metalwork was addeil in .Austin, Texas, because of its richness 
in opportunity for original design and its \ariety. It is thought that the 
practice in soldering, etc., will be of great value to pupils in everyday life. 
The director at .Austin, K. S. Blackburn, says; "We have been making an effort 
to britig out the art side of our subjects and have introduced considerable 
de<>ign into the wrKHJ-turning and art metalwork with a good deal of satisfaction 
to the students ami ourselves. In fact wc do mil folldw a 'model system' 
*lavi<ihly after the first half year's work." I lie new manual training high 
Mrhool at Newark was organized for the purpose of more completely fitting 
b<iy» for the industrial life of Newark. I.m|)liasis is laid on cotumercial methods 
of procedure and on technique. In ("ovington, Keiiimk\, a four-\car, iiulustrial 
couroe of otudy lias been introduced in the high school on the same basis as 
ocher rour'ie*. Marry K. Roberts supervisor, says: "The work has been put on 
a general organi/cd basis with a special aim in each subject. Emphasis is 
placed on meeting the vocational demands of the community. Each problem 



CURRENT ITEMS 297 

leads to the development of the next. The industrial course furnishes prepara- 
tion for technical schools, or better preparation for those compelled to earn a 
livelihood at the completion of the high school course." 

PRINTING IN THE SCHOOLS. 

In the high school of Salina, Kansas, is a class in printing, developed in 
the manual arts department. Two years ago the superintendent of schools, John 
Lofty, finding that the board of education did not wish to incur the expense of 
a printing course, borrowed money, four hundred dollars, from different 
sources, as a loan to the students so that they might purchase their own outfit. 
Two months ago the account was repaid in full, with interest. The department 
pays for itself, the board of education paying for nothing but the stock on which 
their own jobs are printed. 

The equipment includes two new cases of 8 point, and two cases of 10 
point magazine t3-pe, several fonts of 6, 8, 10, 12, 18, 24, and 36 point display 
tv'pe, the necessary job sticks, galleys, imposing stone, etc., and a 10x15 Chandler 
&: Price job press. The board of education soon realized the benefit they were 
receiving from the class, in getting a large share of their printing done free of 
charge, and added a 25" paper cutter. This cutter is of use in many wavs in 
the school system. 

The class was fortunate in securing the cooperation of the local printers 
from the first, and it gladly acknowledges that much of its success has been 
due to these printers who have so willingly given helpful suggestions and 
advice. 

The course in the printing class includes proof-reading, punctuation, t\'pe 
setting, job work, technical terms, composition, imposition, "ad" setting, cleaning, 
distribution, binding, and platen presswork. The class prints enrolment cards, 
information cards, office blanks, business notices, news sheets, receipt books, 
tickets, dodgers, posters, bills, etc. It also prints a monthly school paper in 
magazine form, the English classes furnishing the copy. 

Eighteen boys are taking the work this year. There has been as high an 
enrolment as twenty-six. The class period is eight}" minutes a day. The boys 
are left much to their own resources, at times, as the director, Karl Miller, has 
large classes in woodworking going on at the same time. Two text-books are 
used, and several reference books and magazines are at hand which are in 
constant use. 

The Venice Union Polytechnic High School, of Venice, California, has a 
printing department under the direction of Edwin Ross. After less than three 
months work in the department the students have produced Christmas greetings, 
cards, mottos, and school printing of a high degree of excellence. 

The equipment for the department cost $900 and includes a 12x18 Gordon 
press. The equipment will shortly be enlarged. 

Mr. Ross's preparation for teaching this subject may be of interest to those 
dealing with the problem of the short supply of teachers for such subjects. 
Mr. Ross learned the essential processes of the printing trade in a newspaper 
office when a boy. After several years' experience in teaching the manual 



298 M.JM.IL TR.IIMXG M.IG.IZIXE 

arts, he was asked last spring to organize a printing department. He spent the 
Slimmer in two ways, in intensive reading on the subject at the State Univer- 
sity, and in investigating up-to-date nietliods and new ideas in the print shops 
and printers' supply houses in several coast cities. 

All those who revere the menior\ of Otto Salonian, that great pioneer in 
the field of educational handwork, will be glad to learn that a committee has 
been organized in Sweden to receive contributions for a portrait bust of 
Saloman, to be placed in the school at Naas. Many in this country will wish 
to contribute and may do so thru Mr. Gustaf Larrson, of the Sloyd Training 
Schotil, Boston, who will forward to the committee the contributions of Ameri- 
can friends, with their names and addresses. 

Menominee, Michigan, is to have, for the beginning of next year, a new 
building for training in domestic science and art, manual training and physical 
culnirc. The building itself is supplietl in the regular manner of public taxa- 
tion by vote of the people. The entire etpiipment of the gymnasium and domestic 
science and art departments, and a part of the manual training etjuipment is 
furnished by individual public spirited citizens. 

The plans, as ailopted by the board of education, provide, for the domestic 
science and art department, a sewing room, fitting room, kitchen, dining room, 
laundry and all necessary cupboards, cabinets and pantries. The physical 
training department consists of a gymnasium, running track, dressing rooms, 
shower baths, rest rooms and all conveniences usually found in this connection. 
The manual training department comprises a woodworking department of 
bench room, wood-turning, pattern-making, and a mill room, all covering 3500 
square feet of floor space. The metalworking department is equipped for 
forging, with a space for foundry, concrete construction, and bricklaying as a 
future development. The drafting room will accommodate twenty-five to 
fhim' benches for mechanical drawing. Suitable tool rooms, store rooms, and 
lockers are provided. 

The purpose of the new school is to provide more and better practical 
training for those who must begin life without advanced education. The boys 
are to be helped to become better wage earners, home providers and citizens, 
the girls to become better home-makers, housekeepers, home nurses and helpmates. 
The physical training department will form a nucleus about which to make the 
school a social center to counteract undesirable attractions, thru contests and 
entertainments, library and gymnastic. 

The content of the work will at first be manual training applied as directly 
to vocational work as possible, with the intent of developing into trade training 
a* demanded by the progress of the work and the desires of the public. 

In both domestic science and manual training emphasis will be placed on 
the two upper grammar grades and the first two high school years. Special 
cla9«e« will be offered for those pupils who are one or more years behind their 
((rade. The records of attendance and falling out of school indicate the need 
of special training for these people for their life work. The falling off in 
attendance up to the middle of the sixth grade is not alarming, but as com- 



CURRIu\T ITEMS 299 

pared with the attendance of tlie sixth grade that of the seventii shows a 
shrinkage of one-fifth, that of the eighth two-fifths, and that of tlie beginning 
of first year high school a shrinkage of five-eighths. 

A special course has been organized in advance for those who expect to 
attend high school for only two years. The student may decide later to remain 
the four years and fill out his course with regular accademic subjects for 
graduation. This course consists of a combination of domestic science and 
commercial work for the girls or manual training and commercial work for the 
boys. 

A college preparatory course is also offered in both manual training and 
domestic science and art in accordance with the requirements of the University 
of Michigan, and other universities of the north-west. 

R. D. West is director of manual training in Menominee. 

Francis L. Bain, of the Boston Manual Training Club, reports tlie following 
news : 

A new building for the technical department of the t^verett, Mass., high 
school is being built, and will probably be all fitted up and in ruiuiing order 
sometime in February. This building will have four rooms for the technical 
or shop department, also two drawing rooms, and a blue-printing room, and, 
when finished, all the present equipment will be moved thereto, together with 
three thousand dollars' worth of additional equipment. 

Students of the technical department have undertaken the contract for 
making about two dozen drawing tables of the latest type for one of the new 
drafting rooms, and in this connection it may be stated that these students have 
already over 1600 hours of school contract work to their credit within two years. 

The sloyd teachers of India held a two-days' meeting at Mysore, the last 
of October, in connection with the Mysore Manual Training Teacher's Asso- 
ciation of Bangalore. Much of the time of the conference was occupied with 
the discussion of details of organization and administration. That members 
of the conference are alive to the new spirit In education is shown by the topics 
of general interest on the program, such as, "The Introduction of other Branches 
of Manual Training into our Schools," and "Fresh Fields and Pastures in 
Education." These two subjects were discussed by Mr. T. Visweswariah. Mr. 
H. Krishniengar read a paper on "The Educational Aspects of Sloyd." 

The faculty of the Shaw High School in East Cleveland, Ohio, are re- 
joicing in the prospect of additions and remodeling, since at the regular election 
in November the voters approved a bond issue which will make available for 
this use $100,000. The high school has grown from an enrolment of seventy-five 
to five hundred and twenty since the present building was begun. 

The Improvements contemplated include rooms for the present two-year 
course in manual training and possibly additional rooms for third and fourth 
year work; a domestic science room with adjoining demonstration room 
and model dining room; a sewing room with adjoining fitting room; rooms 



300 



M.IM .11. TR.n.\L\C .M.ia.l/.IXE 



tor arts and cratt work tor tlie girls; a room for iiriiuing; aiul rooms for a 
commercial department. The present woodworking room will probably be used 
as a shop for a grammar •scluxil which is located just across the street from the 
high schix»l. 

In Cilen Falls, New York, the tliree ilepai tmeiiis, art, nianuai training, 
and domestic science, have been combined and reorganized as one department 
called industrial and household arts, under the direction of S. Horace Williams. 
The aim of tiie reorganization is to bring the courses in the three lines of 
work more closely together, regarding them as related parts of a synthetic 
whole. The art will become more and more applied art, and will deal also 
with appreciation of the beautifid, and will not stop with the manipulation of 
colors. Design taught b\' the art teaclier will be applied in shopwork and by 
the teacher of sewing. 

The teachers of the work in this ilepartinent meet once a week to make 
reports and discuss problems of alteration and correlation. Superficial and 
forced correlation will, it is hoped, be avoided, but the arts will be brought 
close to the lives of the children and all other school work will be enriched. 

The development of this plan will be observed with interest and details 
will be given when a\ ailable. 




DOOK PRF9S, CO.MPETITIVE DESIGN. CHICAGO TEACHERS 
COLLEGE. 



FORElGiN NOTES 

By H. Williams Smith. 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

It was with alacrity and pleasurable anticipations that I accepted the 
offer of the editor to send to this magazine a contribution for each issue, which 
shall contain, so far as I can compile tiiem, the latest facts about manual 
training in the British Isles, and also what else I can pick up on the same 
subject for Europe as a whole. It may be assumed that as we are verv glad, 
here in Britain, to learn what you Americans are doing, an exchange of news 
will not be unwelcome to you. The editor expressly demands from me facts 
and not opinions, although I am sure he is quite well aware that the opinions 
of the manual training world today will be the facts of the whole educational 
world tomorrow. While I demur slightly at his stipulation, seeing that I can 
always put my pen on more opinions than facts at any time, yet I do not 
question the wisdom of his instruction. Facts let them be, then, though, in the 
very nature of things, manual training is about as little productive of nevrs 
as any other thing going. I have tried to convince myself, but without success 
so far, that I am now to be a regular contributor to a foreign magazine, but 
the bonds of common language, of a common history up till 1776, and of 
common professional interests and aims, are too much for me. The States are 
even less foreign to me than is Canada, and Woodrow Wilson means more to 
me than King George; and, further, Wilson means more to me as teacher than 
as President. The man who does something in or for education — that noblest 
undertaking of man's — is the man whom I honor; and I honor myself in so 
far as I endeavor to promote true education. For any cause of less worth tlian 
tducation I do not suppose I should ever put pen to paper. That pen is now 
at the service of my American confreres in these columns. I wish my ability in 
using it were at all commensurate with my earnest desire to be of real help 
to them in my scribblings. I can only promise that I will do my best; that if 
I see an opinion sticking it's head round the corner, I will throw an out-of-date 
manual training text-book at that head; but that facts shall always receive the 
glad hand, and be invited to take a trip across the Atlantic. 

The Daily Neivs, that London newspaper of whicii Charles Dickens was 
the first editor, held, during the Christmas Holidays, at Olympia, London, a 
"Children's Welfare Exhibition." Manual training schemes and notions were 
here well to the fore, and one of the leading demonstrations was conducted by 
Mr. J. C. Hudson, whose "Home School" at Highgate is largely concerned 
with learning by doing. It is to be hoped that the success which attended this 
experimental exhibition will be such as to warrant it becoming an annual 
fixture. 

301 



302 M.IM.IL TR.UMXC M.IG.IZIXE 

Miss K. Dalley, an L. L'. C mistress, lias invented a method for the teaching 
ot arithmetic, wliicli, according to those best able to judge, promises to be of 
great utility. The invention is a simple apparatus for demonstration purposes, 
which will cost only a few shillings. The London County Council — which has 
a model of her invention — recommends that she is "to be permitted to patent 
the invention, subject to the condition that the Council be allowed to use it 
without pavment. should it so desire." This is exceedingly kind of the Council. 
We wonder if this canny policy could be matched by any school board in the 
United States. 

..lit 

Tlie Handicraft Report recently issued by the London County Council has 
been verv freelv criticised by several pens since it was published, and the 
criticism has been even more adverse than favorable. The report, on the whole, 
is certainly disappointing, and errs decidedly in tiie way in which it has over- 
done the spirit of sweet reasonableness. It has tried to serve two masters, to 
sit on two stools, and, endeavoring to please everybody, has apparently but 
little pleased anvbody. It does not compare favorably with its companion report 
issued by the Board of Education, which was the work, not of a representative 
conference, but of a few inspectors. The inspectors have scored this time. But 
if the schools accept both reports, and speedily put them to the test in practice, 
both reports will be justified. 

Dr. John Adams, Professor of Education in the University of London, has 
resigned his post as Examiner in the Theory of Manual Training to the City 
and Guilds Institute. The certificate issued by the City and Guilds is the 
premier qualification for a manual training teacher, recognized throughout the 
British Empire. Considerable regret will be felt by the teaciiers at the resigna- 
tion of Professor Adams. 

In the <)uarterly report of the Leicestershire Education Committee, the 
superintendent of school gardens deplores the lack of sympathetic cooperation 
between managers and teachers in rural districts in regard to gardening and 
matiual instruction. He recommends that a small plot in each school garden 
should be reserved for experiment and purely scientific purposes, such as the 
cultivation of economic plants, poisonous plants, and exotic plants of botanical 
interest. 

Instruction is now being given to cliildren in many I'.nglisli elementary 
schooU in horticulture, and most education committees are giving encourage- 
ment to its extension, especially in rural areas. It is only of late that the 
development of school gardens has made any progress in England, and even 
in Germany. We believe that in all the important area of I^)ndon County 
Council ({"^'"""icnf, there is but one scIkk)! garden on tiie edge of a northern 
fuburb. 



FOREIGN NOTES 303 

Dr. Kimmins, Chief Inspector, L. C. C, and a man of genial and inspirinji 
personality, recently addressed a largely-attended meeting held in the Lecture 
Hall, Kingston Library, on "The Future of Manual Training in the Schools." 
That future, according to the learned Doctor is one of assured success, because 
handwork is "now being introduced in the schools, not for empirical reasons, 
but for sound psychological and physiological reasons." When such men as Dr. 
Kimmins seek to serve it, manual training may be said to be coming in to its 
own in Britain. It is interesting to note that Dr. Kimmins, an ex-president of 
the Educational Handwork Association calls it "manual training". There is a 
regrettable tendency in Britain to give all kinds of names to what most of us 
mean when we say "manual training." It is for the old and most vvidelv 
recognized term that the present writer has always contended, and he notes 
with pleasure an increasing tendency to use it. It is highly desirable that one 
term and one term only — "manual training" — should be used to denote all 
phases of education through manual occupations. 

The Rt. Hon. J. A. Pease, president of the Board of Education, at Shore- 
ditch Technical Institute, in dealing with the work of the centre for the training 
of manual instructors, said that they were suffering from a dearth of teachers, 
and teachers were needed who knew not only the theoretical side of their work, 
but were practical workers themselves. 

That last note reads strangeh', when we consider that the manual teachers 
of London are engaged in a prolonged but sustained struggle for an increased 
maximum in salary. The maximum, which, twenty years ago, applied to all 
teachers, now discriminates against manual teachers, who have remained sta- 
tionary while all other grades have gone ahead. In that twenty years, cost of 
living in London has increased 259f, and the demands on tiie teacher more 
than cent per cent. 

There is much fluttering in the dovecotes of Scottish manual training 
teachers over various suggestions by them, and to them, concerning the obtaining 
of a diploma of worth superior to any diploma hitherto granted. But our 
'brither Scots" have an excellent knack of taking care of themselves. 

The L. C. C. is proposing to convert the art-rooms of its elementary schools 
into practical workrooms. This, broadly regarded, may work out as a reform, 
so long as art is not totally excluded from such workrooms. 

The proposal to establish, in a London public school, a boot-mending class, 
elicits from The Schoolmaster the opinion that "motor activity, an educational 
force, is fast being wrested to mere utilitarianism." Is "mere utilitarianism" a 



504 



M.IXL'.iL TR.IIMXU M IC.I/IXE 



crime in education? It tlie \vriter oi that opinion saw some of the shoes in- 
habited b> tlie children, lie woiiKl re-consider his position. 

rhere are now 9o school-gardens in the count> of Wiltshire. A few women 
teachers are engaged in such work, and others are iiualifying to do so. Recently 
a limited number of children have received lessons in thatching, bee culture, 
poultry-keeping, milking, and dairy work. More utilitarianism! 

A re-modelled scheme of domestic instruction has been approved for the 
city of Carlisle. During the past \ear 1,116 girls received instruction in cookery- 
for ten weeks, 360 girls received instruction in laundry work for five weeks, 
and ISO girls instruction in house-wifery for five weeks. Still utilitarianism! 

The Educational Authoritv for the Pro\ ince of the Cape of Good Hope 
considers it indispensable that the woodwork rooms and also the room for the 
related drawing should, wherever possible, form part of the main school build- 
ing, as, apart from other considerations, it is umlesirable thai such rooms should 
be scattered about the school grounds. 

-Jit 

The Higher Scht»ol of Instruction in Agriculture and Housekeeping for 
girls, at Grignon in France, is now in full working order, and was attended 
on opening by a greater number of students than had been expected. It aims 
to prepare teachers and also daughters of farmers for better work in their own 
spheres. Quite a glowing accoimt of the new school is gixen in a recent bidletin 
issued bv the International Institute of .Agriculture. 




CLASS I.V MOUSE FRAMING AT HIGH SCMOOI., FORT 
IK.»DGF., IfJWA, E. T. SNIVEI.Y, SUI'KRVIMJR. 



REVIEWS 

Working Draivbigs. By Arthur B. Babbitt, Teacher of Mechanical Draw- 
ing, Public High School, Hartford, Conn. Henry Holt & Company, New York, 
1911. 71/2x5 in.; 201 pages; price, $1.00. 

It would be clear to any teacher of mechanical drawing reading this book 
that its author was an experienced teacher, even if the reader liad not seen the 
statement in the preface to the effect that t!ie bonk is the result of a ten years 
testing process in the classroom. No teacher of brief experience would have 
brought together so many simple problems in practical drawing and arranged 
them in groups to meet the needs of individual students. The grouping of 
problems is not a new idea nor is this book the first one to present a collection 
of problems, but perhaps no other book has carried out this idea so fully. For 
example, under "cylindrical work," instead of giving one object for Plate 10, 
the author gives twelve, and four more for "extras". Another good feature 
of the book is giving the pupil a sketch of two views of the object and requiring 
him to read these, draw them, and also a third view which is not given in the 
sketch. Neither is this a new principle, but it is a good one and ought to be 
in all books of elementary problems in the future. For the earlier plates the 
problems are given in the form of dimensioned perspective sketches. The 
author believes in home work for pupils in mechanical drawing. He suggests 
that the student be required to work out freehand at home, or out of class 
hours, his problem for each plate. "The course may be given without home 
work, but the author is a firm believer in home work." 

The book represents one year's work, two forty-five minute periods a week. 

Printing and Bookbinding. B\' S. J. \'aughn, Head of Department of 
Manual Arts, State Normal School, De Kalb, 111. Public School Publishing Co., 
Bloomington, 111., 1912. 7^x5'/, in.; 125 pages; price, $1.00. 

This is really two books bound as one. The first is on the Art of Printing, 
and the second on Bookbinding. Tlie first covers type setting, rules of com- 
position, proof marks, imposition, presswork, distributing, equipment and its 
cost, the arrangement of equipment, and then it tells you what to print and 
how to proceed. The second part treats of case binding, rebinding, etc., and 
ends with a course of instruction in binding for all the grades of the elementary 
schools, from the first to the eighth inclusive. 

This book should give just what teachers want to know on the subjects 
treated, because Mr. Vaughn is a trained and experienced teacher and a 
practical printer. He was a printer before he was a teacher of manual train- 
ing. We are glad to welcome this first book we have seen on this new line of 
manual arts work. It will undoubtedly give a definite impulse to such work in 
public schools. 

Popular Mec/ianics Year Book for 1913. The Popular Meciianics Co., of 
Chicago. 9^/2x61 '2 in.; 213 pages; price, 50 cents, prepaid. 

This is a reprint of the Shop Notes department of Popular Meciianics for 

305 



306 M.^M.IL TR.IIMXG MAGAZINE 

the past year and is therefore full of "kinks" and ways of doing things. On 

the cover is printed, "595 easy ways to do the hard things in ever\' trade and 

calling." "Mechanicall_\ -inclined Inns" as well as their elders will find this 
a storehouse of ideas. 

Festivals iiriJ Pluys. Percival Chuhb and Associates. Harper and Brothers. 
5?.>xS in.; 403 pages. 

Mr. Chubb and iiis associates wrote this book out of their experience in 
producing festivals and plays in the Ethical Culture School, in New York, and 
it is therefore rich in practical sviggestions. The appendix, with reference 
material, programs, costume descriptions, etc., is a treasury in itself. The 
discussion of all phases of pageantry and play-giving is very complete and 
well arranged, so that those who ha\e come uiuler the irresistible spell of 
festival giving will find in this book just how to go about it, how to lead up 
to the proper spirit in the children, how to plan all the details. Attractive 
half-tones are an interesting feature of the book. 

Theory and Practuf nj Titu'/ilrii^ Art. .Xrtiuu- Wesley Dow, Teachers 
College, Columbia l'nivcr;<it\ . 73 pages; 6x9 in.; price, $1.50. 

This is the second edition, with additional text and illustrations, of Professor 
Dow's invaluable book. He discusses the purpose of art teaching, and then the 
two methods, academic and synthetic. The synthetic method, which approaches 
art teaching from a new standpoint, is taught by Professor Dow in his classes. 
It is (juite distinct from previous methods and its theory and applications as 
discus>ed and illustrated in this book should be read by every teacher of art 
and every supervisor of manual training. The latter will see that the new 
method has an important bearing on the close relation between the fine and the 
manual arts. 

Praitiial Drfssmakinjf Up to Date. 

The Elements of Dress Patteru-Maklni^. 

Frenih Pattern Modellini^ for Professionals. By Amy J. Reeve. Longmans 
CJrcen & Co., 1912. 

Here are three inexpensive books of diagrams, witii sufhcient text to make 
them clear, giving the essentials of the art of dress-cutting as taught to technical 
classes under the London County Council. They are also adapted to the use 
of home workers and professionals. -All three are practical, and may be thoroly 
commended. The second is especially suited to begitming classes in schools, 
while the third is hardly needed in schools, except advanced technical schools, 
but is valuable for professionals. 

Al[<liahets and Other Material I'sefnl to Lrllerrrs. My Ciiarles Rollison. 

I). Van Nostrand Co., .New ^'ork, I9IJ. 6x9'- in.; oldong; 33 pages; price, 
$L00. net. 

'I'his i«t a bfKik on engrossing. It gives suggestions ((inccrniiig llie seleclion 

of materiaU and designing, but the Imnk consists chieflv <il phiu-s of aliiiiabets, 

m'lnogram*. texts, and ornaments. Tliese are carefulls s(lc( led jiiul well re- 
produced. 



REllEJVS 307 

.Irtistic Leather Jf'ork. By E. Ellin Carter. E. and F. \. Spoil, Ltd., 
London, 1912. T^^xS in.; 51 pages; price, $1.00. 

This is a hand-book for art workers. It gives illustrations of suitable tools, 
diagrams to show the cuts, designs appropriate to leather tooling and a few- 
half-tone plates of fine pieces of finished work. It treats of several methods 
of decorating leather, but gives the largest amount of space to incised work. 
This book should not be classed with inferior handbooks for amateurs; it is a 
brief, direct treatise on the subject. 

Experimental If'ireless Stations. By Philip E. Edelman. Published by the 
author at 2432 Lyndale Ave. South, Minneapolis, Minn. 7^/1x5]^^ in.; 224 
pages; price, $2.00. 

This book, as the author says, "is intended particularly for experimenters, 
that sane body of voluntary workers who take up the art as a hobby, study, 
or spare-time vocation, and who are generally misnamed amateurs." The main 
object of the book is to standardize "amateur stations under the restrictions of 
the nev/ wireless law". The book covers theory, aerials, grounds and lightning 
protection, the transmitter, calculations for circuits, transformers, inductance, 
uning, wireless codes, rights of the experimenter, etc., etc. It is well written 
and illustrated with eighty diagrams. 

.^ Text-Book of Design. By Charles Fabens Kelley and William Luther 
Mowll. Houghton Mifflin Company. lOy^x? in.; 134 pages; price, $2.00. 

This book is designed to be used as a text-book for advanced students. 
The theory of pure design is presented in a very clear and comprehensive 
manner. The fundamental principles known as sequence, rhythm and balance 
have been illustrated by the rudimentary forms of spots and lines. Spot, line 
and area composition in repetition and field have been thoroly presented, 
many illustrations supplementing the text. One chapter is devoted to values 
and their combinations in design, another to the theory of color, which is 
illustrated by diagrams. A short chapter on lettering as governed by the 
principles of design, is followed by one on design in architecture. 

The book contains 147 illustrations, many of which are Japanese stencils, 
interesting Coptic textile designs, and other historic textiles and ornament. 

The book is valuable as a text-book for the study of pure design. 

— Adelaide Mickel. 

T/ie Boy's Book of Neiv In-ventions. Harry E. Maule. l^oubieday, Page 
and Company. 5^x8^4 in-! ^74 pages; price, $!.60, net. 

This book tells in a clear, forceful manner about the new developments in 
the field of invention, including aeroplanes, motion-picture machines, artificial 
lighting, the Tesla turbine, concrete inventions, and wireless telegraphy, with 
many others. A large number of good half-tones accompany the text. 

A book of this sort will prove both fascinating and stimulating to boys of 
a mechanical bent. It should find a place in the classroom library of manual 
training teachers, and will furnish a source of information for the teacher as 
well as a source of interest for the boy. It will help in the good work of 
broadening the "industrial intelligence" of manual training students. 



308 M.lM.n. TR IIMXc; l/./OWZ/AE 

Architfitura! Druziirig Pliites. Hv Ralpli F. Wiiidoes, Director of Manual 
Training, South Haven, Mich. Publisheil b\ the author. 7x9 in.; IS phites; 
price, 50 cents. 

The rtrst two of these give aichitectiual cou\ eiitioiis, such as tlie best 
methods of representing doors ami windows on plans, elccttic wiring, materials 
of construction, stairways, fire places, etc. Ihen follow plates of Hour plans, 
elevations, details of mouldings, etc., ot two houses. 

Ri:ci:i\ i;i>. 

Mission Furniture. This is Part III of the "How to Make It" series issued 
bv the Popular Mechanics Co. of Chicago. The price is 50 ceiUs. 

.Inriuul of the Peoria County Siliools. Issueil b\ the C'ount\ SuperintenileiU, 
J. A. Hayes. It contains the rejiort of the Institute heltl last August, in which 
a large amount of time was given to wootlwork, drawing, luetahvork, and 
agriculture. Photographs of tiie shops ami of some of the construction work 
done in connection with the thawing are reprociuceil. 

CleveliinJ Puhlie Schools. Report of the superintendent for 1910-11. The 
Cleveland report has been interesting for several years, but perhaps no report 
has been more so than the present one. 

Course of Stuiiy for the Cotrution Schools of Illinois. Tiiis is just off the 
press. It is published for the Illinois State Teachers Association by C. M. 
Parker, Taylorville, 111. Price, 3ii cetns. It contains outlines for ilrawing, 
constructive work, design, manual training, agriculture, ami, in fact, all the 
subjects taught in the common schools of the state. 

Report oj .W-ii- York PuhUe Schools. This is tiie fourteeiuii aiuuial repent of 
the superintendent by Dr. William H. Maxwell, but in reality is a report on 
drawing and matuial training. It includes "Art in the High Schools" by Dr. 
James P. Hane\, "Drawing in the Elementary Schools' by Frank H. Collitis, 
and "Shopwork in Flemenlary Schools" In \\'alter S. ( joodnougli. 

Carneifie Tethriiiul Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. Announcement of the new 
course for iiulustrial teachers. 

The ff'orii of the (Country Schools. A bulletin lueiiartd by the facult\- of 
the Iowa State Teachers College, Cedar Falls, la. Fhe sixteen jiages on 
manual training bring together man\ helpful suggestions. 




.^^t^/>f ^^^^;c^c<^ 



(;iI.|{|.R'r HI KNKT MOKKISON. 

'^Kl: KDITOHIAI. I 



VOLUME XIV NUMBER 4 



Manual Training Magazine 



APRIL, 1913 



THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS FOR BOYS OF THE SEVENTH 
AND EIGHTH SCHOOL YEARS. 

Ernest B. Kent. 

THE seventh and eighth school \ears are coming to be regarded 
as belonging to the secondary rather than the elementarj' period. 
If they could be transferred to the various higher schools many 
advantages would accrue, no doubt. However, they are not a part of 
these schools, and are not likely to be, in public school systems generally, 
for a good while to come. 

Our present problem, therefore, is to take these two years where 
they are and make the most of them. We must seek profitable relation- 
ship with the work of the higher schools in spite of their physical dis- 
tance, and in spite of the fact that they are physically within the ele- 
mentary school we must be ready to depart from its regular pnjgram 
as much as may be necessary to meet the special needs of this inter- 
mediate period. 

What, in the first place, should be the main difference between the 
work in industrial arts for these two years and that of the years pre- 
ceding? Not merely, I should say, in that new industries are to be 
treated, tho this may be done; nor yet in the mere iilling in of detail 
regarding industries already studied, tho this will surely be done. All 
this is the sort of development that has occurred from year to year 
during the elementar}- period proper. 

I believe that this is about the right point in the school life for a 
much more radical and fundamental change of emphasis; that, while in 
the previous grades industry has been the subject matter of the course, 
now, for these two years at least, the hoy himself should become the 
real subject matter. Before the sixth year, that is, we ask, What is he 

309 



310 l/.V.Vr.V/. TR !l\l\C Mriai/ISE 

learninii about iiiiliistr\ ? After the sixth year we should ask., \Vhat 
is he learniiiLT about himself, aiul what is the teacher learninii abovit 
him? Which boys in a class have latent aptitudes tor this or that or 
the other t\pe of industrial work? Which ones ha\e an all around sort 
of adaptabilitx to any industr\ ? Which hoys are showiiiL:: themselves 
jreneralh unmethanical ? Anil finally, in the case of each ht)y, how do 
his achievements anil interests in these lines compare w ith his effective- 
ness in the non-mechanical t\ pes of school \\ mk ? 

M\ thesis is that the main dut\ of the school shop duriiii:; these two 
years is to serve as a laboratory for vocational ^uiilance with respect 
to the industrial occupations. 1 think we ma>' say that the shop not 
only should he. but is and always has been, such a laboratory. Kven 
with the narrowest course in woodworking: aiming at something: very 
different, it was yet for the average boy the best if not the only means 
whereby he could judiie intelliijenth' of his fitness or unfitness for 
mechanical work. It is a fair question whether this incidental result, 
this mere by-product of manual training:, has not been more valuable 
than the results that were beine aimed at. 

However that may be. my own belief is that for three-fourths or 
seven-eighths of the boys in the seventh and eighth school years this 
vocational guidance at least r/iay he the most \ahiahle single feature of 
the shop work. 

CI.ASSIFICATIOX OF PUPILS. 

Some classification of these pupils with reference to their further 
eilucation will make this clearer. We may form five groups as follows: 

1. Those who are so far retard eil that they go to work before 
C(jmpleting the elementary course. 

2. Those who go to work at graduation. 

3. Thrjse who enter a short-course vocational school. 

4. Those who complete a high school course. 

5. Those who attend both high school and college. 

Of these, onl\ the la^t group — to take tlieiii in re\crse order — are 
in a position to ignore Mich guidaiuc during the seventh and eighth 
years. Those who go to college have the high school period in which 
to study their special aptitude^;. Ff)r them (|uitc jiossihly the aim of the 
industrial arts work might remain here, as in the earlier grades, a purely 
cultural study of the important phases of lium;m industry. 



INDUSTRI.^L ,]RTS I\ GRIDES 311 

This group, however, contains no more than li\e or ten per cent 
of the total; and practicall\ all of the others are near enouiih to their 
choice of occupation to make it a matter of serious moment to them. 

Those who, on leaving the grammar school, undertake a shorter 
vocational course, whether commercial or industrial, are the ones who 
most of all need this assistance. These courses are more highl\ special- 
ized, and therefore have the less of general educational value. The 
boy who takes the wrong course must either throw away this year or 
two of work and begin over again, or else remain thru life a misfit. 

As for the boy who goes directly to work on leaving the grammar 
school, he of course has to take w hateve^ kind of work he can find. He 
will be a casual worker for two years or so and then select his occu- 
pation, if indeed he ever ceases to be a casual worker. 'I'hese years may 
teach him some things, but there is not one chance in ten that they will 
give him any direct contact with a skilled industry. On accovmt of the 
low initial wage in skilled industry he is altogether likely to f(jllow 
some other form of work, regardless of any special aptitudes, unless 
parent, friend, or school has interested him in some form of mechanical 
work. 

In accepting vocational guidance as the leading aim instead of the 
by-product of the work in these grades we must not overlook the im- 
portance of other values still to be realized merely because they in turn 
are to be classed as by-products. Any industry treated may still be 
handled in a broad way, taking careful note both of its relations to 
natural science and of its place in the social economy, thus making of 
it incidentally a truly cultural study. 

This special aim, while it may also influence the method of treat- 
ment, bears especially upon the selection of the industries to be studied. 
It demands, of course, that they be chosen wath careful thought for the 
needs of the locality in question. Thus it would oppose pottery, for 
example, in the schools of Jersey City, tho making it perhaps a major 
subject in Trenton. It would in most communities demand attention 
to a greater variety of industries than has been customary. This means, 
of course, less time for the established ones — at least until the time 
allowance is increased as it sometime will be. Some who are accustomed 
to assign the whole two years to a carefully graded course of woodwork 
may look upon such a course as a smattering, tinkering sort of pseudo- 
study with nothing done thoroly enough to be "worth while" as they 
would express it. The whole question is. What are we going to aim 



312 M.LM .11 TR.IIM.m; MIG-lZIXt: 

at? What is wDith wliilo: i)r ratluT, What is most worth while? Is 
it thf rcachitiii of a certain technical standard in woodwork? This is 
pure assumption. We have been lioiiii: this tor years and the hijjh 
schools have continually commented that they had to beiiin all over 
again with our pupils an\ how. I belie\e that the self knowledge 
obtained thru experiment with varied industries may be made vastly 
more worth while than any degree of technique that we may be able 
to obtain thru the intensixe t\pe of course. 

Every shop teacher knows that four times out of five the boys who 
lead a class during the first month in the shop hold that lead consistently 
thruout the entire course. He does not neeil two \ears nor one \ear 
to pick out pupils with a talent for woodworking, and the pupil does 
not need two years or one year to find out whether he likes the work. 
If boys can lea\e the shop with at least some idea, bas.'d on actual 
experience of their relative suitability for a half dozen different in- 
dustries, it will be for the great majority of them more worth while 
than an\ technical skill which might come thru concentrating upon a 
single t\ pe. 

CONDITION'S IN JERSKV CITY. 

It ma\ make the subject more concrete to tlescribe \ery briefly some 
of our own experiments in this direction. They tlerixe their main 
interest probably from the fact of being carried on under strictly 
average public school conditions — one and one-half hours p2r week, no 
shopwork below seventh grade, and classes of twent\ to twenty-four 
pupils. 

The census reports give Jersey City some fifteen thousand men in 
the skilled indu^^tries about evenly dixided between rlic building and the 
metal manufacturing industries. Some four-fifths of these are emplo\cd 
in the following nine trades, given with the approximate number en- 
gaged in each : 

1. Carpenters ami wkoiI workers 3,i)0() 

2. .Machinists 2,000 

3. Stationary eiijiineers 1,500 

4. Fmnulrv men 1,000 

5. ( ftlier metalworkers 1,000 

f.. Mason- 1,000 

7. Phimhers 1,000 

X. KIcrtricians 700 

9. Steam and jjas fitters 500 



LXDUSTRl.IL .IRTS L\ GR.JDES 



313 




314 



Ml. Ml I TR.IIMXC: M.iai/ISE 



C^ur aim has Ih'imi Xo i:i\t.' in our two year shop course sonic form of 
contact u ith all nine of these, with special reference to vocational choice, 
and ue have made some attempt with eiizht out of the nine — plunihinLi; 
bfiiiii the one exception. 

The wooilworkitii: industries, of course, present the simplest problem. 
The usual t\ pes oi work leadin*: up to furniture construction are satis- 




FIC. 2. MODEL GARAGE. CORNER CUT AWAY TO SHOW REINFORCING. 



factory, so far jls the one branch of cabinet-makinii; is concerned, and 
pive some jjeneral acquaintance with uoodworkinji; tools. Hut rougher 
forms of woodwork also deserve notice, since certain boys will succeed 
in the house buildinu who would never do so in cabinet-making. Rou}j;h 
work implies larjze work, and the practical difHculties of opening up this 
field thru the medium of the school shop are too obvious to dwell upon. 
\\*e have, however, in the second half year built modi-1 house frames 
which we think j:ive some slijiht feelin^ of out door construction, in 
spite f)f the small scale — one-eighth size in length of timbers, and one- 
fourth in cross-section. See Vin. I. '! he work also ^i\es a conception 
of the various members, their functions and proportions, whiih is pos- 
sibly more cultural than vocatit)nal in bearinjj;. 



INDUSTRIAL IRTS I\ GRIDES 



315 



We have found no satisfactory treatnient for bii(.kla\ int: as such, 
but work in reinforced concrete construction has been introduced most 
profitabl}-. It seems to include s(jme of the same factors, and to 's'wv 
some feeling and appreciation of buildintr in brick and stone. An ele- 
mentary study of strength of materials is necessary in order to under- 
stand the proper location of the reinforcement. Various samples of 




MODEL GARAGE. FORMS IN PLACE FOR FIRST COURSE. 



concrete with and without reinforcement are made and tested to the 
breaking point. A model house or garage about two feet high is then 
built as a class project, Fig. 2. The usual methods of reinforcing walls 
and roof are followed. The walls are poured in courses of about three 
inches each, and the molds are moved up successively. Fig. 3. Thus 
the process is typical thruout, and, except in the one matter of weight 
involved, gives correct impressions not only of the underlying science, 
but of the manipulation side as well. 

The electrician stands midway between the building and the machine 
trades, sometimes belonging to one group and sometimes to the other. 
Various projects for giving pupils some feeling of electrical work are 



316 M.IM.H. TRllMSa M,IC.^/I.\E 

too well known to roquire more than mention at this time — the telegraph 
sounder and key are the most ct)mmon. We ha\ e maile much use of an 
electric mottir made from four wire nails and a hit of i^lass tuhinii;. It 
can be built in four lessons, hu/zes around most enL::aL:in;j:ly on current 
from one or two cells, and .>rets out t)f order readil\ enouLrh to ^ive jjood 
experience in huntinu what the electricians term "trouble". It i^ives 
more electrical experience for the time reijuired than any other project 
with which I am familiar. 

In connection with such a problem there ma\ well be the su^jjesting 
of optional work which will test still further the pupils' interest in the 
subject and their ability to think in electrical terms. For example, a 
series of problems in electric bell circuits may be assigned. The truly 
electrically minded boy usualh shows much skill and interest in working 
out the iliagrams at home. 

M1£T.\I.W()RK1X(; TRADES. 

We come now to the metalworking trades proper. Here machinists 
are seen to be most numerous, while nearly all of the others are steam 
engineers, steam fitters, and foundrymen. The first three of these trades 
have enough in common so that they may be grouped together for treat- 
ment elementary enough to fit the eighth graile. That is. most suc- 
cessful machinists would have made at least fairly good stationary 
engineers and most cngiiu-ers fairly good machinists. Steam fitters also 
work with the same hand tcKjls and upon the same materials as the 
others, tho the\' do not, of course, require the same amount of what we 
have called machine-sense. We ha\e felt therefore that attention to the 
metalworking industries in school might be limited to three main prob- 
lems of machine-shop, electrical, and f(nindry work, within a time allow- 
ance of rather less than a year. 

Treatment of the fcjundry is a simple matter. We have tried various 
plans. One of them is the building by pupils of small flasks, measuring 
four by six inches inside. The teacher gives a careful demonstration of 
casting lead, followed b\ an excursion to a foundry. The pupils then 
take their fla.sks home and experiment for themselves, bringing in their 
lead castings for criticism. With proper ciuuuragcment fifty to eighty 
per cent of the pupils will experiment in this way, getting some notion 
lx)th of the principles involved and oi the "fed" of working in the sand. 
Another plan has been to arrange a small molding bench in the shop 



ISDVSTRLIL IRTS IS GR.IDES 317 

arul assipi two or three boys to it each week until all had made trial 
of the work. Not infrequently it happens that a bo\ will show special 
delicacy in handling the sand who has been deaf alike to all commands 
and entreaties relating to that ancient and honorable problem, the 
getting of a "working edge". 

It is the machine-shop problem iiowever, which is the most difficult, 
and for us, at least, the most important, (^ne's first thought (jf the 
machine-shop equipment is of something so complex, expensive, and 
utterly different from that of the school shop that one is tempted to 
give up the idea of a school course that will pick out the machinist-to-be 
and separate him at all from the carpenter-to-be. Hut let us see just 
what is involved in this process — what special forms of ability or interest 
separate the machinist-group from other mechanical groups. First, there 
is this "machine-sense" — a ready understanding of any gi\en machine — 
quick grasping of the relations and functions of its various parts. This 
is a pureh intellectual matter. It has nothing to do with any technical 
or manual ability whatever; it is an inborn talent as distinct as musical 
or artistic talent and susceptible to training in the same degree. It may 
safely be called the fundamental asset of machinist or steam engineer. 

It is the discovery rather than the development of this talent that 
we are concerned with. The machine-shop is the ideal place for this 
because its machines are so varied and because their use requires JiuIl:- 
ment rather than technique. Even projects in wood that call for the 
adjustment of moving parts — from toy wagon and jumping-jack upward 
— probably render distinct service here. The operations requiring 
manual skill such as laying out work, filing, center punching, etc., are 
not to be ignored, but hand skill in these operations is not fundamentally 
different from hand skill in woodworking. That is, one who can learn 
to plane and chisel well can probably also learn to file well, and vice 
versa; so far, that is, as motor and visual control is concerned, but there 
is a problem of taste and preference here that must not be ignored. 
Many a man who likes to plane hates Ui Hie, and many a man who likes 
to file hates to plane. 

The school problem then comes down to this: — (1) Can we in the 
eighth grade give a boy enough of filing, drilling, thread-cutting, etc., 
so that he will reach some basis of preference, as between woodworking 
and metalworking? (2) Can we give him such experience either in 
building machines or in the studying, operating, taking apart and putting 
together of machines so that he can form a better judgment of his 
interest in machines and his talent for them? 



318 U./.Vr.//. TR.llMXc: M.lC.l/.lSE 

It sooms ti) nu- that \vc may do both ot thfsc things in a coiisidiMahle 
deiireo if w c aro wiUinL: to take a halt u-ar or so tor tht- purpose. Ovir 
own plan is x.o take the first half of the ei>:hth year and to devote it 
to the huildiiiii of some small machine complex enough to require rather 
careful stud\ atul ailiustment in order to make it operate. 

For the past \ear we ha\e been buiUliim steam-enj^ines, followinjj: 
the ver\ detailed plan which appeared recentl\ in the Maxlai. Traix- 
im; Magazine.' For a shop with little or no special eqmpment it 
seems to me to serve this special purpose far better than any other 
project that I know of. It arouses ii:reat interest, its \al\e mechanism 
is sufHcientlx complicateil to call for serious stutly, it requires a lars^e 
variet\ of tool operation^ ami a izood tleal of careful adjustment in as- 
sembling;, is not too ilifficidt for the a\eraize eighth ^ratle boy when 
properly presenteil and or>:ani/eil, yet an\ boy with a real talent for 
machinerx betiins promptl\ to show it in no uncertain w a\ . \Wv have 
found it somewhat too loiii: for a half year's work, anil last term we 
built onl\ one engine for e\ery two boys by means of a plan of organi- 
zation which may be worth outlinini: briefly: 'Fhe teacher listed the 
eijihteen hoys in order of shop ability and divided it in the middle. The 
nine stronijest pupils were appointed foremen. Each foreman chose an 
assistant from the poorer half of the class. 'Fhe ninth foreman, of 
course, hail first choice, and the first foreman, the strongest man in the 
class, jiot the last choice. Thus the pupils were, on the whole, con- 
genially paired and the nine groups a\era.ij;eil an approximately equal 
ability. They worked together in ^ood spirit with the understanding!; 
that when the enjjine was finished the hiizhest bidder would bu\ the 
enjrine of the other — the bids, howe\er, beinu weighted by the teacher 
in those cases where one member of a pair had done what was clearly 
more than his own half of the work.- 

This machine-shop experience, however, ma\ be made much more 
effective \et. if some special equipment is to be liad. We have tried, 
not alwa\s with success, to furnish for each shop one small footpower 
engine-lathe. This is, of course, the fundamental machine-shop tool 
and j.'reatl\ increases the possibilities of this X\\)v of work. Its own 

' A Soft-NU-ial Stearri-Knuiiie, hy W. V. Kent, April, IVI2, p. 304. 

-' W'c have tried aKi) a small (»scill.Tiiiin steain-eiiyiiic. This re(iiiire!s miirh less 
time — each hoy rati readily complete one in a half vear. But the workinji out of 
fhe valve mcchatii»m >«cems to me ttnicli more valuai>le considered as a stiid\ of 
machinery. 



INDUSTRIAL ARTS Ii\ GRADES 



319 




3 JO 



U./.Vr.// TRll.MXC M ICIZISE 




LXDLSTRl.lL IRTS IX CR.IDES SJl 

mechanism is a valuable study. It permits many ilemonstratioiis h\ the 
teacher and it gives to each boy sometime in his course the f(t'/i/i<( ,,f 
handling back gears and slide rest. The usual project here is an electric 
motor built from the rough castings, each boy turning his own armature 
and boring his field. See Fig. 4. This happily combines the electrical 
study with the machine-shop study. I think it is a fair claim that a 
class which has completed this project has as clear a conception of the 
machine-shop as most manual trainuig classes have of a woodworking 
shop, tho not, of course, as much of technical facility. 

CLASS EXCURSIONS. 

One factor not emphasized thus far is of very great importance in 
connection with every one of these or similar studies : The class excur- 
sion, directed observation of the same trade or industry on a life-sized 
scale. Its difficulties are much less than seem to be sometimes assumed. 
If pupils are kept close enough together there is no danger of their being 
injured in any \\vl\\ and there is practically never any objection from 
shop foremen after they have been fully brought to realize that the 
trip is a study and not a lark. In fact they usually seem to appreciate 
the attention and cooperate actively. 

Mr. Prosser has outlined in some detail a reorganization of the 
work of these school years with special reference to service as vocational 
guidance.^ Its proposals look to a much greater flexibility both in kind 
and amount of manual work thru : ( 1 ) Special attention to retarded 
pupils so that pupils may enter the shop at the age of twelve without 
regard to academic advancement; (2) larger time allowance with some 
provision for elective shopwork; (3) differentiation in equipment of 
neighboring shops with provision for exchange of pupils in special in- 
stances. 

Such a readjustment would doubtless quadruple the effectiveness of 
shopwork for vocational guidance. It is a change that seems greatl>- to 
be desired and will doubtless come in time. All of us should work for 
it, but, as I have tried to show, none of us should wait for it. 

3 Practical Arts and Vocational Guidance, by C. A. Prosser; February. 1913, 
p. 209. 



REPORr OV A COMMirrKK ON Mi:CllANlCAL 
DRAWINC^, FOR IWCAi SCHOOLS. 

Fkfo n. Ckwvshwv \\n J. P. I'liu iii-s. 

THK authors ot tlu" ti)llo\\iii,ij; outliiu" (ui nu\'lianical drawiiii:; wisli 
tt) make clear tlu'ir reasons tor preseiitini: what niiiiht he re- 
iiarileil as merely anotlur ouf/irn . 
Teachers ot mechanical ilrawiiiLi; now ha\e so man\ availahle out- 
lines and texts that an\' ailclitional scheme must he /uic in suhstance 
or method of presentation, rather than new merely hecause of a chany;e 
of form. In order to iustif\ any serious consideration, the following 
brief discussion setting forth the salient features of the outline is given 
therefore, to point out the element of newness and to insure a careful 
reading. 

IMPORTANT FKATL'RKS. 

I. Specific and indi\itlual emphasis upon the elements of draw- 
ing. 

II. The peculiar methoil of presenting prohlems m each of the 
divisions of the outline. 

III. The elimination (tf all abstract prohlems, as such, except as 
supplementary work. 

I\'. A course of working drawings in which all necessary theory 
and practice for technique are iinoKed in a progressive series of con- 
crete applied problems. 

v. The preparation of students, so far as possible, at the end 
of each \ear for the commercial drafting room. 

\ 1. The instalment plan of preparing students for a high stan- 
dard of technique in the freehand element of mechanical drawing, viz., 
making letters, figures, arrowheads, etc. 

\'II. Home work paralleling and supplementing class work. 
\ III. I'cr-pective drawing as an element in mechanical drawing. 

DISCUSSIOX. 

A brief elaboration upon each of the cnuincratcd jioints is given 
herewith. 

I. I he outlme is the result of a natural (nolutiofi in which the 
authors in th«-ir work of inspecting high school drawing and directing 
freshman college drawing, have, with many ritlicrs, come to the con- 
clusion that to get good residts, either in the theory or practice of 

322 



MECHANIC II. DR.IUISG 323 

drawing, concentration upon elcnu-nts is necessary. 'l"o rhi> end, the 
subject of drawing has been carefully analyzed by them and each 
resulting element is presented singly and emphatically that it ma\ be 
understood, and that in it, there may be a fair degree of techmque 
established before it is used in combination with other elements in a 
complete drawing. The complete drawing as herein consitlered, con- 
sists of the orthographic and perspective sketches, the pencil mechanical 
drawings, the tracings, and the blue prints. 

II. The assumption is made that properly to con\ey an idea the 
graphical and constructive method of presentation should be used t(j 
the fullest extent. The outline provides for carefully outlined demon- 
strations by the instructor. Each one of these is given by means of all 
the elements of a completed drawing. All the data is therefore given. 
This, however, is gradually eliminated, problem by problem, until in 
the last problems of each division, the least possible amount of data is 
furnished. It should be noticed, also, that in each division of work, 
the first problem for the student is essentially a copw By this means, 
and by this means only, it is believed, can the correct standard of w(jrk- 
manship be fixed. The ideal for each individual is set at the begin- 
ning of his work. He sees with his own eyes the result he is expected 
to get. 

III. The abundance of abstract problem work, such as sheets of 
lines for instrumental practice, numerous problems in geometrical con- 
struction, the theory of projection and revolution, etc., is an incum- 
brance to any high school course in drawing. All the essentials of 
such work may be applied in working drawings. Upon this theory 
the outline is developed. However, in the supplementary work and 
as an immediate preparation and application of a principle or bit of 
fundamental data, practice may be had upon a separate sheet. In a 
similar way do we prepare ourselves for some particular kind of work 
in any field, but such preparation is not an integral part of the work 
itself. 

IV. The outline as given provides only for concrete applied prob- 
lems in a course of working drawings. It will be noticed however, 
that the selection of these problems is made with a view towards pro- 
gression in both theory and execution. The ordinary con\entions of 
drawing are introduced gradually and systematically; for example, an 
order of progression made in each division is, (1) problems inxolv- 
ing straight horizontal and vertical lines, (2) oblique lines, ( .i ) cir- 
cles, (4) tangents. 



324 M.l.M .11. TR.n.\l.\c: M.lC.l/.lSK 

\ . Emphasis is placoil upon coniiiu'vcial ilrattiiiL:; nicthods both iii 
the case of drawiiiii^s made by stmleius aiul b\ a summarization of all 
precedinjx work at the close of tbe school year. At the end of the lirst 
year, workinjx dra\vin,a:s are made which account for all the i.h\isions 
in which some one element has been presented. At the end of the 
second year, detaileil and assemhl\ drawings furnish the climax for 
the \ear and for the two years' course as well. It is believed that no 
better developmental plan has been de\iseil as a preparation for com- 
mercial draftinsz room work. 

\'I. No particular part of the mechanical ilrawinij; is usually more 
defecti\e than that which we speak of as freehand. Letters, figures, 
and arrowheaiis often spoil the otherwise ^ootl appearance of a draw- 
iniT. The principle of concentration abo\e referretl to, is applied in 
the development of letterinu; in the outline. Letterinu: is started in the 
beLrinnini: of the first year but not by makinu" a formal sheet of letters 
or b\ letterinL: the regular sheets in the course. The alphabet is di- 
vided into iiroups representinLi the kind of lines used in making the 
letters in each iiroup. Practice upon these groups is ^iven durinjz; a 
part of each drawing period and in the order of difficulty of execution. 
When sufficient continuous, but short periotl practice has been secured, 
the student applies this practice upon drawint^s already made. Upon 
all future drawiiii^s, letters and fiffiires will be made as soon as the 
drauinjr is completed. 

VII. Mechanical drawintr in hi^h schools is usually put upon the 
same time basis as any other laboratory subject. In most cases these sub- 
jects, such as physics, chemistry, etc., recjuire a certain amount of 
home time for study and preparation. Not so w irh drawing. The home 
work is introduced in this outline with the thought that it is legitimate 
to demand it, and that by it much preparation for regular classwork may 
be made. Much of the practice work can thus he provided for. Then 
too, by making use of home subjects for drawing projects, the home 
and the school can be co-partners in tlic drawing which the jMipil is 
doing. The sketches for these home problems nuist be made at home. 
Such work should he given due considci ation as an integral jiart of 
the couT'se of stud\ and should receive due i redir. 

\ III. I' •rspccti\c drawing is \aluable for main reasons. In the 
first pLice, it emphasizes the freehand element which, as already noted, 
has hren sr) persistently neglected in the teaching of mechanical draw- 
ing. 1 hi> neglect seems all the more strange when we realize that 
rvrr\ individual has some natural endowment in the mattei- ot e\pres- 



MECHANICAL DRAUISG 325 

sion by graphical means. Second, as has been pointed out b\ a number 
of writers on the subject, perspecti\e drawing is \alualile as a means 
of interpreting mechanical drawing. It is for this reason primarily 
that the subject of perspective sketching is introduced into this outline. 
In the outline the freehand lettering is suggested opposite the first 
line or division of each year's outline, as set forth in the right-hand 
column. It should be understood that this lettering runs thru each of 
the two years. 

The work has been divided into three parts and designated (a) 
demonstration work, (b) class work, (c) home work, in order to 
make the arrangement clear, and in order to indicate when and how 
each of these divisions of the work should be used. It is believed that 
a great deal depends upon the demonstration, and the attempt is made, 
therefore, to state in some detail what should be presented in each 
demonstration and what the classroom and home work should be. 

THE REPORT. 

The committee recognizes two general types of courses in drawing; 
first, a course in which lettering, instrumental exercises, and the theory 
of projection precede the working drawings; second, a course based 
on a progressive series of working drawings extending thruout the 
course, with auxiliary work in lettering, instrumental exercises, ortho- 
graphic, isometric, and cabinet projection introduced as needed. In 
making the following outline the latter type of course was chosen, 
altho it is recognized that good results may be obtained by either 
method. 

It should be noted that each year's work is complete in itself and 
ends with a division which prepares the pupil as far as possible for 
practical drafting. The lettering which should accompany the work 
done in any one division of the course is shown opposite that division 
in the following chronological outline: 

First Year. 

LETTERING. PRELIMINARY WORK. 

D. Upright letters and 1. Pencil work . .A. Sketching, 
numerals. Pencil work..B. Penciling. 

2. Ink work...C. Inking. 

Ink work...E. Freehand perspective 

WORKING DRAWINGS. 

Ink work . . . F. Dimensions and Con- 
\entions. 



326 M.I M .11 TRJI.\l.\a .M.IC.l/IXE 

Second \ oar. 

1). Inclined KTtors and 1. l\'iKil \\()rk..(^. (Oblique \ie\vs. 

nunu'rals. _. Ink. work.... H. Sections and dovcl- 

opnu'nts. 
Ink work .... 1. liUcrsoctions and 

dcN clopnients. 
Ink work .... J. Detail and assemblj' 

draw in;^. 
Ink work . . . . K. Isometric ami cabi- 
net projection. 

While nian\ problems suLiixested are ot a practical nature, the 
necessity tor a thoro ilrill in the tuinlamental principles ami operations 
should not be overlooked. Pupils should be brouizbt to understand 
the purpose of each draw im:. As tar as practicable tlrawini:;s made 
in the drauini: room >houKl be used by pupils in the shops. Where 
this is not possible instructors shouKl familiari/e pupils w ith the shop 
processes involved in makinjj the objects represented. 

A reasonable amount of home work includinj^: readinir, practice in 
lettering, ami the solution of supplementary problems should be assij2;ncd. 

The pupil "s knowledge of work covered in ilemonstrations and 
plate work should be tested frequently in short recitation periods. 
Demonstrations, as well as recitations, should be short, approximately 
twent\ minutes in lenszth. 

W(jrk in design should be emphasized thruout the course. A con- 
cise treatment of a few fundamental princijiles of desijiii is recommended. 
Time: Two 'M)-minute periods per week for two school years of 
ten months each. 



l'Ri;i.l.MI\ ARN WORK. 

.SKhTCillNC. I se I" cross-section paper with >emi-rou^h surface. 
P'mphasi/e sin^de strokes. All sketches should be entirely free- 
hand. I he proportions of an object should be estimated by 
(•\ e. .No dimensions should be taken. Han^^ sample sketches 
in the classroom. Illustr.ite methods and ^ive examples of 
tcchni(|ue at pujiils' desks. ( )mit dimensions, dimension lines, 
and rxtensiftn lines in the followifi^' preliminary sketchinfz; 
work. 



MECHANIC.IL DRIIflXG 327 

1. Rectangular (jbjects. 

a. Dfinoiistrat'ion. Present pioblem witli object, aiul fieeliaiul per- 
spective and orthograpliic sketches. Show arraiisemeiit of views with- 
out using the planes of projection. Emphasize the method of proportion- 
ing the sketch to an enlarged scale. Object suggested, bench-hook. 

b. Classroom ivork. Draw a freehand orthographic sketcii of an 
object similar to tlie one used in the above demonstration. Object, free- 
hand perspective and orthographic sketches furnislied. Object suggested, 
small butt-joint box or tri-square. 

c. Home Jl'ork. Furnish each pupil with perspective sketches of a 
number of simple rectangular objects usually found in the home. As- 
sign one object to each pupil, as a problem for an ortliographic sketcli. 

2. Objects havin^i inclined faces. 

a. Demoristra/ioii. Present problem witli object, and freeiiaiui per- 
spective and orthographic sketches. Emphasize tlie representation of in- 
clined faces. Object suggested, bird-house. 

b. Classroom work. Draw a freehand orthograpliic sketch of an 
object similar to the one used in the above demonstration. Object and 
freehand perspective sketch furnished. Object suggested, mail-box. 

c. Home work. Furnish each pupil with perspective sketches of a 
number of simple objects having inclined faces. Objects usually found 
in the home should be selected. Assign one object to each pupil as a 
problem for an orthographic sketch. 

3. Objects having circular edges. 

a. Demonstration. Present problein with object, and freehand per- 
spective and orthographic sketches. Emphasize the representation of 
cylindrical surfaces. Object suggested, center screVv face plate for speed 
lathe. 

b. Classroom work. Draw a freehand orthographic sketcli of an 
object similar to the one used in the above demonstration. Dimen- 
sioned freehand perspective sketcli furnished. Object suggested, small 
three step cone pulley. 

c. Home work. Furnisii each pupil with perspective sketches of a 
number of objects having circular edges. Objects usuall\' found in the 
home should be selected. Assign one object to each jiupil as a problem 
for an orthographic sketch. 

4. Objects having tangent edges. 

a. Demonstration. Present problem with object, and freehand per- 
spective and orthographic sketches. Show how a third view is found 
when two orthograpliic views are given. Object suggested, sleeve- 
board. 



S2S 



u./.vr.// TRUMxc; m.igazine 



b. Cliiisrooni liork. Draw a fieehaiul oitliogiapUic sketch of an 
object similar to the one used in the above demonstration. Two ortho- 
grapliic views given to rind a third view. Object suggested, pen tray 
witli beveled corners and sloping sides. 

c. Home ivork. Furnish each pupil with perspective sketches of a 
number of objects having tangent edges. (.)bjects usually found in the 
home should be selected. Assign one object to eacli pupil as a problem 
for an orthographic sketch. 

(7*0 lie continued.) 




.MECH.AMCAl. TOV-KNIGHT, DF.SIGNKD AND EXE- 
CUTED BY BOWKER, CHICAGD TEACHERS COLLEGE. 



HIGH SCHOOL MANUAL TRALNLNG PROBLEMS FOR 
COUNTRY BOYS. 

OzRo B. Badger. 

OLR new problem in Columbus, Indiana, has been to meet the 
needs of the pupils from the rural districts. We have en- 
deavored to develop a course for a class of boys who have 
entered high schofjl from the country,- — a course that is a means in 
helping educate them back to the farm, making them more resourceful, 
and enabling them to w^ork more scientifically. This course also de- 
velops an appreciation for good technic and a desire f(jr the esthetic 
around their homes. To this end we have been working, and have 
found a few models that can be made in an ordinary manual training 
shop, with an equipment such as may be found in a township high 
school or a school where country students attend. These models appeal 
directly to farm life and are so arranged, and the construction in each 
model is such, that the tool processes come in a sequential order. The 
tools used are ones that are found on the farm as a part of a farmer's 
equipment. 

Two periods a day for one year is given to this work. Three da_\s 
of each week are devoted to woodwork and concrete, and two to 
drawing. 

I. DRAWING. 

The first work in drawing consists of making the first group in 
Bennett's "Problems in Mechanical Drawing." In working out these 
problems the boys become familiar with the drawing instruments antl 
simple projections. These plates are followed by one of simple joints 
used in carpentry. As all country boys are familiar with barn con- 
struction, and if not, it is easy for them to study it at home, a plate 
showing the details of a cornice, sill, and girts is given. This problem 
''s finished previous to the working out of the same problem in wood. 

The next three plates show the floor plan, and front and side 
elevations of a poultry house. At the beginning of this problem each 
boy is given the following typewritten sheet: 

329 



330 l/./.Vr.// TR lI.M.Sa MAGAZINE 

POIMS TO BK CONSIDERED IN BUILDING A POULTRY HOUSE. 

LOCATION. 

SIZE OF HOISE 

COXTROl. OF HEALTH 

COST 

Localton. 

Dry aiui \w sliade. 
Stzt- oi llousi-. 

Depeiui^ on ruiniber of fowls — 1- sij. ft. per fo%vl floor space. 

Length ? 

10 ' to 14' deep. 
8 ' to 10' high on south side. 
4' j' to 7' high on north side. 
Control of Uralth. 

\'entiIation. 

Drafts. 

Light. 

Fiiwrs — Concrete or dirt. 

Roosts — 2' hv 4" \vith broad side up. 

Dropping board. 
Cost. 

Material. 

Kind. 

Size. 

Corner post 2-2x4. 

Internnediate posts or studs 2x4. 

Sills 2x4 or 2x6. 

Plates 2x4. 

Rafters 2x4. 

Sheathing Ix? 

Dropping luiards 1x6 shiplap. 

Siding Ix.' 

Shingles 250 per bale 

850 to 900 per stjuare. 
Square 10' xlO'. 

Each studt-nr is asked to write to Purdue University for "Circular 
Number .37," and to the Department of Aj^riculture for bidletins. 
"Poultry Raising" b\ Otis Crane, "Poultry Architecture" by G. B. 
Fiskc. and "l'oultr\ Appliances" b\ the same author, are books used 
for reference. With, the literature available the points to be considered 
art* discussed. With the information derived each student is able to 
design intelligenth a poultry house to nicer the needs of his |iarticular 
farm. 

The next plates ^iven are tho.se for the plan, front and side elcva- 



MANUAL TRAINING FOR COLNTRY HOYS 



331 



tions, and cross-section of a barn. In the working out of tlu-SL- draw- 
ings the following outline is given : 



POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN BUILDING A BARN. 

CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE. 

CONTROL OF HEALTH. 

COMFORT. 

CONVENIENCE. 

CLEANLINESS. 

COST. 

Control of Temperature. 
Height of ceiling 
Floors 
Siding 
Number of animals 



Control of Health. 
Drafts 
Ventilation — King's Ventilation 

System 
Windows - 
Doors 
Holes 
Sewerage 

Comfort. 

Kind of floors 
Size of stalls 
Height of mangers 
Temperature 

Convenience. 

Arrangement of 
Cribs 
Stalls 
Doors 
Hay chute, etc. 

Cleanliness. 
Drainage 
Litter 
Sunlight 



Cost. 

Kind of material 

Type of construction 

'Tramed" or "Balloon" 
Size of Material "Framed" 

Posts 6" to 8" sq. 

Beams 6" to 8" sq. 

Braces 4" to 6" sq. 

Sills 6" to 8" sq. 

Girders 6" x 8" to 8 x 10. 

Rafters 2x4 to 2x6. 

Joists 2x8 to 2x10. 

Nailing ties 2x6 to 2x8. 

Sheathing Ix? 
Size of Material "Balloon" 

Posts 2pcs. 2x6 to 3 pes. 2x10. 

Beams 2 pes. 2x8 to 3 pes. 2x10. 

Braces 2 pes. 2x6 to 2 pes. 2x8. 

Sills? 

Girders 3 pes. 2x8 to 4 pes. 2x10 

Rafters 2.k4 to 2x6. 

Joists 2x8 to 2x10. 

Nailing ties 2x6. 

Sheathing Ix? 
Size of Stalls. 

Length 8 to 12 ft. 

Width 4' 6" to 6'. 

Doors 3' to 3' 6" by 8'. 

Average windows 2' 6" s(). 

Silos 12' to 18' diameter. 



"Helpful Hints for Him Who Builds a Dairy Barn" by W. D. 
James, and blueprints from the University of Wisconsin are used in 
determining the sizes of the different parts of the barn. However, 
each student is expected to plan a barn that may be built and used on 
his farm so that there can be no copy work. First, the floor plan is 



U.V.Vr.//. TR.IIMXG MICl/IXE 




^J,]\U.^L TR.^IMXG FOR COLXTRY BOYS 



333 




)54 



M.lM.n. TRN.MXC M.IC,l/I.\F 



drawn: rhoii the tiuin (.-Unarion to iK'tt-rniiiu' tlu- height: third, a cross- 
st'Ction to show the details oi construction. This iletail shows par- 
ticularly tile hracini: and the construction of the izanibrel roof. Boys 
are iiiven the cht)ice ot niakini: a barn, usiiiil the "framed"" or "balloon" 
construction. Kach step is discusseil thoroly in the class. 

When these plans are completed, onl\ about six weeks of the term 
is left. This time is devoted to making ilrawinLis of simple parts of 
machinerv that are useil on the farm. 



II. W(1(m:)W0RK. 
The following: is an outline of the course in woodwork: 



GROUP 


PROCESS. 


TOOLS AND MATERI.^L 


PROJECT 


I. laying ovit tools 


First use of try-s(iuare & Knife, try-square, gage. 


Counting- 




thumb gage, boring, saw, dowel-plate, brace 


board. 




rawing, making dowel and bit; "1x4" tulip. 






pins. 




II. Box construc- 


Nailing, edge and block- Block-plane, jack-plane, 


Egg-tester. 


tion. 


planing. '- whitewood, hinges. 




III. Box construc- 


Surface planing, nailing. Block-plane, jack-plane. 


Grit-hopper. 


tion 


be\ eling. 


hammer, T - b e v e 1 , 
hinges, "s" cypress. 




IV. Modeling 


Curved sawing, modeling, Spokeshave, turning-saw, 
vertical chiseling. chisel, 1x4, 2x4 and 2x6 


Wagon- jack. 






yellow pine. 




V. Joints used in 


End lap, mortise-and-ten- 


Half-size stock or l"x4" 


Cornice, 


barn construc- 


on joint, building up 


white jiine. 


sill, and girt 


tion 


sills, plates, posts, and 




detail of 




girts. 




barn. 


VI. Simple car- 


Framing, cutting seat cut 


Framing-square, saw chis- 


Poultry- 


pentry in rafters for shed roof, el, hammer, 3/16 size 


house. 




stock — any wood that 








does not split easily 








when r)ailing. 




\'II. Furniture 


Making keyed and slip Tools previously used, ?^" 
nmrtise-and-tenon-joints, chestnut or oak. 


Tabouret. 




glue, and crosslap jf>int, 








finishing. 






\ III. Carpentry 


Framing, cutting rafters 


Tools used in (iioup \'I, 


iarn. 


"Balloon" and 


for gable and gambrel Vh si/c siock, bam 1/12 




"Framed" con- 


roof, concrete founda- size. 




ttruction 


lion. 





MANUAL TR IINIXG FOR COLS TRY HOYS 335 

Group I deals with the layino; out tools, their uses ami care. The 
project is a counting-board w hich nia\ be used at home b\ the students 
in keepinii count of grain, o;arnered or sold, or in iuan\ \\a\s useful to 
the farmer. 

In Group II the project is an egjj: tester. Fig. 1. Its use and value 
to the farmer are discussed in class, then its construction. It is nothinL' 
more than a box, and the processes involved in making it are i;i\\i,c and 
block-planing, and nailing. Hinges foi the door may be purchased or 
may be made of some scrap leather brought from the boy's home. 
Since this is the first problem in planing, a soft wood is used, and as 
nailing is one of the processes, the wood should be one that does not 
split easily. 

Surface planing is introduced in (}roup III in the making of a grit- 
hopper. Fig. 2. This problem involves a stud\- of the shrinkage and 
swelling of woods. Particular attention is given to the arrangement of 
the boards in such relation to one another that when they swell they 
will not force the box apart. The other new process is that of beveling. 
These two projects, the grit-hopper and egg-tester, are made from the 
designs used by Purdue University. 

The use of the turning-saw and spokeshave are intnjduced in making 
the wagon-jack. Fig. 3. The turning-saw is used in cutting the curve 
in the upright and the handle, while the spokeshave is used onh in 
modeling the handle. The laying out of the handle and the cur\e 
gives an excellent problem in freehand sketching and a study of good 
curves. The base may be fastened on with screws, or with a mortise- 
and-tenon joint, if the students are capable at this point of doing it. 
The height of the steps is determined by each student to conform to his 
particular vehicle. The first step should be two inches higher than the 
lower axle of the vehicle, that is, the jack has a leverage of two inches. 
Care must be taken that the handle will stand at the proper angle. 
This is done by placing the handle before it is modeled imder the 
completed upright and holes marked from the ones already bored. Ihe 
jack is made from l"x-l-", 2"x4", and 2"x6" yellow pine. The iron 
plates may be made at a machine-shop at a cost of two cents each, and 
bolts found on some piece of old machinery and brought in by the boys 
may be used or purchased from a hardware store for ten cents — making 
the total cost of the project only twenty-five cents. The last process 
is that of painting. At this point emphasis is placed on the value of 
paint not onlv on wood but iron also. Statistics show that more 
machinerv on the farm is rusteil out than worn out. 



336 



M.IM.ll TR IIMM: M.ta.lZlSE 




MANUAL TRAINING FOR COUNTRY BOYS 



337 



STUDY OF BARN FRAMING 




FIG. 4. 



M l.\l il. TRHMXU M.IC.IZISE 




FIG. 5. POLI.TRY-HOUSE MADE FROM 
PI.A\ ISSLED BY THE UNIVERSITY 
OF WISCONSIN'. 



L p to this point the bins ha\ i- workid tnnii blueprints furnished 
them, but when the\ make the cornice, sill, aiul irirt details of the barn 
they work trt)ni their own tirawin^s, of "balloon " construction, which 
have been previously made during: the draw in*: periods, FiLi;. 4. Half- 

>i/.e, or 1"\,^", stock is used. The 
joints invoKeil are end-lap and 
mortise-and-tenon. 

(jroup \'l takes up simple car- 
pentry, as the framinti of a poultrj'- 
house i"'; size, see Figs. 5, 6, 7. 
riie material usctl is in proportion 
to the house. It is difficult to 
hainlle such small material, but the 
poultry-house beinu: :i \ery siinple 
Sitructure. fairly i^ood results may 
be obtained. Fhe most essential 
processes are cuttini: rafters, build- 
ing doors, putting up dropping 
board and roosts. 
The boys are ilivided into groups of four in working on this problem. 
We have found by experience that it is difficult to keep groups of more 
than four boys bus\ when working with such small material and on so 
small a project. A foreman is appointed for each group, and his duties 
are to direct the work in a general way. He is selected from the boys 
who have made the best gratles up to this time. This is an incentive 
for each boy to do his best. 

As we ha\c no power saws in the shop, the material is sawed 
at the planing mill. Scrap wooil of white pine, tulip, basswood or any 
other material that does not split easily may be converted to this use 
at a small e.xpense. 

It may seem strange its Group VII that a tabouret is nladi* when 
introducing a course ttf rough wood, but as this class is working in the 
same room where bo\s from the city are making pieces of furniriire, they 
too. are desirous of making something that is beautiful that they may 
take h«)me and keep. Also, while making this they ha\e time in their 
drawing periods to complete the jilans of their barns. The tabouret 
that is made is one designed b\ C. S. Van Oeusen. This project in- 
volves the making oi ke\cd. mortise-and-tenon joints, glued, cross-lap, 
and slip joints. The material is given ]" wider than linished width and 



MANUAL TRAINING FOR COUNTRY HOYS 



339 




FIG. 6. 




FIG. 7. POULTRY-HOUSE DESIGNED BV ONE OF THE BOYS. 



340 



M.I.M .11. TR.ll.MXC; M.lG.l/l.\t: 



y thicker. Tho plaiiiiijz up and layiiiii out of tluplicate parts is a 
vital part of this project. Boys ha\o a choice of either fumiiiiz or stain- 
ing the tabouret w hen finished. 

All boys are iireatly interested in barns, and for our last problem, 
model ones are made, see Figs. 8 and 9. The two types, "framed" 




FIG. ^.. M.jU!,;. liARN", FRAME CONSTRUC- 
TION WITH GABLE ROOF. 



and "balloon", are built by iliffer- 
ent Lrroups. Also two types of roofs 
are constructed, the j:able and gam- fic 9. model barn, "balloon" con- 

.,,,., , STRUCTION WITH GAMBREL ROOF. 

brel. J-$\ usinn these two t\ pes the 

boys have the opportunity to compare the value of one with the other. 
The most important part of this work is the makinj2; of the concrete 
foundation, and the cutting; of the rafters and the braces. 

There are more parts to a barn than a poultry house, making it 
more difficult to construct ; therefore, the small material is a disad- 
vantage, and instead of using material in proportion to the size of the 
building, we use material which is a little larger — that is, for a barn 
made 1/12 size we use stock i size. However, all dimensions must be 
taken from the center of one piece to the center of another. As before, 
the Ixjys are divided into groups, but new foremen are appointed. 



III. CONCRHTK 



In ail classes some students work more rapidly than others and to 
supply them with extra work, problems in concrete are given. Since 



MANUAL TRAIMAG FOR COLXTKY HOYS 



341 




342 



M.LM'.iL TR U.MXa M.lG.iZISE 



concrete is beiiiii used as a buiUliiiL: material on the farm as well as in 
the cit\. it is worth while to teach the rural students its value and use. 
Concrete is easily made and is cheap, and it is possible for the work to 
be done at a time of the year when the farmer is not busily engaged 
in his reizvdar farm work. 

A separate course should be introduceil. but since it is impossible 
for us to do it, much valuable information is derived from constructing 
the different forms and moldiuiz the problems assigned. 

C^ur first problem is testing the sand. This is done in two ways: 
tirst. by placing the sand in glass jars and covering it with water. After 
shaking it well the sand settles to the bottom and the loam remains on 
top. If more than 5 per cent of loam is found, the sand is not used. 




FIG. 11. GARDES- SEAT IN' CONCRETE. 



The second method is that of making a form with sand and cement V 
square and 12" long. A weight is placed in the middle and the points 
of support are 10" apart. If this rectangular prism, after seasoning 7 
days, supports a weight of 12 pounds, it is sufficiently strong, but if 
less than that something is radically wrong with either the sand or the 
cement. This test is taken from "Cement and How to Mix It" by 
Radford. Kach new problem that arises in either the building of the 
form, reinforcing, or mixing, is discussed in class. Our greatest problem 
so far has been in getting enough draft on the core to make it possible 
to take it from the concrete. 

Fence posts of different designs, V-shaped and semicircular troughs. 
garden seats, and pedestals have been made, see Figs. 10 and 11. The 
mr>*it important part of this work is the making of the forms and re- 
inforcing. 



MANUAL TRAIMXG FOR COIWTRY BOYS 



343 



The Universal Portland Cement Company and the Lehigh ^(jrtland 
Cement Company have been very kind to send each student bulletins 
issued from their offices, particularly those containing information on 
"Concrete on the Farm." "Concrete and Garden Furniture" by Ralph 
C. Davison, and "Concrete and How to Mix It" by Radford have been 
very valuable references. The followinp; is an outline of the course in 
cement work : 



CONCRETE FUR FIRST YEAR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. 



PROCESS 


TOOLS AKD MATERI.AL 


APPLICATION. 


Making simple form for test- 


Saw, hammer, shovel, trowel. 


Test problem. 


ing concrete. Mixing in- 


Sand, cement, linseed oil, 




gredients. 


1" stock. 




Reinforcing with No. 9 wire. 


Saw, hammer, jack-plane. 


V'-shaped trough. 


Construction irregular 


shovel, trowel, tamper. 




shaped form. 


Sand, gravel, cement, No. 
9 wire, l" stock. 




Forming semicircular trough. 


Chisel, spokeshave, dividers. 


Semicircular 


Reinforcing with wire net- 


No. 9 wire, l" and Vi" 


trough. 


ting. 


stock. 




Reinforcing when strain may 


Small rods or very large 


Fence posts of dif- 


be from any side. 


wire, l" stock. 


ferent designs. 


Making a form that will pro- 


No. 9 wire, l" and %" stock, 


CJarden seat. 


duce a design on finished 


1" fillet. 




project. Tooling. 






Making two parts. Study of 


No. 9 wire, l" and %" stock, 


Pedestal. 


design. 


2" quarter-round. 





THE UP-HRlNc;iNC^, OF A TKACHKR: 

AN OPKN LKITKR TO THK MANIAL TRAINING 

TEACH KRS. 

Art II iR n. 1") K \ \. 

IHA\ K wantcil to write on this subject tor ;i year; but the editorial 
column has its limitations. One is confineil to the impersonal 
"we", and just tor once I should like to use the pronoun "I". 

rhe subject which I ha\e chosen rin^s in my ears. I am quite 
obsessed by it : possibl\ because ni\ w ork brinus me into contact w ith 
situations which require good teachers; possibly because I am interested 
in the proj^ress of younji men. My determination to write upon this 
subject was crystali/.ed by the remarks of a well-known educator who 
had been searchinsz about a \ear for a man to take one of the best 
positit)ns in the fielil of vocational education. He said to me, "1 can 
not find such a man". And with the set of a square jaw he addetl, "Is 
there no w a\ that the youm: nien now in the mo\ement can be made 
to see that as administrators of vocational work the future opportunities 
for service, yes. even salar\, are bound to be enormous and that now 
the\ should be iiettint: themselves reail\ for the uneat de\elopment 
which is bouml to come?" 

"What is the trouble?" I inquiretl. 

"\\'h\, simpl\," he replied, "that the men I have seen seem to lack 
vision and background. They ha\e had plenty of schooling but not 
enough education." 

I should like to discuss with \ow this statement. It will tlo all of 
us good to examine it. Hut right at the start I w ish \()u to understand 
that I am not writing from the "better than thou" standpoint, and 
that neither modest\ nor egotism enters in. I am but the editorial 
"we" whc> steps down from the editorial chair and stands literally on 
the ground with the reader. 

I trust that \()U feel like that old salt and man-of-war's man, "Old 
Rogers," as related in (leorge MacDonald's "Annals of a Quiet Neigh- 
borhood," who in talking to the new vicar of Marshmallows, indulges 
in this homel\ philosophy: 

"I ain't a hit frightened of a parson. No; I love a parson, sir. And 
I'll tell UMi why; sir. Hf\ got a good telescope, and he gits to the 
masthead, and he looks out. And he sings out 'Land ahead!' or 
'Breaker^ alwad I' and gives directions accordin'. ()nly I can't always 

344 



THE UP-BRIXCIAG OF A TE.ICHER 345 

make out what he says. But when he shuts up his sp\ j^lass and comes 
down the riggin' and talks to us like one man to another, then 1 don't 
know what I should do without the parson." 

So let me "come down the riggin' " and discuss with you the up- 
bringing of a teacher. Of course no one knows whether teachers are 
born or made. If they are born, then fate is (jften very unkind. If 
they are made, then let us see to it that they are hand made rather than 
machine made. But personally I would rather think of them as being 
unfolded and that in the process the\- themselves can directly control 
this unfolding, and can change themselves, so to speak, from a cabbage 
plant type into a cauliflower, or even into a rose. In this respect human 
beings differ from plant life. It was Mark Twain who said, "the only 
difference between a caulifl(nver and a cabbage is that the former has 
a college education." 

I seek for some illustration which will convey the impression which 
I wish to leave with you. Ah, I have it! The up-bringing of a teacher 
is like the making of a picture. I like this illustration. It is worth 
considering. First, there is the background on which the paint is to 
be placed. Second, there are the oils, the colors, the brushes ami the 
tools, in short the materials for technique. And finally, there is the 
sketch — the idea — the message, which is to be expressed. 

THE ESSENTIALS OF SUCCESS. 

In common with others who are in public service or in a work which 
closely touches public affairs, our success depends very largely upon 
our ability to comprehend the importance of linking together these 
three elements: background, technique, and vision. Most of us are 
altogether too much concerned with the tools which we use In our 
work. It should be taken for granted that we have the requisite 
technique or else w^e have not the merest elements for success. It is 
taken for granted that you know how to push a plane, read a drawing, 
figure out a gear table, and the thousand and one things which enter 
into the technical efficiency of an industrial teacher. 

However, the work at hand is bigger than a tool process or a 
machine tool table. To continue the illustration, you are about to 
paint a picture. Now some of us like to paint castles in Spain, others 
like to paint on some more permanent canvas our ideal, whether it be 
a home of peace and understanding, a school filled with happv and 



34« M.LM n TR.UMXC M.IGAZISE 

worthy children, an institution tor tlic up-lifting of the human spirit, 
or a pile of bricks and stoiu's harboring: nii>:ht\' industrial forces. 1 say 
all of us like to paint pictures anil \i)u, ni\ reailer, are no exception. 

THE TEACH 1:r"s PERSON. \I,ITV. 

Clearly the backixrovnid must be thouirht of in picture painting for 
on it we are to paint this wonderful masterpiece — the child of our 
ideal. \o\\ are now a youniz man of t\\ enty-fi\ e. Anil you — like all 
of us at twenty-five — must have \()ur dreams and \isions and desires. 
That backizround of \()urs must hoKl the color. It must stand the 
test of weatherinix time. 

A backfzround is a wonderful thintj: to brin^ to a work. 'The college 
or training; school contribute some of it. Not much, however. 
Naturally it thinks that it does and like other educational institutions 
it talks a ^ood deal about its backizrouml. \Vhat can a collei^e do for 
a younp man if the eijzhteen precious years before he comes to it have 
been thin-souled, cheapened, narrowed? As a matter of fact, your 
canvas has been prepared all alonji the line of your twenty-five years. 
From the day of birth all of us helped shape it. It is really a wonderful 
thing — this background. It may come out from a home of poverty and 
necessary simplicity. It ma\ come out of wealth ami unnecessary 
luxury. It ma\' come froin the home of a Lincoln and a Nancy Hanks, 
or from the iireside of a man of letters and a wholesome simple-minded 
mother. It ma\ he associated with only three books as was Lincoln's, 
and may be lit b\ a pine torch, or it may have a five hundred foot shelf 
and lighted by a siKered electrolier. It consists not at all in what 
externalh we see, but in what there really is. \ ou are to be an aris- 
tocratic Democrat — but a snobbish back^nound never >et held the paint 
of I)emocrac\. \()U are to be simple and elemental, but closet skeletons 
of prejudice and littleness and falseness ne\er will brin^ these fine 
qualities. Yes! the background is important. 

Tin; Ti; achi-r'.s technicai. equii>ment. 

'] he technicjuc or tooU of production come next. ^ our college or 
normal school, if \ou went to one, has driven you these in abundance. 
In fact, its course> of stud\ were full of them. It did the dehmte thing 
mj well. It was particularly fine if the college made its tools of pro- 



THE UP-BRINGISG OF .1 TE.ICUER 347 

duction articulate with your visions ami interprctaticjiis. For that 1 
am glad. But it was expected it would. No artist can paint his master- 
piece without knowing how to mix colors and how to handle his hrush 
for desired effects. These things are assured. J^ut whether the artist 
is to be a house painter or an exhibitor at the Salon depends on another 
quality — what he intends to paint. All this we will call the vision, or 
power of interpretation. 

I hope in painting your vision that you will fare better than the 
artist who painted a great picture which many came to see. 

"Wonderful!"' they exclaimed. "So clever! So original! What 
perfect drawing! And the coloring — so strong and \et so full of at- 
mosphere !" 

A friend meeting the artist, congratulated him on winning such 
appreciation. 

"Appreciation!" repeated the artist, bitterly, "I painted a vision, a 
message. And they praise — m^; technique." [From the January 
Craftsman.^ 

Most of us fail in painting anything out of the ordinary. It is 
simple enough. We limit ourselves to the ordinary. We think in terms 
of it and we defend our work on the basis of a false perspecti\e, and a 
mighty poor background. Much credit should be given to your college 
or normal school for its endeavor to give you an outlook — a vision. It 
is almost the all important thing. If Millet had been blind to the 
simple, everyday things in the life about him, we should never have 
had I'Angelus. If Whistler had seen only the pretty face of a society 
woman, we would not now look with admiration on his "Mother". If 
Frederick Remington had always copied European art, we would never 
have had a permanent history on canvas of a western life fast disap- 
pearing. It takes a Pennell to see in the streets of a throbbing, cosmo- 
politan city, the portrayal of a mighty civilization. Yes! you must have 
the vision of interpretation. I will sketch it roughly for >ou. 

THE teacher's vision. 

You have before you the picture of poor little children in your own 
city who need schooling, nourishing food, strong heritages. ^ ou see 
their parents submerged by the economic pressure. "\'ou see all about 
you the waste of human wealth. Out of it all you feel that there are 
no bounds to the moral, mental, and spiritual capabilities which might 
unfold under ideal civic, industrial, and educational conditions. 



348 .l/./.Vr.// TR IIMXC MICI/IXH 

Now \ovi arc re;ul\ tor busiiu'ss. The canvas is prepared, the tools 
are sharp tor use. the vision is clearly defined. Contribute you must 
to a solution of the problem. Irresistible forces uviiv you t)n. Hiey are 
bred in xour bone. 

The problem is huize. Toi) hiriie for one person. That we know. 
It is part of a new civilization — a forerunner of chanijes to come. The 
picture is no loniier a simple scene. It is not I'Anixelus of fields, of a 
viilaiie in the distance, with the hoe under foot. It is the picture of 
Modern Industrialism. It is the picture of bhist furnaces, of tvmnels, 
of automatic machines. 

Within our own existence America has broken away from the past. 
From top to bottom the economic conditions are absolutely chani2;ed. 
The life of the people has iirown infinitel> varied. No operations 
whether of business, industrx, or lixiuLT are as men used to carry them 
on. A new sta.ile settinjx for the drama of life has been raised and you, 
my reader, even as I. are one of the actors. 

.Men are snll struLiLilini: under old laws and public policies in a 
new world of industry and societ\. Before our eyes men are questioning 
whether the old must not ^ive place to the New. We must see that 
another revolution is to come. Not a National ReNolution, but a social 
revolution. The Barnacled Ship of State held back in its progress needs 
scraping and overhauling. The size of the mass and the variety of 
its incumbrances sometimes appalls us. Surely it is a stupendous program 
— a program for re\ised educational practice, for econonuc adjustments, 
for a new moral awakening. 

I he contribution \\ hich \()cational education is to make tow ard a 
solution «)f present problems is small. 1 regret that it is such. You 
and I would like to be a Michael Angelo. a Raphael, a Millet, and a 
Remington all in one. Hut each must be alloted one \ision of the whole. 

TMi: tkachkr's task. 

D(< \ou get m\ point.'' How I wish I might make it clearer. I 
have visioned you as a future leader of the vocational education move- 
ment. V'ou must be a Democrat, and yet your Democracy must not be 
mistaken for coarseness or familiarity. \<)ii must be aristocratic, and yet 
\oiir aristocracy must not be interpreted in terms of snobbishness. For 
a (lay \ou will be in the halls of legislation, then a luoiuent in the uiu'on 
hea<l(juarters. next facing a teachers' institute; then addressing a woman's 
club; then devising a course of stud_\ ; then inspecting a school; then 



THE VP-BRI\C;i\(J OF ,1 TEACHER 349 

dcvelopinij a plan of cooperation between employers and einplo\ees; and 
then before a city council appealinj; for increased appropriation for your 
work. 

To you younfi; people \our <:reat venture is \et to come. ^ ou have 
the canvas, the paint, the brushes, the cunninji; of technicjue. '*»'our 
masterpiece for the Salon is yet to be painted. 

You are ambitious. Who isn't? But genius is the capacity for hard 
work and luck is but the thing that comes when opportunity- and abilitv 
meet. You all recall the story of Michael Angelo and the \isitor. 'I'he 
latter said, "I don't see that you have done anything to this model since 
I saw it two weeks ago." 

"Oh, yes I have," was the reply, "I have added a bit of clay here 
and taken away a bit there." 

"But these are only trifles," spoke the visitor. 

"True," responded Michael Angelo, "but you must remember that 
perfection is no trifle." 

Yes, perfection is no trifle; luck is no chance game; indifierence does 
not produce individual capacity. One can no more develop capacity by 
resting on his job than he can learn to spell by sitting on a dictionary. 
One cannot grow by teaching year after year the same models or pro- 
jects. One cannot broaden thru quarreling over that supposedly 
momentous question of whether the dish-drain model comes before the 
knife-box. 

The program of progress is reading, 'riting, 'rithmetic. I mean the 
reading of articles and books bearing upon your work. I mean the 
writing of articles descriptive of what you are doing. I mean the 
"figuring out" of what you should teach. 

A word as to reading. One should subscribe to at least one pro- 
fessional paper; not borrow it. If there are a number of you associated 
together, it is possible to form an exchange club. The local library will 
gladly purchase the list of books on technical subjects. It will place 
on its shelves the new books which are appearing relating to imlustrial 
economics and social problems. 

A word as to the writing of articles. Clear thinking produces 
clear writing, (^ne of the best ways to clear up a mental fog is to start 
a breeze in your own mind. You may have broken away from the "coat- 
hanger, sleeve-board, bench-hook" course. \ ou may have a course in 
electrical toys, or pipe cutting, or tinsmithing. I'ell us about it, so that 
we will look up on the map the town which you give as \()ur address. 



350 M.iM.ii. TR,n\i.\a M.ia.i/ixt: 

It nia\ have a railroad leading: to it anil it it has not, sureK a beaten 
path will soon be made to your door. 

A word as to "hiiurinii out' what \ou are m)in>: to teach. Are 
\ou iioinii to teach the same course that Smith teaches o\er \n Jonesville 
just because you saw it printed in some report? No! ^ ou are ^oin«; 
to visit the local factories, talk with the heads of the \arious depart- 
ments, discuss the local needs. We can learn much from such visits 
and besides the employers will Ljet acquaintetl w ith \()ur own capacity. 
^ ou may see some of your former students and they by their pleasant 
nod will express approval. 

And finally I urtie \()u to be a "iiood joiner."' ^ ou may not be in 
the position to take a "junket" at the expense of the city. \ ou may be 
obliiied to put your haml into your own pocket when nou iio to a con- 
vention. But it pays. Its ili\itlends ma\ result m more returns than 
Western mininiz-stock. ^ ou will meet other fellow s. Some one will 
sa\ . "'Oh, here conies Brown, he is the fellow that has started a \()ca- 
tional school in his town: let"s see what he has to say for himself." 
One can so plan a trip as to take in several cities either before or after 
the convention. The best men. those who are doinj; the better j^rade of 
work. usuall\ return home- rather discouraiietl. while those who are 
doinj: the poorest work come back with a self complacent smile. An 
ostrich hides his head in the desert sand and then belie\es that he is 
safe. Some teachers bur\ their heads in their own notions and feel the 
securit\ of an ostrich. 



THH Tli.ACHERS C)I'I'()RTLMT>'. 

I am not ad\ertisinf: majia/ines, or sellinii books, or seekinj; your 
membership in professional associations. I simpK want \ou to ^ct ready 
for that tine position which will knock just once on \our door. I can 
assure \ou that if \ou are asleep opportunity w ill not come in and pull 
you out. It may. and perhaps, will, ^o over to your school as an vm- 
announced visitor, look over your (-(luipment, your courses, talk with 
you most casually about \our work, your ideas, your visions. It may 
walk out without a word and the next mail may brinji; its offer of a new 
field of endea\or. If \ou ask opportum't\ for a job it may say, "Send 
in your application and it will recei\c due consideration. ' iMiiphasis 
is on the "due". \ ou will never hear from it ajzain. ()f>por//i/iify is a 
strange fellow. But when he is met b\ (ihittt\\ tlie\ become bosom 



THE i'P-BRi\(;i\(; or ,i te.icuer 



351 



companions and beiiet link. AihI then, the worUl says, "He's a lucky 
fellow; he gets all the plums." 

\'es he does. But we forget that he watered and nourished and 
tended the plum tree while you may have been asleep, or building that 
canoe during school hours, or gossiping about the man higher up. 

Have you ever watched the untolding of plant life? We select with 
care our seed or seedling. We water and nourish it. We have been 
told that it is to bear fruit. If we plant an elm we hardly expect 
apples. If we buy a seedling of a Baldwin, we ma\ get only a crab 
apple. But all the same we nourish the soil. How slowly the tree 
grows. Will it ever bear fruit? There is our neighbor's orchard ad- 
joining it in full bloom. He is soon to harvest. Will our tree please 
hurry up ! No, it will not. But some day it blooms and we see in the 
October lights our Baldwin and then we know that the nurseryman told 
us the truth. 

Some of your blossoms will fall. It is the natural law. A few will 
bear fruit, and then one day the silent soil, the nourishment given with 
loving care, the struggles of the seasons, \our education, your work, 
your inner forces, will burst forth into their fruitage. 

Now, my friends, pick up your canvas, note whether it is well pre- 
pared, patch it if necessary. Select your best brushes and finest colors. 
Discover some message that 30U can portra\ effectively and when you are 
thirty-five we will visit the Salon and award to >()u the gold medal of 
attainment. 




FROM A CIN'CINNATI HIGH 
SCHOOL. 



ROOMS L\ PAPKR. 
PROBLEMS IN CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN/ 

VI. 

Nama a. Lathk and Ksthkr Szold. 

SOME ACCESSORY FURNITURE. 
WALL CABINET. 

Acahiiu't which may he suspoiuled upon the wall is often very 
useful and desirahle. The size and shape of such a cabinet 
ma\ he \aried to suit the purpose for which it is to he used 
and the place in the room which it will occupy. Var\inji the propor- 
tions of the entire object requires a greater power of imajiinjj; than 
the variation of spaciiiiis witliin a definite limitation. For this it is 
necessary to be able to think in three dimensions and to be able to 
recofinize definitely the relations between the different lines of the 
pattern. 

It will be easier to present this problem of variation of propor- 
tions to a class if the teacher has a larjier model, complete, and but lightly 
pasted so that it ma\ be openeil and re-fohied to show the construction. 
I ho b\ this time the pupils' experience in w()rkin<i; from drawings 
sh(juid enable them to form cjuite a definite and correct ima{2;c of the 
complete object by comparin^^ the pattern with the perspective view. 

V'\\:. 3.? shows the pattern for the wall cabinet without the addi- 
ti(m of pasting laps. It shows the relations of the lines by having in the 
place of dimensions the same letter for those distances which must 
be equal to each other. 

One must refer to the scale of 'x" to an inch to determine whether 
the cabinet planned will be suitable for its purpose. 

I he spacings of the doors, which are supjioscd to he gla/ed, and 
the arrangement of the rails and braces below the box give added 
opp«»rtunity for thoughtful design. These must be planned in rela- 
tirin to each other as well as with regard to the iicicssarv strength and 
lightness of the cabinet. 

' (opyriKlil liy Nama ,'\. I.atlie and Kstlier S/old. 

352 



ROOMS IX r II'ER 



353 



SPECIAL FEATURES IX CONSTRUCTION. 

See Fiu;. ?>?>, Y\\i. 34, and Fiix. .■?4A. 

The cabinet show n here is the one u hich appears in the photojiraph 
of the dining-room." For original designs use ilimensions chosen and 
follow this order in construction. 

General Order-: — Note that line A' is the top of the cabinet. 

Draw, score, cut, and fold. Fold first on line A'. 

Hold the pattern in shape before doing any glueing. 



Diagram to 
5how necessary 
relations of 
lengths m mak- 


TboTTOM 


Q 


ing the 












I 




W/^LLCABIMET 




Front 








- 




















Top 


1 ^ 


r' 










1 








1 








Back^ 


-Hb~ 


1 ' 

X 




\ 






l_ 






V 


1 









FIG. 33. 



ORDER OF PASTIN'G. 

Extension of the back and sides: — Fold on line A' and paste the 
strips between A' and upper and lower Y together. 

Strengthening Braces: — Paste the laps on the diagonal lines of the 
side sections flat against the paper adjoining them. 

- See the February, 1912, Number, p. 207. 



M.lM.n. TR,n\l.\C MAGAZINE 



PATTERN FOR WALL CABINET 



A 



-Ico 







'ifo 



^;^ 



^ 



-lc\l 



-loo 



.---_--_- — ---u..--..- . 



1001 



3^ 



A 



— -- 



,3 






(d 



-Icvl 



-1^ 



-4i ^ 

FRAME 8 



IJ 



c — in 




-Kl- 


8 4 2 8 2 4^ 


r 



DOORS 



IK,. 34. 



ROOMS L\ P.I PER 



355 



lilt' Box: — The first space above upper >' folds forward and forms 
the horizontal top of the box. 

Spread ^lue on the unlined side of the pasting laps above upper Z. 
Paste against the frame so that the fold on upper Z falls exactly upon 
lower Z. A ruler may be inserted to press in place w hile dr\inL'. 

Paste the laps of the top and bottom of the box to the side sec- 
tions. The door openings of the front are necessary to permit press- 
ing these laps in place. 

Doors: — Lay the cabinet 
upon its back. Adjust the 
doors. Fold the laps on the 
side sections over the pasting 
laps at the back of the doors. 
Note where they fall. 

Lift one lap and door care- 
fully and mark the placing of 
the door on the inner face of 
the lap. Glue in place. 

Glue lap of the side section to the side rail of the door opening. 
Repeat with the other door. 

Punch holes and insert the tiny paper fasteners which serve as knobs. 

The Cabinet: — The cabinet is hung on the wall by means of thumb- 
tacks thrust thru the back. 




FIG. 34a. 





FIG. 35 a. 



FIG. 35b. 



CLOCKS. 

First Clock: — See Fig. 35 and 

Fig. 35A. The central oblong of 

the pattern is in the base of the 

clock. 

There is excellent exercise of 

judgment possible in making varia- 
tions for the outline of the front of this clock. This designing reverses 
the order of procedure which we have used before, in that a shape to be 
surrounded is pre-determined and the outline of the form is dependent 
upon that. The face should seem the natural center for the contour 
of the clock. To obtain this result the size, shape and exact location 
of the face must be considered in planning the outline, and the varia- 
tions of the outline made to respond to the shape of the face. 



M.^M.^L TR UMXC MAGAZISE 




ROOMS IN P.! PER 



357 



Decoration: — The front of the cU)ck: may he decorated hy drawing 
the shapes chosen upon the front of the frame before it is stained, or 
by cutting the shapes from paper and mounring thi-ni upon thi- form 
after it is stained. 

Face: — The face of the clock maj- be made hirger or smaller than 
indicated, if desired. Hie figures and hands should he drawn upon it 
and the face mounted after the frame is stained. 

The place for the face should be determined before any pasting is 
done and a pin pricked thru line .:/ to show the location of the center. 

Order of Pasting: — Paste the side sections in place, with the laps 
inside the front and back sections. 

Spread glue just inside the top of the side sections and below the 
pasting line of the front. Turn the laps of the top down and slip 
them inside the frame. Insert the finger thru the opening in the base 
to press them in place. 

Second Clock: — See Fig. 35 and 35B. For suggestions for decora- 
tion see under directions for first clock. The oblong at the center of 
the pattern is at the top of the clock. 

Pasting: — This clock with pro- 
jecting ledges requires careful ^i^ J^ 
pasting. Paste the ledges around M ^1^ ^i 

. -^ 



the top first. 

Paste the sides in place putting 
the laps inside the front and back 
sections. 

JARDIXERE. 

See Fig. 35 and Fig. 35C. 

From the center O draw the 
arcs showing the height of the 
jardinere between them. Place 
the arc indicating the height of 
the feet. 

The radii shown in the pattern, 
with the exception of the first and 

last, are construction lines only. They provitle points for measuring 
the width of the feet, and help in locating any decoration. 

Pasting: — Glue up the frame. Fold the laps which are around the 




FIG. 3 5c. 



358 



.i/./.vr.//, tr.umm; m la.izixH 



circle for tlie bottom. Turn tlu'so laps upwaiil, touch the outside of 
each with glue aiul push the botttnn ilow n into the conical frame of 
the iardinere until it fits oloselw 



FKRX. 

See YiiZ. 33C. 

Some tine spool wire, green tissue paper, glue, aiul a bit of tea lead 
are required for making the fern. Several fronds ma\ be cut at one 
time by folding several thicknesses of tissue paper together. Cut taper- 
ing strips of paper from two to five inches long and from ^i" to H" 
wide in the widest part. Notch the etlges and separate the fromls. 

Cut pieces of wire somewhat longer than the fronds. Rub a little 
glue along the wire and fold a strip of the notched paper about it, 
leaving the surplus wire at the bottom of the frond. 

The "roots" of the fronds ma.\' be fastened together b>- twisting 
the ends of the wires together. Wrap the twisted ends of the wire 
in a piece of tea lead to provitle the weight necessary to hoKl the fern 
upright. 

Curl the fronils b\ bending the w ires as desired. 



CAXDI.HSTICK. 

See Fig. 36. 

Candlesticks ma\ be made from writing jiaper. Decitle upon the 
height atid width desired for the candlestick, base, and 
rim. Cut two circles the width of the base, and glue 
them flat together. Do likewise for the rim. 

Carefulh cut a strip of paper the height desired for 
the stick and from five to ten inches long. The length 
necessar\- depends upon the thickness of the stick desired, 
the thickness of the paper, and how tightly it is rolled. 

-Make a tight roll of this strip, cutting off the vnd of 
it if necessary, to keep the candlestick as slender as desired. 
The ends of the roll should be Hat making an almost solid 
cylinder of jiaper. (ilue the end of the strip to keep the 
c\]in(hT from unrolling, (ilue the circles for the base and rim in place 
>ip'<n the ends of this cylinder. 




riG. 3 6. 



ROOMS J.\ r ll'ER 3 59 

Cut a shorter strip for the candle; taper one side. He-in to roll 
the candle at the wider end of the strip. Paste the end of the strip. 

Paste the flat end of the candle upon the center of the top rim of 
the candlestick. 




FROM THE VV. W. WHITE CRAFT SHOP, 
INDEPENDENCE, IOWA. 



EDITORIAL 

ONE of tlic ver\ important results of the new movement for 
industrial education has been to dispel certain false notions 
and illuminate certain shortcomings or misconceptit)ns which 
have held persistentl\ in public education. 

.... _ For example, it has been commonly accepted as fact that 

Children ^'^*" reason for the s2;reat loss in public school attendance 

Leave School at about the sixth \ear is due lar.^el}- to exigencies in 
the home, to financial pressure, to the necessity that children become 
helpers in the support of the famiU. That this is a false conclusion 
is clearly shown by recent careful investigations. Statistics may vary 
in different localities, but in a general summary it is safe to say that 
not more than ten percent of those who lea\e school in the higher 
grades do so from necessity. Systematic questioning upon this point 
brings answers that are clear ami unequivocal, and leails to undeniable 
conclusions. Children leave school because they do not like to go to 
school, because the work is distasteful to them and offers them little 
or nothing that they C()ncei\c to be of value in their lives. It is use- 
less to attempt to explain the great loss in school attendance on other 
grounds. We may persist in our assertion that our courses of study are 
liberal, but we must adnut the fact that they do not appeal to the great 
majority of children. The call to abstract preparation for later life has 
not the appeal of the concrete activities of the life of the present. 

^ .Another belief which has persistently obtained is that our 

Democracy .... 

Ij^ ' public schools are a democratic institution. They offer 

Kducation tlie same opportunities to all classes of children — equal 

opportunities to all. The first statement is true, or nearly so. The 
second would be true if we assume that all thildren are modeled men- 
tally and physicall\ upon e\actl\' the same plan. Hut such is not 
the case, for child life is in cxery way niarscloiisly diversified and 
any uniform s\stcm or method of education c aiuiot be other than dis- 
criminating against the individual needs of the children. Assuming 
that all children fit exactly the saiu'' mold, no one would hesitate for 
a iwinnte to sa\- that it would be undemocratic- to offer different edu- 
cational opportunities to different children. ( )ur school courses are 

360 



EDITORI.II. 361 

emphatically specialized. They beiul their eneiiiies toward prepara- 
tion for college and professional education and tieal almost wliolly 
with abstract images and unrelatetl facts demandetl by preparation for 
higher education. 

Industrial education emphasizes a new conception of democracy 
in education and focuses attention upon the diversity of educational 
needs as represented by the individual, rather than upon the molding 
of the individuals t<j the uniformity demanded by the prescribed course 
of study. Democracy in the schools of the future will be shown in 
their effort to meet the needs and develop the natural powers and 
talents of the individual, and this of course means wide diversity in 
school work. 

, . . Another misapprehension that comes more clearh to liLrht 

Living . - 

jf, under the scrutiny of industrial education is in our atti- 

School tude toward the relation of the schools to life. We are 

accustomed to speak of our schools as preparing for life, but rarely do 
we speak of them as a place for life itself or a place where acquired 
information is related to the actual experiences or activities of life. The 
energies of the schools are devoted to the storing of knowledge which 
will be effective in the future career rather than in the present life of 
the child. Booker Washington put this thought very cleverly at a recent 
educational meeting when he spoke of our schools as devoting so much 
time to preparation for life that they can give very little time to actual 
living, so that when our school days are ended "our future is all behind 
us." We are coming to see that education has a very intimate relation 
to present life as well as future needs, and that life experiences may be 
made important educational factors. Living is reall}' the most im- 
portant thing in life and this fact should be recognized in the schools. 
In all of which we are but revealing things that we have known 
before. They all tend to the fuller recognition of the educational 
value of activity, the natural means of development of the race and 
the child and the fundamental fact in life. — W. E. Roberts. 

, , ,. It is a common occurrence to read in a school report "our 
Need of More * ^ * 

Time for hoys are leaving school as soon as they are fourteen * - * 

Manual unprepared for their future work * * *. The neighbor- 

Training ing towns of * * * and * * * have manual training 

courses. I suggest that our city establish such courses and recommend 



362 MIX ill. rR.UMXG MAGAZINE 

that the boys of the upper izraniniar LTiailes be ;j;i\eii instruction in this 
subject for two periods per week. " 

Such a course of treatment tor eliniination and retardation re- 
minds one of the proverbial mustard pot w hieh is set before the traveller 
at the railroad restaurant. The mustaril will serve to cover the bare 
spots between the tissue-like slices of ham and will aid in giving a 
relish to an otherwise dry crust of bread. l?ut we must remember 
that there is no nourishment in the mustard. It only serves to make 
tasty a sandwich which needs in itself a more wholesome seasoning 
and more edible materials. 

A manual training course of two perioils a week is like passing the 
mustard relish to a dry educational sandwich. The bt)y leaves school, 
to carry the simile further, because the sandwich is made up of a 
thin slice of meat between the two crusts of trailitit)nal sidiject matter 
and traditional treatment. The b()\ does not like the bread ; there isn't 
much meat, and so the superintendent passes him the mustard pot as 
a bit of relish. 

It is not to be understood that one advocates the increase of time 
for manual training instruction from the standpoint of the mustard 
relish. Mustard itself has no nutritive value. The seasoning process 
should be injected into the materials making up the educational feast. 
The materials which enter into such a repast should assist boys and 
girls to see, to think, to feel, ami to do. These activities are the natural 
inheritance of our youth and they cannot he developed out of books 
alone, or out of the teaching of facts, or apart from child experience. 

The human race has had a long and rich heritage of growing things, 
making things, and living with realities. It stands to-day on two legs, 
has a brain development and a reasoning faculty because it met and 
conquered the problems of food, clothing and shelter; because it could 
raise crops; cut down the forests; build shijis; dig into rich, earthy 
stores ; fashion weapons ; traverse continents ; see the relation of cause 
and efifcct ; feel the poetry of the brooks, the trees, the wind ; see the 
changing seasons and purpose for them ; and a rhous.ind and one other 
qualities which center around a life of fnlina and a life of doiti,!^. 

If the early lizards, apes, and cave dwellers had been given Carnegie 
libraries, and in return had allowed their legs and ;n"ms to be bound, 
their eyes confined to the printed page, their experiences limited to 
memorizing what the experience of f)thers had been, we should never 
have arrived at our present stage of develo|iii)i iit. 



EDITORIAL 363 

The race has back of it a rich histor}- of acliievcmciu through motor 
activities. Only recently have we centered into cities; given over our 
children to school books and printed facts. Only recently, compara- 
tively speaking, have we added the printed page to the educative pro- 
cess. But if the addition of fact teaching is to usurp entirely the natu- 
ral and necessary development of human individual experience through 
manual activities, then surely later we are to pay the cost. 

-njuat ^^^ school superintendent who attempts to adjust his 

Is Fun- course of study to the needs of the race along activity 

damental? lines, will be called a faddist and the people will say 
"Put out these fads of cooking, sewing, gardening, and manual training. 
We want the fundamentals." 

It is not safe to call needlecraft, gardening, home decoration, and 
shopw^ork in wood and metal fads. It is rather a dangerous thing for 
us to treat in a careless fashion the question of introducing these things 
into the educational scheme. People do not always dig deep enough 
into the educative process. They constantly mix "schooling" with 
"education". They think of books and not bodies, of historical facts 
instead of human food, of mental discipline rather than moral durability. 

Parents are willing to work the flesh of their hands to the bone 
that they may give their children an education in school and deny them 
at the same time a back yard, a set of tools, a garden, or an electrical 
outfit, because, as they phrase it, "We want Johnnie and Mary to 
get their lessons." Yes, Johnnie needs to get his lessons — and what 
are they? He needs the lesson of good health, of care of his body, of 
interest in the world of nature, of knowledge of scientific phenomena 
about him, of capacity for doing things, of knowing the relation of 
cause to efifect — and lessons from books. The latter will tell Johnnie 
what the other fellow has done. It is well for him to know of these 
accomplishments. But if our Johnnie is himself to do things when 
he grows up, he must begin the process w^hen he is a boy. One cannot 
get good health alone by reading about it, or sturdy legs by naming 
the bones, or good morals alone by studying preachments, or spelling 
by holding a dictionary; and how in the name of common sense can 
he learn how to do things except thru doing them; how can he learn 
to observe except by observing; how to be industrious except thru 
industry? 

That is the wav that the fond parent himself developed. It is 



364 M.LM .H. TR ll\l.\i: MlCl/lXE 

the way all men have developed. In tin- luitun- nt things, Johnnie 
must develop the same way. For e\ci\ shop uniowd from the old 
farm there should bo a set of tools in the hands of the hoy ; for every 
water-wheel that has ceased to turn at the old null, there shouKl he 
a study of present manufacture anil transportation of pow er ; for 
e\ ery mother of the old order displaced, there should he a new nu)ther 
who teaches her ^irls to do thiiiLrs: for e\er\ field ilisplaceil hy the 
apartment, there should he a park and a phiyszrouiul. 

_. . There are some thiniis we niiLiht well iliscard in the 

Some Things 

Mav be schooling: of the child. We niiizht tliscard the selling 

Discarded nf imaginary hales of straw to imaginary customers, the 
huddling of forty \()ung people together in a close schoolroom, the 
keeping of weaklunged children between four brick walls, the studying 
o. birds, trees and brooks only from the geography, and the drawing 
of maps of Hindoostan when they ilo not know the streets of their 
t)wn city. 

Do not suspect for a moment that we are pleading for b()\s to 
learn to saw boards, or girls to cook niereh because boards are to be 
sawed or food is to be cooked, or that to learn to do merely means 
the doing of the thing itself. It is a ileeper question. It is the learn- 
ing to do things because only through doing can the child be so de- 
veloped that he can later on do for himself. We are urging that 
boys and girls learn to accomplish, learn to ser\e, learn to feel the 
pleasure which comes from a thing well clone — not merely- to learn 
to cook or to sew or to make wheels turn round or to make carrots 
grow. These are desirable enough in tluir w a\ ; but the thing that 
Johnnie or .Mary will carr\ with them into the world is more useful, 
more fundamental, more important than board planing, or bread bak- 
ing, or garment making, or carrot growing. // is tlic (ihility to take 
hold ana accomplish a result htcnusi tiny lunu (he Ixuk'^rouiul of 
prnious (ucoiiiplishiiii nts ami results. 

Such a result is not to be gained by passing the mustard pot for 
two periods in a school week. — -Arthur D. Dean. 

,..,, The ranks of the manual arts in education have lost a 

(.ilbcrt 

Kurnet ^'^""" '"inradc and an inspiring leader in the death of Mr. 

.Morrison .Morri>on, which occurred on I luirsday, I^'ebruary 6th. 

He struggled bravel\ and paricnth thru a period of illness extending 



EDITORI IL 365 

over many months, contiiuiin;z in tlu- discliar^r of liis duties as lon^ 
as physical strength lasted. At about tlu- (ipenin^ of the new \ear, 
however, he was obliged to relinquish the active control of the schcjol 
he loved, and to retire from the field where he had won distinction 
and honor. 

Gilbert Burnet Morrison \\as born in Rutland County, Vermont, 
on April 21st, 1852. As a young man he came west and, in 1876, 
began teaching in the country schools of Missouri. He has hern called 
a self-educated man, and so he was in the sense that he lacked oppor- 
tunity to attend higher institutions of learning, so-called. He was 
one of those rare individuals who perceive that life itself is the highest 
institution of learning — a veritable finishing school, the pcjstgraduate 
department of all formal school systems. To his conception of this 
great truth is due as much as to any other one thing, perhaps, his 
success in the special work he undertook. 

In 1880 Mr. Morrison became superintendent of schools in Harry, 
Missouri, and later at Liberty. He kept up his private studies and 
was constantly endeavoring to increase his knowledge and skill as a 
teacher. It is said that his favorite studies during these years were 
the physical sciences and it was his original and thoro work in these 
subjects that first began to attract attention to him. In 1883 he was 
called to Kansas Cit\' as teacher of physics in the Central High School, 
where he remained for fourteen years. One of his colleagues writes: 
"He was one of the first to develop the laboratory method of instruc- 
tion fully, and to advocate its claims at teachers' institutes and con- 
ventions. Altho one of the most modest and retiring of men, the solid 
worth of his classroom work, the literary skill and clearness of pre- 
sentation of his lectures and articles in pedagogical journals, made him 
widely known in many educational centers of our countr\.'" 

Mr. Morrison verv earlv became interested in manual training and 
was active in the movement to secure it adequate recognition in the 
public schools. When the Kansas City Board of Education began a 
study of plans for a Manual Training High School he was an im- 
portant factor in the organization and development of the school, and, 
in 1897. became its first principal. The school met with marked 
success and in six years reached an enrolment of 1.800 pupils. Visitors 
from all parts of the United States and from abroad came to study 
its organization and methods. 

In 1903, Dr. Calvin M. Woodward presented Mr. Morrison's 



366 M.lM.n. TR.nXIXC M.ICIZIXE 

n;mie to the trustees of Washington L iii\ crsit\ , Saint Louis, as a 
candidate tor the honorary degree of Master of Arts, in recognition 
of his services as an educator. The degree was prt)mptly conferred. 
A year later Mr. Morrison was in\ited to come to Saint Louis as 
principal of the new McKinley High School, and hr uiiilertook the 
work of organizing the school. Here he remained to the end, in- 
fluencing and inspiring pupils and fellow teachers alike, standing for 
high ideals and noble purposes, and himself endea\(Ming to live the 
life he sought to lead others into. 

At his death the entire city mourned. On Friday, Fehruar^ 7th, 
memorial exercises were held in the auditorium at which addresses 
were delivered by Dr. Woodward, Superintendent Hen Blewett, Wil- 
liam R. Schuyler, acting principal, McKinley High School, William 
yi. Butler, principal, Yeatman High School, anil Miss ALir}- Fischer, 
u ho formerly taught with Mr. Morrison in Kansas City. The follow- 
ing paragraphs are taken from \Ir. Butler's address, referring to cer- 
tain of Mr. Morrison's personal traits: 

//<• ^iris deiiherate. He never permitted himself to he hurried into action until 
he had taken time to be sure of a full understanding. 

He =ii'(is fxaci and rxaclini^. Always careful to know whereof he spoke, he 
rightfully asked the same of others and had little patience with the careless or the 
blunderer. 

He zi-as sincere. Of transparent iionesty of purpose, he never allowed him- 
self to mislead another. 

He ii'as obstinate, in holding fast to the right. When his mind was made up 
he adhered to his views regardless of whether they chanced to be popular or not. 
He would insist on the right, and usuallv \von his opponent by his very steadmess 
of purpose. 

Lack of space forbids quotation from the resolutions adopted by 
the Bcjard of Education of Saint Louis, the Principals' Association, 
and the faculty of the McKinley High School. The leading news- 
papers of the city, in addition to full accounts of his life and work, 
commented editorially on the value to the community of the cxainple 
of a life sr) worthilv lived. — WiLLlAM T. Bawdex. 



ASSOCIATIONS 

BOSTON MAiNUAL TRAINING CLUB. 

In 1911 the Boston Manual Training Club revived the custom of liaving an 
annual "Get-together Dinner," which was repeated last November. We were 
verv fortunate in securing excellent speakers: Dr. Franklin B. Dyer, superintendent 
of schools, Boston; Professor Walter Sargent, University of Chicago; and William 
T. Bawden, managing editor of the Manual Training Magazine. In addition 
to these gentlemen, the following guests of the Club, altho they were not aware 
that they might be called upon, very kindly consented to add to the enjoyment 
of the occasion: Dr. David Snedden, Commissioner of Education for Massachu- 
setts; James Frederick Hopkins, principal of the Massachusetts Normal Art 
School; and Maurice P. White, assistant superintendent of schools, Boston. Ex- 
tracts from the stenographer's notes of the speeches are given below. 

Edward C. Emerson, Secretarv. 

manual training and industrial training. 

Alvin E. Dodd, president of the Club, introduced the speakers. Before 
doing so he related the legend of Simon Stylites who spent his life on the 
top of a pillar looking for perfection. How well this legend typifies the old 
monastic conception of education ! Contrast this conception of the attainment of 
perfection with our present conception of education, in which change of emphasis 
we mav look for some of the reasons for the manual arts occupying the place of im- 
portance in our educational system which they hold today. 

Society' must fit the boy to become an efficient social unit. Manual training 
is a means of contact with the physical side of human activity as well as of men- 
tal, and in the new conception of education these two are recognized. 

There were those who thought they saw a conflict when industrial training 
came and found manual training more or less intrenched in the schools. Industrial 
training is alleged to have said that manual training is of no industrial value, 
and industrial training teachers have even been known to avoid association with 
manual training teachers in order that they might not be misvuiderstood in what 
they were working for. 

Suspicion and fear of each other came, however, simply because each did 
not understand the vocation of the other, and because there has been a failure 
sometimes in the manual training and industrial training movement to recognize 
the need for accurate determination of vocation. Manual training and industrial 
training are parts of the same movement for efficiency, each supplementing the 
other. Industrial education will be most effective only when aided by strong 
courses in manual training as a preliminary to specialized vocational training. 

There is a great need at the present time for intelligent and harmonious co- 
operation between the teachers of the manual arts in the elementary schools and 
those who are engaged in the work of the vocational schools. The true place 
and setting of training in practical activities of boys and girls under fourteen years 
of age needs to be defined. The aims and ends which it is possible for manual 

3 (.7 



36S M.l.M.n. TR.IIM.XC M ICl/lM-: 

training, as a part ot the practical or liberal eihicaiioi), to attain need to be deter- 
mined and checked up troni time to time hv the actual results. Only then will the 
work become effective. 

We have been led to think that the business man insists upon specialized train- 
ing of the boy on the part of the schools. But, after all, when you get to the root 
of the matter, when you get at what these men really feel, you find that what they 
want most are the old-fashioned traits of industry and interest and feeling of re- 
sponsibility; and faithfully to bring that about means education for industrial 
workers much more than it does industrial training. Ihe social and economic 
conditions surrounding the youth of our metropolitan cities did not affect bovs and 
girls in the same liegree when manual training was first emploved as an education- 
al means. \\"hen, therefore, we hear it said that manual training has been a 
failure, we may justly challenge the accuser. What we manual training men 
need is perspective, if we are to view these problems in their right relations 

Manual training men, many of them, have been leaders in industrial educa- 
tion. The ones who very largel\ were responsible for the first effective agitation 
for the establishment of industrial education in these latter years are men who 
have been leading in the manual training movement. The most effective leader 
is he who has the best perspective. Perspective in education means ability to 
interpret the rapidly moving social changes of our times, ami the ilemands which 
those social changes are making. 

MASLAI. TRAINING TEACHERS AND THEIR PROIil.EM?. 

Superintendent Dyer advocated that (juality of leadership in a superintend- 
ent which not only permits, but encourages, subordinates to work out their ideas. 
If each man's powers can be freely developed — each man's ideas and power of 
initiative — results that are worth while are sure to follow. Whenever a fellow 
discovers an idea that looks promising, he should be permitted to try his hand. 
Dr. Dyer illustrated his point by describing a number of instances in his own ex- 
perience as an executive in which he had allowed this policN to prevail. 

"A young man came to me one day and said i left work as a machinist to 
come into the public schools as a teacher because I thought that possibly I could 
get back from the public schools into shops under the public schools. I believe 
that, if boys coidd be taught their mathematics, their reading, their business, in 
connection with the real thing, even those fellows who have abandoned the school 
because they were schoolsick would be awakened." He was permitted to establish 
a school for apprentices. The method he evolved was to take a catalog of ma- 
chines for a reading lessr)n, thereby teaching technical natties and parts. The 
••pelling lessons were arranged from the catalogs; the (juestion of drawing was 
evolved; the process of blueprinting followed; the power to read the blueprints 
was developed. The machine might possibly contain levers leading to problems 
in physics. Their lessons in arithmetic were tnade real h\ surli problems as calcu- 
lation of the speed of spindles, and it was not difficult to make the lessons in 
geography, history, the story of iron or some other iiitcicstiiiti proliictn tie direct- 
ly to their catalog reading. We saw the-e boys change their wiiole attitude. 
Thr»*e who hardly knew their multiplication table, who did not know fractions. 



ASSOCI.ITIONS 369 

who perhaps could not spell Wednesday correctly, who left school hetweeii the 
third and eighth grade, most of them below the sixth, became aroused and their 
higher powers developed. From looking upon their foreman as a foe and their 
employer as unutterably impossible, they came to have such a great interest in 
the machine on which they were working that their whole attitude toward tlieir 
work changed. A larger percentage of them each year remained in the shop be- 
cause of this instruction in school connected with the shop until now 75 per cent 
remain for a year at least. Their wages increased from nine, ten, eleven, and 
twelve cents an hour until often the third year boy was getting as much as eigh- 
teen or twenty-four cents an hour. The employers all testify that it meant a trans- 
formation of their shops. 

"There was another man who took hold of the truifnt problem. His solution 
was to open the manual training shops more freely to the boys. He did not teach 
woodworking alone, but the manual training room became a sort of tinker's shop, 
a cobbler's shop, and all manner of others. The attendance in that school for 
that year leaped from one that was forced to the highest average in the whole 
city, and the work of the truant officer was discontinued. 

"Another man took the work of the defective or moron children, making it 
his especial business to raise the child into the self-supporting class, and met ^vith 
marked success. Jakey was fourteen years old; Jakey learned to read, antl he 
could read the first page of the first reader; he also learned to put round pegs 
in round holes and square pegs in square holes, and he was very proud of his 
attainments. It was proved that it was possible to make boys of this type of some 
value to society. Jakey became a dish washer in a restaurant at $4.00 a week w'ith 
some possibility of advancement, and he could wash dishes without breaking them. 

"I do not know of any class of teachers who have greater possibilities than 
you in your special field. I do not know of any subject which is more fertile in 
unsolved problems, and problems that are pressing for solution than yours. 

"What makes the teaching profession interesting is that there are so many 
problems to be solved. It seems as if every time we talk about it, the thing clogs 
up with problems — there are so many things that ought to be better than they 
are, and there is so much left to be done, that it is worth while to work, it is 
worth while to exert one's strength. Teachers of manual training and industrial 
education are to be congratulated on the great possibilities in their special field 
of work. It is a great thing to be specialists in a field which is certain to see 
great developments in the near future." 

MANUAL TRAINIXG AND THE WORLD OF IDEAS. 

Professor Sargent referred to the numerous discussions about manual train- 
ing that we have been hearing at educational meetings during the past few years. 
The question has been fought out now so that manual training has a place in the 
elementary and high schools. There was a time when the old academic training 
was considered the best education, but now the classical training itself is on the 
defensive. 

In the elementarv and high schools I think that the honors are more than 
even for manual training. It is thoroly established and recognized, and it is push- 
ing verv definitelv into the shop, and into our colleges — but there the bricks are 



370 M.LM.n. TKJI.MXC MAC.AZISE 

still ri\ins:. We do not know wIku tlie final result will be, Init it has been worth 
while to listen to the discussion. It has been in the main the liiscussion of the 
new education, and out of it 1 have been able to clarify my ideas in a way that 
has interested me very much. Some liave contended that manual training and 
industrial trainini; are not educational subjects; others who believe in them have 
contended that they are; and the (luestion has been asked: "W'liat is an education- 
al subject?" 

To put it brieriv, it seems to me that this is the way the higher institutions look 
at education: I'lie boy starts out in life, and begins to get impressions, to see. 
He reaches out to get hold of ideas, and is all the while getting in touch with 
things. Soon his ideas come in so fast that they overwhelm him. If you will 
notice the child, you will see that after a few years he tloes not ask, If'/iai is this? 
and If'/int is ihatf But he asks, Jf'hat is it tort' The child is trying to classify 
his impressions. The impressions come in so fast that he must naturally think in 
some wa\ : even if left to himself, unaided, he will tall into the habit of thinking 
and doing. He will work out some wa\ of dealing with experience, and after his 
thoughts have once become crystallized along a certain line, any new idea is not 
only not hospitabl\ received, it is received with actual hostility. He feels hostile 
toward anything outside the range of his knowledge. Now, what education does 
is to assist one's opinions and habits to fall into lines, to give him new schemes 
of handling his ideas, and to keep him thinking, keeji him woiking, until by and 
by, even tho he starts out on some one particular line, he tiiuls it easy to accept 
new ideas. .An educational subject is one which gives the iiuii\idual broader and 
freer ways of classifying his experience into practical lines. 

The discussion is still going on about the manual arts, and I do not presume 
to settle it. I simply wish to pre^-ent this problem: The higher institutions all 
over the country are looking for iTien wlu) can answer this (|uestion; How can we 
treat handwork so that it will leail Into ideas? In tiie high school you teach the 
hoy to hanille tools ami things. Inn im man can attain skill enough to carry him 
bc>c»ntl what his handwork can do unless you lead him into the world of ideas. 
I-ead him away from things as soon as you can. H\- means of plans he can sit in 
the world of thought, and by some representative means, like a pencil or other- 
wise he can plan out such things as may keep a hundred hands busy. 

If, after the high scho<i|, you want to go on, what shall \ou do? They say 
teach the bo\s to deal with these tilings iti terms of ideas, and they will be the 
men who will not later la\ rails, and dig the roadbed with their own hands — 
they will project the railroad, ihey will sit in oHices, and deal with ideas. 

The'-e higher institutions say that the real problem of manual training comes 
after the mere handwork of the lower grades. Can you so handle this work that 
it will lea<l out intr> the world of ideas, so that these people will be able to wf)rk 
with their heads? The child will not be fitted for some particidar job as soon as 
he get*' out, but he will be fitted to understand the industrial scheme, and to be 
a master of it instead of being grr)und up in the machine. 

When a person gets so that he can sketch easily — acfpiires the power to use 
the pencil — it means that he develops different habits of thinking. He carries out 
hia thotighto in different ways. He does his primary thinking — the experimental 
processes — in his head, and plans thus to the farthest detail before he touches 



.^SSOCIATIOXS 371 

the material. Now, the problem is this, in manual training: How can voii present 
it in such a way that each year you can put off the touching of the actual material 
further and further, and do things in \our heads? 

EDUCATION THRU VOCATION'. 

In discussing this topic Mr. Bavvden considered the relation of the funda- 
mental institutions to vocation: the home, the school, society, the church, the state, 
and showed how each of these reacts upon the individual in detennining or in- 
fluencing his choice of life work. 

The ^•ocation, having, once been chosen, or having been entereel by chance, 
exerts its influence upon the individual in \arious ways: (1) Social influence — 
the lesson of interdependence and participation, taught b\- the di\isi()n of labor. 
Further, the lesson of individual responsibility; the individual attitude toward 
work assists in determining the collective attitude towanl work. (2) As an 
opportunity for self-realization; vocation is the opportunity for the indivitlual 
to develop skill and power by limiting himself to a comparatively narrow Held of 
activity (Harris). (3) As a stimulus to self-realization; the ability to work with 
vigor, continuity, and skill, is almost the only factor determining one's position 
in the industrial system; hence, the incentive to effort (Fairbanks). (4) As a 
moral training; virtues, and the realization of their need, are developed in the 
pursuit of a competency. Compulsory v.crk is a school of moral obligation. Nar- 
row limitations may be no moral disability, if indeed they be not opportunities 
for a higher achievement (MacCunn). (5) The influence of one's vocation may 
be deadening and depressing, when the choice has been unfortunate. 

EFFICIENCY IN EDUCATION. 

In discussing this topic Dr. Snedden said in part: "It is the chief purpose of 
all of our educational gatherings in these days to discover and to promote the 
operation of more efficient methods of accomplishing our work. In this respect, 
education does not diflFer from many of the other agencies wherein men are feel- 
ing the impulse of a modern civilization. 

"In the plane of conscious effort, it is now obvious to us that efficiency in- 
volves two conditions, namely, a clear perception of ends to be atttained and a 
mastery of the means by which these ends are to be realized. Education has been 
so long in the custom stage of development that many people are as yet impatient 
of anv critical discussion as to purposes. It is true that any form of human activ- 
it>- based upon custom formulates for itself certain dogmatic ends which hold by 
virtue of a certain kind of faith rather than knowledge. 

"Most of our education still rests on the custom level, but we are striving more 
and more to define our purposes in suggesting specific ways that we shall be able 
to control our choice of means and methods intelligently. Much of the restless- 
ness todav prevalent with regard to manual training is obviously due to the 
fact that in the last analysis we are only guessing as to where we are going with 
it. We do not know just what purpose is to be achieved, and as a consequence, 
we have no satisfactory standards wherewith to measure our achievements from 
dav to dav or even to determine the methods to be employed. 



37: M.lM.n. TR.IIXlsa magazise 

"For most of lis etftciencv involves to a certain extent the rounding out or 
aMiipletion of that upon which we work. A s'eat deal of our educational effort 
in these days does not terminate in something of a finished product which satisfies 
the active learning instincts. I like in this connection to use the word "function- 
ing." Any kind of teaching "functions" when its results are incorporating them- 
selves into active life in some of its phases. Much of our teaching today maj' be 
compared to medicine which, when taken, produces no result, either thru the ig- 
norance of the prescriptionist or for other causes. Human nature is apt to assert 
itself against either teaching or healing of this sort. In the absence of any other 
standards, the visible "functioning" of teaching may become a fairly good stand- 
ard whereby to test its erticienc>. It is for this reason that some of us would be 
quite willing to see manual training put on a basis of a varied productive \vork of 
the amateur's le\el — feeling satisfied that tiie results in Tiiental and manual train- 
ing will come as by-products, if a visible tangible end is achieved. 

"It is well for contemporary education that so mucli attention is being given 
to the determination of the conditions of efiiciency, and in so far as this quest com- 
pels us to define our purposes in such terms that we can know whether particular 
efforts result in their realization, it will be the better for education.'" 

Mr. Hopkins spoke briefly of the great problem confronting those concerned 
with the development of tiie Massachusetts Normal Art School, and pointed out 
the need for heart>- cooperation on the part of all the forces in the state that are 
interested in the manual arts. Large things are being planned, and an institution 
worthy in every way of the great state of .Massachusetts is certain to result 

Mr. White gave an historical sketch of the introduction of manual training 
into the schools of Boston, and the subsequent development of the work, and the 
gradual evolution in the aims and ideals on which it was based. 

WESTRRN DRAWIXr, AND MANTAL TRAINING ASSOCIATION. 

This Association has contracteil the habit of sending out live material, and 
its latest bulletin is worthy of attention. The last paragraph, especially, of 
the following extract should certainl\ be suggestive to the officers of other organ- 
izations. 

Never, in the histr>ry of education, lias tliere been a time when there was 
so marked a stir of re-adjustment anil never a time when it was so necessary to 
have the best efforts of all educators directed toward a constructive educational 
policy. Our association certainly should do some acti\e and efficient work at this 
very significant moment. Since it ninnbers among its memiiers many of the very 
strfnigcxt workers in art, household art, and industrial training, its jiosition ielati\e 
to the new vocational mf>vernent should be well considered and clearl\ defined. 

For several years we have been concerned principally wliii the ways and 
mean"! of teaching our own specialties and now it seems that our greater concciri 
should be rather the evolution of the ideally balanced educational whole, and ilicii 
the relative places, and importance of our parli<ular spccialilcs in ilic larger 
scheme. 

^'our program committee is at work on a most interesting jdan which will 
pre<i«nt v>me great man who cat) speak on the subject of educatioi' as a whole, 



ASSOCIATIOSS 373 

a sketch of what this generation should contribute to the next ; some great man who 
can speak in favor of the new vocational movement, and also one who is not in 
favor of it; the rest of the program to be devoted to the place of manual and in- 
dustrial training, art and household art in any scheme of education. The various 
round tables will deal with developments and particulars of Maruia! and \'ocation- 
al Training, Art and Household Art Education. 

This Association does not wish to annoy anyone by sending him literature 
in which he is not interested. If you are not a member but would like to receive 
the bulletins and announcements which this Association issues from time to 
time, please fill out the enclosed card and mail it to the Secretarv, who will place 
your name on his mailing list. 

TEACHERS COLLEGE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

A large and enthusiastic meeting of alumni of Teachers College was held 
in New York on Friday and Saturday, February 21 and 22. Several dinners and 
luncheons were arranged and good fellowship generally prevailed. 

On Saturday morning the section of Administration and College Teachers 
of Education held a conference on Vocational Guidance, with the following pro- 
gram: "How far is supply and demand in a community the true basis for vocation- 
al guidance as opposed to personal inclination?" Dr. E. C. Broome, and Miss 
Helen R. Hildreth; ''The value of psychological tests in vocational guidance; re- 
lation of inclination to ability; how are inclination in person and fitness to be 
determined," Professor E. L. Holton, and Dr. Leonard P. Ayres; "Necessity of re- 
organization in existing school systems to meet the situation," Superintendent C. S. 
Meek, and Dr. J. K. VanDenburg. 

The section of Household Arts considered the following program: "Exten- 
sion work in home economics by a state college," Miss Flora Rose; "Purposes in 
household arts education of elementary, secondary, and collegiate grade," Profes- 
sor Helen Kinne; "Recent Developments and social application of household arts 
education." 

The sections of Fine Arts and Industrial Arts combined, and the following 
papers were presented: "Report of the Dresden Congress," Miss Lucia W. Dement; 
"Planning a Course in Industrial Arts for the First Six Grades," Miss Lois Cof- 
fey; "The Industrial Arts Program of the Seventh and Eighth Grades," Dr. E. B. 
Kent; "Possibilities for Fine and Industrial Arts Progress," William T. Bawden. 

ILLINOIS STATE TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

Many addresses of interest to teachers of the manual arts were made during 
the meeting of this association at Peoria, December 26-28. Some phase of vocation- 
al education was discussed at each session with interest and enthusiasm. If one 
may judge by such a meeting, the educators of the state are giving much atte4i- 
tion to this form of education. 

On Thursday afternoon, December 26th, a preliminary round table confer- 
ence was held with C. A. Prosser, of the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education, leading the discussion. B. E. Nelson, superintendent of 
schools, Racine, Wisconsin, gave an address on "Vocational Education under the 



3-4 .l/./.Vr.//, TR.Il.\I.\c: MIC i/.i\h: 

W'isctinsiii Law." Mr. Nelson first spoke of the common tendency ti) refer to 
(.iermany in the matter of vocational ediicatit^n. He emphasized the fact that we 
have a new problem in this coimtr\ for our trades are not the same, and our social 
organization is not tlie same. In Racine tliey are trxiiii: to adopt the best from 
all the various plans, as they see it, using the cooperative plan as far as the 
industries will permit. Industrial work in tlie grades in Racine occupies from 
one-eighth to one-half of the school da\, in ungraded classes one-fourth and for 
exceptional children one-half. Since more time lias been given to industrial work, 
it has been found that the pupils make more rapid progress in their formal or 
btxik work. Racine has day continuation schooling for both tlie employed and 
the unemployed, with a sdiool day from seven-thirty a. m. to five p. m. in the in- 
dustrial school, and has manual training and domestic science in every school. 
Mr. Nels<in then gave a brief history of tiie Wisconsin law pro\iiiing for vo- 
cational education. He said that since its passage there has been no serious ob- 
jection raised against it. The labor unions asked for explanation of the la\v 
but as soon as they uiuierstood it the\- were read\- to cooperate and have done so. 
Following the establishment of schools according to the law, certain problems 
have arisen, similar to those other states are facing. The great problem is 
supplxing teachers for industrial schools. The right kind are simply not to be had 
now. .Mr. Nelson mentioned a possible plan; state subsidy for teachers taking 
training in special schools, until the pressure of demand is lessened to some de- 
gree. Another problem is the building problem; facilities cannot be provided 
rapidly enough to house classes that appl\ for industrial work. A gap in the 
Wisconsin law was pointed out. It makes no provision for dealing with eighth 
grade graduates who are not employed, but are just loafing and living at home. 
There should be a clause compelling this class of youths to attend either the 
regular or industrial schools. 

In describing the iiuiustrial sciiool work in Racine, Mr. Nelson mentioned 
the employment bureau which is maintained in connection witii their vocation 
bureau, saying that it had a noticeable effect on the interest in the continuation 
school work. As far as possible Racine has attempted to fill the teaching positions 
in the school shops with big men in their respective trades. The head of the 
school is a normal and university trained man \vho held an important position 
in a large local industrial plant. 

.Mr. Frosser discussed the subject, "Problems in Administering Plans for Vo- 
cational (iuidance and Training," giving many valuable suggestions in regard to 
framing a law in Illinois. He said such a law should provide all-day vocational 
schfKils, part-time schools, and evening schools, and iliat it is a good thing to have 
all three right at the start. Evening schools, he believes, should not be open for 
those under seventeen. Their office is to provide for the mature worker the next 
thing in the way of aiivancement for him. In evening schools short-time, unit 
courses should be given in order to be of most use to these older workers. Mr. 
Frosser regards the part-time school "the mosi (icmociniic thing on llie horizon." 

In speaking of state aid .Mr. Frosser said that the state should be given a 
reason3i>le degree of participation in the affairs of vocational schools which it 
is aiding. The local community may take the initiative but the stale should be 
regarded as a "nrnj-resident partner," and frequent conferences should be held 



.^ssoci.rriu\s 375 

between the local authorities and the state ajjeiits during each year. The 
amount of aid should be large enough to serve as an inducement to establishment 
and to give the state some influence, but it should not be so large as to rob tlie 
local community of initiative. Close cooperation is desirable. This state aid should 
be safeguarded; it should be forthcoming after results have been approved. 

After some discussion of the unit and dual systems, Mr. Prosser empliasizcd 
strongly the point that, whatever the administrative system, the executive con- 
trol is the important thing. Whatever the name of tlie executive oflicer or officers 
they should be given a free rein. An expert sliouid lie selecteil, and then lie should 
be given a chance to work out his ideas unliampered by school superintendents or 
others. 

A number took pan in the open discussion which followed Mr. Prosser's talk, 
and some good points were brought out. Mr. Prosser said every state as fast as 
conditions permit, should move toward compulsory part-time education. .Again he 
said that the welfare of the child must first of ail be consideretl and that in- 
dustrial education must steer a straight path between the manufacturers on one 
hand and trades unions on the other with the goal in view — the good of the child. 
Mr. Joiner, Mr. Owen, and Professor Leavitt were among those who took part 
in the discussion. 

Thursday evening at the first general session, Mr. Prosser addressed the 
association on the subject, "Efiicient Training in the Practical Arts." Tlie 
new note in education, he declared, is the vocational school of secondary grade to 
prepare youths over fourteen for the work they wish to pursue just as the high 
school prepares for universities and schools teaching professions. Mr. Prosser 
used a most effective figure in speaking of the changing ideals of education. The 
old time education was like a thru train from New York to Chicago. If a pas- 
senger wished to stop anywhere between those points he had to drop off while the 
train was at full speed. So the old education from the primary grades went thru 
to the university. In course of time one or two other stops were made and pas- 
sengers could get off and follow other lines. The new education would provide 
many stops with branch lines, double tracks, and various privileges. 

In reference to those who would hav'e the regular high school provitle voca- 
tional training Mr. Prosser said that the high school does not train for industry 
on the productive side, and it does not reach those who leave school at fourteen. 
Again it is of no use to train those in the high school vocationally for producti\e 
efficiency, when they will never go into the industries. All effective vocational 
education must combine doing, and thinking about the doing. Speaking of teach- 
ers for vocational work, he said that no one should be allowed to teach actual 
shopwork who has not had five years of actual experience in the given industry. 

Mrs. Ella Flagg Young followed Mr. Prosser on the program, and in her 
address on "Character and Efficiency" she said that we must recognize early in 
the elementarv school the concrete mind ; that we cannot deal with this type of 
mind with the same methods as are used with the abstract-minded pupils. We 
have been too ready in the past to accept the fact that the boy lias left school and 
gone to work. 

Friday morning, in the High School Section meeting, the first two papers were 
devoted to vocational subjects. W. C. Bagley, of the University of Illinois, read 



376 M.I.\L n TR ll.\l.\(i M.IC.I/IXE 

a ver\ effective ami torcetiil paper on "N'ocatioiuil rraiiiiiiLi as an luliicational 
Discipline." He discussed first tlie detinition nt terms in education, and spoke with 
regret ot the opposition of vocational to cultural which has been so much empha- 
sized ill some tiuarters. There is no real opposition because vocational education 
is cultural, and because "education as public service has nothing to do with any- 
thing that is not practical and useful." Educatioi\ as an ornamental adjunct to the 
individual is a thing of the past, but old notions ot culture die hard. Education 
may be of two kinds; one sort leading to wage-earning as an end — this is narrow- 
in its aims; the other a general kind of education which will furnish the individ- 
ual with resources and will develop abilities. Therefore the choice lies not be- 
tween vocational and cultural, but between the general and the specific. The 
fundamentals of the elementary school are truly vocational and other subjects 
should be added, a historical background of life sliould be furnished, and all 
should be measured by the standard of social efficiency. In secondary education a 
special vtK-ational course often proves of great value to a student even if he does 
not follow that line as a living, because for certain types of mind such courses 
are more cultural than general courses. Some students get more from subjects 
that are in line with their dominant interest than from others. In this connection 
however, one should remember that interest in a vocation does not necessarily in- 
volve ability to follow that vocation. 

At this point Mr. Bagley touched upon the treatment of vocational subjects 
in the secondary school, saying that while such courses should have a general 
value, great care should be taken not to lose sight of the specific aim; that the 
subjects should not be used merely for their general value. The specific motive 
must be kept first or they will lose their value to teach general lessons, affecting 
life and ideals. This specific motive has been lost sight of in some subjects In 
the past, and those subjects have, consequentlj', lost interest for the students, ami 
thru that loss, have lost their power and efficiency. 

Mr. Baglev pointed mit the truth th:it the most necessary art for tlie child 
to learn is to do necessary things cheerfully. This ability to do disagreeable 
things cheerfully comes thru having a specific aim and is thus a valuable by- 
product of vocational subjects. 

F. M. (Jilcs, of DeKalb, had for his subject "The Adainalion of Faci:lt\ ant! 
Course of Study to Vocational Guidance in the High School." He emphasized 
the need for adaptation in every phase of high scliool work, the program must 
become flexible, old subjects must be given new life and new methods, the teachers 
must become alert to the new problems and willing to do extra work, such as 
helping in investigations, getting in touch with the industrial life of the com- 
munity, and counseling with the pupils. 

ILLINOIS NLWTAL ARTS ASSOCI.A TK )\. 

The tenth annual meeting f)f ilii- Illinois NLinual -Arts Association was Indd 
at DeKalb F''cbruar> 14 and 15. Ihe first speaker on the jirogram Friday after- 
nfKin was Kdward f'. Worst, supervisor of manual training in the elementary 
•tchnoU of Chicago, fr»rmerly superintendent of schools in Joliet. Mr. Worst's 
subject, "Manual Training in Elementary Schools," was handled in a broad way. 



ASSOCI.ITIOXS 377 

No new plans or theories were introduced, Init ratlier the speaker's beliefs as to 
manual training fundamentals were emphasized. Mr. Worst believes that manual 
training projests should be worked out according to the individual plans of pupils 
instead of by following a set model; that in the elementary grades experience 
should be given in handling various materials insuring a broadening of the pu- 
pils' interests and outlook; and that primary manual training should be taught 
by the regular teacher. He hopes "that the day never comes when primary hand- 
work is taught by a special teacher." Manual training teachers, in anv case, should 
always keep in close- touch with the regular work. Mr. Worst emphasized the 
value of manual training as a means of approach to other subjects. He said man- 
ual training projects may be arranged to appeal to tiie different interests of each 
child; he may make something for the home, a footstool for instance; something 
for the school, as apparatus; and something for his own use. But, with all this 
appeal to interest each grade should have at least one problem of a verv definite 
and accurate kind. Mr. Worst also urged sincerity in manual training work, 
the avoidance of shams, whether in construction or in finishes. If an article is 
made of pine have it finished to look like pine. 

The next speaker on the program, L. L. Simpson, discussed the subject "Text 
Books and how to Use Them; Reference Books and How to Use Them." He 
first outlined the development of manual arts teaching from a chaotic, unorgan- 
ized state to the present time which sees' in the more progressive departments of 
manual training a definite, organized body of subject matter, well classified and 
based on authoritative texts and reference books. Then the speaker described 
the various kinds of books with which the manual training teacher has to deal, 
such as manuals, handbooks, reference books, and text-books. The text-book was 
defined as "a skillful presentation of just the matter desired to be given to a 
student for permanent retention." The growth of a text-book was described, from 
the teacher's collection of sketches or blueprints to the final grouping of drawings 
and enriched lecture material in a modern text-book. 

The reasons given why manual arts teachers should use text-books in the 
shop will interest a larger audience than the one present at the association. They 
are as follows: A text-book sets a standard of quality. The text-book offers a 
thoro classification of material which assists both teacher and student; the teacher 
thru more orderly presentation and better organization, and the pupil thru added 
power of retention, ease in learning, and informational matter which lends per- 
spective to the students' viewpoint. More information can be given by a text- 
book than is possible by lectures, and the pupil gets the matter accuratelv, which 
is seldom true of lectures. It insures uniform instruction to all pupils and classes. 
It is a practical time saver; text-books, and reference books as well, ac<iuaiiit the 
student with the literature of the subject. 

The Friday evening meeting was addressed, after the ban(|uet, by George H. 
Miller, head of the employment department of Sears, Roebuck, and Company, of 
Chicago. Mr. Miller discussed "The Measurement of the School Product by 
Business Standards." Among many good things, he said that business men like 
to see and to foster as much as possible the climbing instinct in young people, 
the ambition to improve and work up. The qualifications desirable in employes are 
temperance, tact, and good judgment. He said that both business men and school 



37S .V./.Vr.//. TRJIMXC MICIZISE 

men should keep a personal record of tlie young people in their charge. Sucli a 
personal school record would be of great help to employers in selecting their young 
workers. He also said that the home and the church, more than the school, were 
to blame for the low standards among some of these young employes. 

Professor Leavitt devoted the time for the president's address to an exposition 
of the Conference bill for \ixrational education in Illinois. Principal Giles of the 
De Kalb High Schm>l was called upon to describe the experiment in vocational 
guidance being conducted in his high scliool. 

The Saturday morning session was devoteil to discussion of experiments in 
vocational education recently inaugurateil in the state. Clinton S. Van Deusen 
of Bradley Institute describeii the vocational work in the Institute. This work 
aims to give the students training in the fundamentals, a good deal of informa- 
tional material as a foundation, and experience in productive work done on a 
commercial basis. Emery T. Filby described the vocational class at the School 
of Education, University of Chicago. This class is conducted on a part-time 
basis, experience in productive work being gained in the different tieliis of work 
found on the campus, such as the print shop of the I'niversity Press. S. J. \'aughn 
told of his experience with a class for retarded and delinquent boys at the Nor- 
mal Training Schotil at De Kalb. There is a good deal of flexibility- about the 
program there, a print shop and a woodworking shop furnisliing the practical 
experience. 

At the business meeting following tlie program, tiie course of stuti\ committee 
was continued, and officers elected as follows: A. C. Newell, Illinois Normal Uni- 
versity, president; M. F. Gleason, Joliet, \ ice-president ; B. K. Gordon, La Grange, 
secretary-treasurer; L. W. W'ahlstrom, editor. Lewis Institute, Chicago, was 
selected as the next place of meeting. 

SCHOOL CRAFIS CLUB, NEW YORK. 

The School Crafts Club held a Round Fable meeting on Fricla\ evening, 
February 14th. The subjects and leaders of discussion were as follows: Ele- 
mentary School Subjects — "Furniture Design and Construction," Freil Fhorne; 
"Simple Upholstery," .Morris Greenlierg; Supervision — "Some Principles of Super- 
vision," .Albert W. Ciarritt. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

George A. Seatok, Editor. 

At the request of the editors of the Manual Training Magazine meml>er> 
of the manual training faculty of The Stout Institute have contrihuted the fol- 
lowing suggestions for the Shop Problems Department. While the pr(>hlet^l^ are 
quite various, one thought predominates in all, the aim being to have each piece 
of work within the range of the boy's ability and worth while from the stand- 
point of processes involved and desirable elements of instruction made possible. 
Some of these problems have been adopted as regular parts of courses at the 
Stout Institute while others are considered as supplementary, alternate, aiijiiication, 
or test problems. 

The windmill problem is contributed by Fred L. Curran, "Printing a Month- 
ly Paper" by Chas. E. Eslinger, "A Small Cabinet" by H. M. Hansen," "A Test 
Problem in Projection Drawing" by John t). Steendahl, "Wood Finishing Panels 
by A. W. Brown, "A Grade Carpentry Project" by Louis F. Olson, "Boiler Con- 
nections" by H. W. Jimerson, "A Thirteen-inch Brick Wall" by Wm. T. CJohn, 
"Andiron" by R. F. Jarvis, "Planer Jack Exercises" by F. F. Hiiiix, "Pattern for 
Return Bend" by R. H. Chandler. 

It will be observed in every case that the problem selected is tvpical and 
practical rather than striking or unique. 

CJeorge Fred Bu.xton. 

The Stout Institute. 

WINDMILLS. 

Constructing windmills of various kinds proves an interesting line of work 
for fifth and sixth grade boys. The cuts show different styles of wheels and tlif- 
ferent wavs of bracing the towers. These towers are made of ''i" stpiare stock 
for the posts, thin strips of wood V2" wide for the bracing, and a piece '4" or^s" 
thick for the platform. They are about 15" high and 6" wide at the base. Some 
of the wheels are made of galvanized sheet iron and some are inade of wood. 
The diameters of the wheels vary from 6" to 9". Besides being interesting to the 
bov this work furnishes an opportunity to teach the use of the hammer, saw, try- 
square, rule, knife, pencil, and compass. The boy who successfully completes a 
problem of this kind has gained many ideas about construction and lias developed 
some ability in executing these ideas. 

printing a .monthly paper. 

Instruction is given to a class of sophomore and junior high school boys in tlie 
Stout Institute print shop for an hour and a quarter each day. 

As a practical application of the work the problem of a inonthly paper to be 
edited and printed by students suggested itself and was planned in November. 
A faculty committee was appointed to select a Board of Editors from the student 
body and assist them in starting the work. A contest was held among the stu- 

379 



380 



M.-IM.JL TRAIMNG MAGAZINE 




GROUP OF WINDMILLS. 




SAILS REMOVED FROM WINDMILLS TO SHOW CONSTRUCTION. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



381 



^la5S^SfesaR gg^.^<B;'JRjS?SHJ^Id^t;^g^ 



THE 

MENOMITE 



CONTENTS 

What I Saw at the Dunn County Fair Charlotte Gabelein 

Locals a □ 

The Class Contest Bern ice Barker 

Editorials D n 

Social Events d d 

Review of the Foot Ball Season Adiai Young 

The Print Shop Eldon Pratt 



JANUARY, 1913 

VOLUME I NUMBER I 



HIGH SCHOOL PAPER. 



3s: 



Ml. Mil. TR.II.MXa M.ia.l/.IXE 



dents to select a siiitalile name and amnlier aiiUMii; the diawiiiLi: classes to design 

a suitable aivcr for the paper. 

The first luiinber of eight pages and cover of four additional pages reiiuired 

1J5 liours" work on the part of the class combined. The type page is 24x42 ems or 

about 4"x7" in size. The type used for 
body composition is Id point Century 
Expanded. There are three cover pages 
of advertisements. 

The cost of material for printing 400 
copies is estiinated at $4.00. The net 
gain from sales and from advertise- 
ments was $1 5.00. 

The second issue of the paper, with 
the number of pages the same, will re- 
<iuire oidy 75 liours' work because the 
students understand the processes and 
can carry tliem out more efficiently, 
and some composition as headings and 
advertisements in the first number will 
be used in tl'.e next. 

A JMAI.I, CABINET. 

Tiie small cabinet sliown in tiie 
photograph is an excellent iiroblem in 
cabinetmaking, invohing the greatest 
number of different exercises or parts 
of cabinet construction that woidd be 
possible in a single article of furniture 
of such small size. It presupposes considerable preliminary training and is worked 
out in the following steps: first, sketching the finished cabinet and the tletails of its 
construction; srronJ, the figuring of a complete mill bill; and finally the actual 
constructive work. A number of pieces are cut witli an allowance which makes 
possible the cutting of a second or third joint in case tlie earlier efforts prove 
failures. At) itiea of the size of the cabinet shown can lie obtained from the chief 
dimensions: length of corner posts SO^a", top 19"x22". 




A SM.\LL CABIKET. 



WOOD nNISHING PANELS. 

The illustration shows two sides of one of the ten panels finished during the 
nine weeks course. Of the ten, this is the most important. The successive steps 
in finishing a piece of oak are numbered on the back as shown from I to 6. The 
finish is a natural cf.l'ir with an egg-shell gloss. The steps follow: 

1. One coat of filler. 

2. Filler and one coat orange shellac. 

3. Filler, shellac, and one coat varni h. 

4. Filler, shellac, and two coats varnish 

5. Filler, <.hell3c, a'ul three coats varnish. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



383 



above. 



6. Filler, shellac, varnish, and riibliinfi; with pumice stone and oil. 

The other side shows tlie panel completely finished following the steps named 





WOOD FINISHING PANELS. 



TEST PROBLEM IN PROJECTION DRAWING. 



This problem has been used a number of times as a test in orthographic or 
obli(}ue projection. The front and profile views give all the necessary data for 
construction, while the isometric or pictorial view gives an idea of the shape. 
The problem can be made simpler by changing the oblique end planes to per- 
pe'ulicular or by eliminating the grooved slots. 



384 



.l/.Y.Vr.//. TR IIMXa M.IG.iZlSE 



A GRADE CARl'KNTRV PROJECT. 



Tlie small bviilding shown in the accompanying dra\ving has been found a 
satisfactory problem for a seventh or eii^luh grade class in carpentry construction. 
A similar construction is illustrated in the photograph. It answers the require- 
ments of limited space for working, it is not only typical of actual construction 



Draw Top V/ew Mere 
Sco/e Full ■5ize 



A ' 1 


7 


7-' 




1 ' 




I 


o.-* 






' 1 


.1 


n 


i 1 1 




'^<0 


J 


4 




7- 1 


t 







^f 




.^^ 




TEST PROBLEM IN PROJECTION DRAWING. 

but is large enough to be a real piece of construction in itself and still it is not 
excessive in cost. The last consideration makes it possible to easily dispose of 
the building at the cost of material, for use as a wood-shed, poultry-house, tool- 
house, hose-house, or for a variety of other purposes. If built in the shop during 
the winter it may be constructed in sections and assembled outside in warm 
weather. The sections then should he built in place and all operations such as 
leveling, plumbing, and bracing, should be carried on as in outside work. It 
is recommended that appropriate tool exercises and constructions precede the oper- 
ations on the building and that the business and mathematical phases of the 
problem receive due consideration by the pupils. 



[JOII.ER CONNECTIONS. 



.•\ range l)oilcr with connections suitable for an exercise in a pluiiiliing class 
i«» ^uggc!»ted. Four methods of heating tiie water are shown, sav one of which 
will work ifidependently itf any of the other three or all four will heal in roinbina- 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



385 




3 Q 'O f~" 

0000 





3S6 M I.M.Il TR llXlxa MIC.AZISE 




\ GR \DK CARI'F-NTRY I'ROjrXT. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



387 



tion. One connection is tliat between the reservoir ant! water front; opposite this 
is seen a method of attaching a gas water lieater to the boiler; the t\vo lower pipe 
coils represent respectively, a heating coil that may be placed in the furnace, and 
a coil in the firebox of a basement laundry stove or range. 



COLD WATER SUPPLY 



HOT WATER SUPPLY 




FURNACE 



LAUNDPY 



A PROBLEM IN PLUMBIXG. 



A THIRTEEN-INCH BRICK WALL. 

An interesting yet practical problem for the student of bricklaying is the 
erection, as an exercise, of a 13" brick wall of American bond containing a door 
and window frame of dimensions as shown on drawing. 

Care must be taken that the piers on either side of the door or window work 
a full number of brick, i. e., that no pieces of brick appear in the wall at those 
points. Also that the frames are set plumb to the face of the wall, yet showing 
the same reveal on both sides; that the sill is set level; that neither side of the 
frames rack to the right or left; that there shall be a full number of courses from 



3SS 



M.IM.IL TRIIMXG M.IGAZINE 



the bottom ot sill to the top of frame, since lintels are to he used to span the open- 
ings; and that there shall be the same number of courses in each pier. 

The entire exercise 10' — 7'l>" long and 9' — 3" high contains about 1340 brick 




I T T I 



H 



A THIRTEEN-INCH BRICK WALL. 



-^&. 



V I ^ p^en hammer. 




/ I _ , y 11 




ANDIRON. 



which requires 3 students 4 or 5 days of \y-> liours' work. The approximate cost 
of such an exercise is as follows: 

Brick, $9.00; mortar, $2.00; frames, $5.50; 3 students, labor (counling 5 
days), 2Vh hours, at I5c per liour, $3.38; total cost about $19.88. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 
ANDIRONS. 



389 



A drawing and a photograph make clear an andiron problem for the forge- 
shop, involving a desirable combination of tool exercises. The same roughed top 
is suitable for handles for shovel and tongs. 




A PLANER JACK. 



PLANER JACK. 



As an application of several exercises in the machine-shop the planer jack 
shown in the photograph is recommended. The drawings show steps in the pro- 
cess of making. The work is finished by case hardening in the forge-shop, the 
surface having the characteristic clouded effect. 



RETURN BEND AND PIPE TEE. 

A 1%^" return bend and a pipe tee are first sketched by tlie student, and from 
these sketches the patterns are made under the direction of the teacher. 

Some of the things that can be taught in making the return bend are: the 
making of accurate working sketches from a casting; the use of split patterns; 
the use of dowell pins and methods of placing the different kinds; the different 
ways of constructing split patterns; the use of balance cores and core prints; 
spindle and chuck turning and the use of the template; fitting, glueing, and nailing. 

Such work can be done in any school and is the very best practical instruction 
possible. Projects can be chosen from pipe fitting or machinery and sketched by 
the student and worked out. 

(1) A, B, and B^ are parts which have been turned in halves and are ready 
to glue and nail together. (2). A sheet of paper is placed on a perfectly flat 
board, 1" thick and 18" square. (3). One-half of section A is nailed lightly on 



390 



M.^M.^L TR.41M\C MAGAZINE 



\i) Rough turn screw 



\ \ 



© 



rinisn DO// with hand 
tool to templet, 
pal 15 n 




© 



Cut thread 



^ Cap rough turned and 
^ ' ■ hole finished to fit 




ball 



^ 



© 



Mill Head Square 



— ^ y pV ^ ' 



"^ 



(?) bring down edge of cap 
over ball. Cut cap 
from piece 



3plit Nut under 
Milling Machine Dog 



© 



ChucK on square, 
and rouqh out 
ball 



O 



\ 




PLANLR jACh: exercise: 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



391 



Chuch true, face and 
center end 



\\ 



11 



Size thread yvith 
Standard Cop. 



\ 



Drill 



Mount on mandrel beti^jeen 
centers and rouqh turn 
outside 



■^ 



Bore threaded part 
to 5ize, rouqh Out cur\/e 



U- 



fin 'an out Side with 
hand tools and polish 





I Knur/ top 




Rough out thread 



f^^ — ^ 




PLANER JACK EXERCI5L 



392 



M.LM.IL TR.UMXG MAGAZINE 







RETURN BF.KD. , 



SUor PROBLEMS 



393 



tlie board witli brads, with the heatis left extending up about Vs". (4). It must 
be known that the paper prevents the glue wiiich is used from fastening the board 
and pattern together; that the heads of the brads are left extended to enable their 
easy removal; that the board forms a flat surface against which to build up the 
pattern. (5). One-half of section B is taken, glue is applied to the part which is 
to be joined to A and the corresponding part of A. (6). These halves are 
pressed lightly together, care being used to have the edges flush with each other. 
(7). A small brad is driven thru A into the board to hold it in position. (8). 
Repeat this process with B^. (9). When the glued parts are dry, nails must be driven 
thru B and B^ into A to strengthen the glue joint. (10). The nails holding the 
half pattern to the board are now drawn and the paper adhering to the pattern 
removed by paring with a chisel. (11). The other half of section A must now 
be nailed lightly on the half section already glued up; each half must coincide, 
and paper must be placed between the halves. (12). Then the other half sections 
of B and B^ must be glued and nailed in the respective positions coinciding with 
the halves already glued. (13). Three {'a" holes must now be bored in the center 
of each section of A, B, and B^, passing thru one-half and into the other about 
%". (14). The nails which hold the two halves together can now be drawn and 
the paper adhering to either half cleaned ofi^. (15). Dowell pins ni" in diameter 
with a rounded end, if of wood, are now placed in position and glued. (16). The 
pattern is now finished by sandpapering and shellacking. 




ANDIRON. 



CURRENT ITEMS 

Til make tlie liii^ti sduxils of still greater service to the community is the aim 
of recent innovations in Pittsburg. Formerly four credits a semester in academic 
subjects were required in nearly all courses. Twenty-four academic credits were 
required for graduation in any course. Hereafter tlie college preparatory course 
only will have such requireinents, a minimum of twenty-six being the rule for that 
course. Other courses, will require at the most only three academic subjects a 
semester, and the household arts and industrial training courses will require only 
two academic subjects a semester after the first \ear. In order that the courses 
will not prove tot> light, a provision is made, tliat in order to gain credit in in- 
dustrial, household, or art subjects tlie etiuivaleiit of five hours a week must be 
given each of such subjects. Those not desiring credit may devote less time if 
they wish to these subjects. 

A new departure in the manual arts department has been arranged b}' the 
supervisor, F. H. Bali. The manual training shops at the Fifth Avenue High 
School are now open three evenings a week, to any boy in the city who is sixteen 
years old and who is approved on interview. He need not be a graduate of the 
grade schools, and he need not pay any tuition. The hours are from seven-thirt>' 
to nine-thirt\. Students ma\ enroll at any time. Machine shop practice, wood- 
working, and mechanical drawing are the subjects offered. Forging and foundry 
work will be added later. Twenty students in woodworking and thirty-five in 
mechanical drawing were reported in January, showing that this opportimity is 
appreciated. 

An exhibit of material illustrating the recent development of education in 
China was on view at the educational museum of Teachers College, Columbia 
I'niversitv, in November and December. Special interest attached to this ex- 
hibit on account of recent political and civic events in China, and because of the 
sixt}' or more Chinese students connected with Columbia Universit\. 

The exhibit showed in every department the rapid changes that liave taken 
place since the age-long barriers have been let down to permit the introduction of 
western educational ideas and ideals. A recent writer has said that the present 
renaissance of learning is comparable only to the great revival of learning in 
Europe which followed the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. To teachers 
and students of the manual arts the most interesting part of the exhibit was that 
devoted to handwork. Very fine work in textiles was shown, which in its coloring 
and design was full of valuable suggestions for Western students. Several cases 
were devoted to emliroidf-ry, some of tiie material coming from the Girls' Profes- 
sional School at Wusih, Kiangsu. \\%K)dwork, sluiwing real artistic ability and 
ingenuit>', was displayed, also clay work, paper folding, box making, weaving, 
sewing, wfKidcn instrument making, dyeing of wool and weaving of cloth, all 
showing a unique feeling for good design and artistic composition. Basket work 
from the School for Blind Boys was part of the exhibit. 

394 



CURREXr ITEMS 



395 



The government in China maintains professional vocational schools of va- 
rious kinds, and art work has an important part in educational plans. All these 
things have come since 1905, showing China to be surely a progressive and ener- 
getic nation. 





5ketv:JaI>lolPlAii.o/ 
'iroaCif. PlALSODY C0LliaE^Tf.A:i\[-.K.6 



Fcne Art 5 
Muacc 

f I r t >.i Ji Li jv f c) u •■■.\XiCH' 

1 .. I . tuv 



16 .MlL5car>^- 

io J^uJt for <.u»r; - 




SKETCH PLAN OF GEORGE PEABODV COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS. 



THE MANUAL ARTS DEPARTMENT OF GEORGE PEABODV 
COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS. 

One of the most noteworthy of recent e\ents in the educational Held is the 
reorganization of the Peaboody Normal College of Nashville. Tennessee, into the 
George Peabodv College for Teachers, which will develop departments training 
leaders for normal schools, colleges and universities, training teachers of in- 
dustrial education, and training superintendents of schools thru special study of 
eiementarv schools problems. In addition to this program, there lias been established 



396 



M.^M.^L TR.^IMXC MAGAZINE 




CURRENT ITEMS 



397 




398 



Mri.\L\H. TR.HMXG M.IGAZISE 




CURREXT ITEMS 



39? 




4C0 



.y.Y.vr./z. TR.n.Msa mag.izise 



^ ^JT J--rt^ » 


Jfl 




MbJ i, .^mJB^C 


IB^H^^^^^ 


^^^3^^P^^r^ 



FRONT OF MANUAL ARTS BUILDING. ARCHTECT S MODEL. 

in connection with the college, tlie Seaman A. Knapp School of Country Life in 
which will be studied all phases of rural life, including agriculture, domestic 
economy, rural economics, houseliold arts and design, gardening, manual arts, 
and rural school supervision. 

The trustees of the Peabod\- Education Fund, wiio have planned this great 




RE\R OF NtANUAL ARTS BUILDING. ARCHITECTS MODEL. 



college for the South, declare that it is "to serve as an educational crown of the 
»y•.tem^ of schools which the Southern States have established and are maintain- 
ing." 

The buildings for the department of manual arts will be ready this coming 
September. The head rif this department will be Professor Robert W. Selvidge, 



CURRENT ITEMS 



401 




402 M.-IM rll TRril.MXG MAGAZIXE 

now head of the department of manual arts in the rniversity of Missouri. Mr. 
Selvidge has made the following statement conceriiinir the manual arts building 
and plans for the department: 

"All the buildings are to be of tiie classic style witli many details from the 
Southern Colonial. The shape of this particular building Is determined by its 
position in the group. The buildings to the left of it are one story lower in level 
than the buildings to the right of it, so that the staircase in this building becomes 
the monumental interior staircase for the whole group. All of the buildings of the 
entire group communicate by means of colonnades, bridges or arcades so that there 
is a continual covered passage wa\ from one end of the campus to the other. 

"This building is to be very complete in all its appointments. It is provided 
with hot water, steam, gas, electric current, vacuum and compressed air. Refrig- 
eration is also provided and the air passed thru the ventilating system may 
be cooled so as to reduce the temperature of the rotims for summer work. It is 
fireproof in construction and is so planned that it is capable of a great variety 
of interior arrangements. The exterior walls and the walls aroinui the stairway 
are of a permanent character but nearly all of tlie partition walls are built of 
plaster blocks and may be moved and placed in other positions if desired without 
atfecting the general structure. The different lines of activities to be carried on are 
indicated by the names of the rooms. 

"One of the interesting features of the preseiu plan is the idea of small sec- 
tions or classes. In the hope of reaching the iiighest possible etticiency in instruc- 
tion, it is planned to have about twelve in a section. It is believed that classes 
of this size are large enough to gi\e ail of the advantages to be derived from 
class spirit and co-operation, and still give an opjiortiuiitv for adecjuate individ- 
ual instruction. 

"In order to supply the need for highly trained men in special lines it is 
expected that the student will choose a major in some line and pursue that work 
thru his entire course. In addition to this he will select a first and second minor 
allied to his major. By this arrangement it is hoped to secure thoroly trained 
men in one line with considerable working knowledge of allied occupations, instead 
of a smattering of several." 

MANUAL TRAININC} IN A KENTUCKY RFRAI. SCHOOL. 

Growth and ailvancemeiu in manual training, as in an\ otlier line of en- 
deavor, come thru the united efforts of all tiie workers in the Held. Most en- 
couraging are the accounts of the introduciion of the subject into rural and village 
schools that come from all sections nt tlie counUN. Llie most siinuilating feature 
of this development is that, in many cases, the new sidiject has come as a result 
of a grf)wth from within, rather than as a response to outside suggestion or 
direction. 

A report of such a begiiniing in a rural coinnumity comes tioin William 
Jayne, principal of the Fairview schf)ol, in Berks County, near Ashland, Kentucky. 
Mr. Javnc has been in school work for fortv sears. He tells the story of his recent 
beginning in manual training work in the following words: 

"I have long since been convinced that there was too much theory and not 
enough that was practical in our schrK)l work. I i)revailed on our counts supci- 



CURRENT ITEMS 



403 



intendent to present the matter to his county school board, there beiiifi no le^al 
provision in our state for such work. After a brief hearing, they made a small 
appropriation of fifty dollars out of the county funds, with which to build the 
house for our shop. By doing considerable work myself, I put up a shop-house 
sixteen by twentj' feet in size, which of course is small, but serves for a beginning. 




MANUAL TRAINING SHOP AND EQUIPMENT IN A RURAL SCHOOL, ASHLAND, KENTUCKY. 



I was convinced that the experiment was worth trying, so next 1 endeavored to 
interest some of our business men, some of whom came to my assistance and helped 
me to furnish the shop with an outfit of carpenters' tools costing twenty dollars. 
Then I appealed to the Lumber Company and they generously gave me a load 
of lumber. I took my own team and hauled Tt to the shop. 

On the Monday following I took my sixth and seventh grade boys into the 
shop and showed them the tools and lumber, giving names, uses, and places of 
each. They were eager to get to work. So without a definite course marked out 
(for I had no books and no one to help me), we began our experiment with mark- 
ing, sawing, and planing, making the simplest things I could think of, such as 
plant labels, flower sticks, boxes, squares, triangles, then sleds for the children, 
salt boxes for the kitchen, and a few picture frames. I have interested the boys 
in military drill, and they have made miniature guns with which we practice the 



404 



M.-IM.^L TR.UMXG MAGAZISE 



manual of arms. This is not a highly cultured coninuinit>- but the majority 
of our patrons approve, giving words of commendation if they do not contribute 
any money. Some, of course, openly oppose our work, and say they 'do not want 
our boys to fool away time with it." " 

Mr. Jayne has been encouraged by a visit from the State School Supervisor, 
who was enthusiastic over the beginning that had been made. 

This account should go far to prove that, after all, the indifference of the 
community and lack of funds and facilities are not insurmountable obstacles in 
establishing manual training work in rural and small village schools. 




S'EW MANU.AL TR.MNING SCHOOL, ARK.\NSAS CITY, KANSAS. 



The accompanying cut shows the exterior of a new manual training building 
in Arkansas City, Kansas. The building was opened for use in September. On 
the first floor are five rooms given over entirely to manual training and domestic 
arts; one room for mechanical drawing, one for woodwork, one for lathe work, 
one for cooking, and one for sewing. On the second and third floors are the 
gymnasium and six rooms for seventh and eighth grade work. All the seventh 
and eighth grades of the city are accomodated in this building, and are taught 
by the departmental system. All are required to take manual training. 

The high school is only a block away and high school students who take 
manual training go to the manual training building for that subject. High school 
students arc offered two years of manual training as an elective. In the building 
are four teachers, two men and two women, who give their entire time to the 
manual and domestic arts. 



FOREIGN NOTES 

Hv il. Williams Smiiii. 

The agenda for the conference of tlie National Union of Teachers to be held 
at Easter at Weston-Miper-inare includes the following motions for discussion: 

"That the teaching of housecraft to girls should he made compulsory." 

"Housecraft as a special subject should be restricted to the last two years of 
the child's school life." 

"That it should be an instruction from the Board of Education ( National ) 
that in all new and existing sciiools provision should be made for the teaching of 
domestic subjects." 

"That this Conference is of opinion that the time has arrived when tlie Codal 
Regulations governing the grants towards the cost of manual instruction in man- 
ual training centers be abolished in order that such instruction mav advance to its 
natural place in the school curriculum." This appears to mean that instead of a 
special grant, as now, for manual training, an addition should be made to the 
"block grant" for the whole of the school instruction. 

At the North of England Education Conference Miss Cleghorn, ex-president 
of the National Union of Teachers, read a paper in which she recommended all the 
proposed items of reform detailed above. At the same Conference, Mr. C. Bird, 
superintendent of handcraft for Leicester, read a paper in which he pleaded that 
in school handwork the children should be allowed to conceive, plan, and do for 
themselves; that the restraints, restrictions, and coaching of the imitative method 
should give place to inventive, initiative and experimental method. 

At the annual meeting of the National Association of Education Officers, 
Councillor Norman Chamberlain, M. A., in a paper on "Education and Industrial 
Reform" said, "On the position of hand and eye training in the day school, I will 
only give my personal opinion, that industrially, as well as educationally, the man- 
ual training which pervades the whole curriculum is much more valuable than the 
occasional use of the saw and chisel." 

The Rural Education Conference recommends that Education Authorities 
should do all they can to encourage the gradual introduction of the manual method 
of teaching into rural elementar\' schools. 

In his outline of educational reforms to be dealt with by the British govern- 
ment, Viscount Haldane said that the curriculum is to be broadened, particularly 
in the direction of increased manual and technical instruction. In commenting on 
this The Daily Neivs says, "The Government has determined that money shall be 
spent to give the nation an instructed manhood as well as invincible battleships." 
T/ie Schoolmaster accepts this proposed reform, but with the usual professional 
degree of over-caution. 

The editor of "The Boy's Own Paper" says, "The present boy is far more 
■educated in scientific marvels than an\- former generation." A publisher of boy's 
books says, "They (the boys) do not want so much slaughter and gold as they 
used to, but a live presentation of life." These be some fruits of British manual 
training. 

o 405 • 



406 M.IM.Il TR llXIXa MACAZISE 

One of the principal schools for the traiiiiiiii of teachers of domestic subjects 
is the National Society's Training College, Kerridge House, Fortune Green-road, 
West Hampstead, an institution which interested American visitors should en- 
deavor to see. A course for a diphmui in needleworic was commenced at the 
college on Januan,- last. 

From the report of the Education Committee of the Borougli of Hornsey we 
cull the following: "Handicraft has become in Hornsey to a large extent a 
"method" of instruction rather than a "subject," and the results in added interest 
and practicability to nearly all the other subjects of the cvuriculum are appar- 
ent. • * * • It is more diflicult in the case of domestic subjects than in the 
case of handicraft to see exactly liow tlie teaching can be co-ordinated witli tliat of 
many of tlie other subjects, but there is no doubt that this could be done to a 
greater extent than at present." 

At a recent London County Council Conference Mr. \\'. F. Fowler said, 
"Much of the handwork should be done at home. Often, if left to himself, the 
boy would fashion liis own tools out of materials which to the craftsman seemed, 
impossible. The order in which educational handwork should be introduced was 
(1) drawing and plastics; (2) paper and materials of similar flexibility; (3) 
stouter paper, thin cord, and other materials of similar rigidity; (4) stouter card- 
board; (5) prepared wood; (6) wood; (7) metal." 

At a Shadwell (London) school little pupils learn how to make babies' clothes. 
In the preliminary stages they are taught to make bonnets and clothes to fit their 
dolls; afterwards the\- learn to fashion them for real babies, and eventually wind 
up with fullgrown dressmaking and millinery. 

The manual training teachers of London have long been agitating for higher 
salaries, and, in the opinion of The London Teacher, they "are, we believe, with- 
in measurable distance of a successful issue to their agitation." 

The London Education Committee has agreed experimentally to adapt seven 
art or science rooms in ordinary schools into practical workrooms. They will be 
furnished with movable tables and seats. The instruction will be in various 
kinds of handwork and measurements, as distinct from ordinary \voodwork. Each 
class in the school will occupy the room in turn for instruction. 

A certain school in a poor part of North Kensington (Kensington, where a 
palace is, mark you!) is attended by children who live imder conditions which 
effectually prevent physical, intellectual, or moral development (God save us!) 
and it is felt, says The Times, by the London Education Authorities that the great 
function of the school must be to give the children an interest in life, if they are 
ever to become useful citizens. It has therefore been decided to introduce much 
more manual work into the curriculum. If, too, much more food could be intro- 
duced into the stomachs, and much more joy into the lives of the North Kensing- 
lonians we shoidd be getting on. 

Lincolnshire, being an extra lage comity, is divided into Kesteven and Lind- 
sey, even as Yorkshire is divided into "Ridings." Some three years ago the Lind- 
»ey Education Committee introduced the teaching of practical subjects as an experi- 
ment info 25 elementary schools in rural districts; it didn't cost Lindsey too much, 
and the results were so successful that there are now in Lindsey seventy schools 



FOREICX SOTES 407 

of all sizes in which iiandicrafts are taii^lit on tluee afternoons in tlie week, the 
subjects being dealt with educationally and not vocationally. Now the county of 
Nottingham has caught the infection from Lindsey, and has drawn up a list of 
twenty-five of their schools for similar treatment. We should like to hear the 
comments of those schools which are not going to be treated yet. 

At Bradford, Yorks, the number of domestic centres is 52, viz: 28 cookery, 18 
laundry, and 6 housewifery. The work is carried on by a staff of 26 specially 
trained teachers. Two centres to a teacher seems out of proportion somewhat. Be 
that as it may, girls from 80 schools attend cookery; from 64 laundry; and from 
55 housewifely. Provision is made for the blind, deaf, and mentallv defective 
pupils. Bradford may be said to be doing well, ini this respect, for its 300,000 
inhabitants. 

Where there's a will there's a way. At Market Bosworth in Leicestershire a 
cookery class is taught successfully by the wife of the head master in the kitchen 
of her own house, for which inexpensive fittings have been provided bv 
the committee. 

A new use for Boy Scouts has been found at Falding, Kent, where the Parish 
Council has appointed the local troop official firefighters to the village, and has 
supplied the outfit, including an engine. As exponents of good manual and moral 
training the Scouts are "it.'' 

Monmouthshire has more than a hundred bo%s school-gardening in the coun- 
try. Mr. Runciman, President of the Board of Agriculture and a Cabinet Minister, 
expressed astonishment at the giant cabbages, leeks and fruits raised by the school- 
boys. It is easily possible to astonish even Cabinet Ministers when manual training 
gets into the stride. 

St. Paul's School, Deansgate, Bolton, recently held an exhibition of school 
handwork. There were models of Indian encampments; Esquimaux villages 
concocted with salt and plasterine; \'esuvious in eruption — a fearsome spectacle; 
a Canadian settler's home; and Biblical scenes. These, and many other things 
too numerous to mention, gave great satisfaction to the good people of Bolton. 

Miss Hughes of the Glamorganshire Education Committee advocates the widen- 
ing of the curriculum by teaching girls woodworking and even bogtmending. We 
find curriculums very elastic things when we begin to stretch them. 

A travelling dairy school which visits all parts of the countv, sta\ing for 
two or three weeks at each centre, is a feature of educational work in Cornwall. 
About twenty- children from the local schools attend at each place visited. 

The Educational News has presented us with a portrait group of the first di- 
ploma winners of the course in educational handwork conducted at the Edinburgh 
Provincial Training College; canny-lookin', braw lads, every one of 'em. Con- 
gratulations to each and all ! 

Mr. Carmichael, Minister of Public Instruction, has appointed a special teacli- 
er to visit England and the Continent to investigate systems of manual training, 
with the object of elaborating a co-ordinated scheme for the New South Whales 
public schools. 



40S 



M.iM.ii. TR.ii.\i\a M.ia.i;:i\H 



Reports by Inspectors Morrison and YovMig on manual iraininii in tlie Province 
of the Cape of Good Hope chronicle steady projjress. A kindergarten exhibition 
held at Cape Town comprised models illustrating fishing, ostricli and sheep farm- 
ing, etc. rhe official comment soimded a warning note that tlie models should be 
considered as means, not ends. The models were reall\ too good; that was what 
was the matter. \\'e all realize such a danger. Blanco Public school, "notwith- 
standing diHiculties in regard to the water suppi\," (a South African touch, this) 
pleases e\ery beliolder witli its nice school gartlen. 

From September Jnd to 13th, 1912, a Spiim; School for teachers was held at 
.\Iasterton, New Zealaiul, giving courses in nature stuil\', elementary- agriculture 
and handwork to twenty rural teachers uiuler the principalship of Mr. C. A. 
Cumming, assisted by Messrs. Howe aiul Grant, two ex-London instructors, who 
have transplanted themselves in the Antipoiles. The school where the courses 
were given is admirably etpiippetl in every wav, ha\ ing in addition to the usual 
classrooms, a science room, cookeiv room, woiulwork nnim, a well-appointed mus- 
eum, school garden, and a spacious assembly hall. The time table was arranged 
as follows: — 9:15 to 10:45 and 1:15 to 2:45, lectures, laboratory or microscopic 
work. 11 to 12 anil 3 to 4 (more often to 5 or 5:30) woodwork, incKuling peg- 
work and stripwood work. The woodwork was entered into with zest by both 
men and women, the latter confining themselves chiefly to the strip and peg work. 
This peg work is the utilisation of clothes pegs as materials for the construction 
of miniature chairs, tables, bedsteads, etc., and so far as we know, has been origi- 
nated in New Zealand by Mr. Howe. Teachers of both sexes constructed apparatus 
necessarv to illustrate their day-by-day teaching, and such matters as tools, general 
equipment, materials ami prices of same were dealt with. 




CRAFTS I.WII' M \»F. AT SCOTDAI.F., I'A. HIGH 

SCIIOl;!.. HASK MAHOGANY, SH \[)K COl'- 

I'KR WD \RT GLASS. AI.I.FA" 0. 

mCKlS, DIRKCTOR OF MANUAI, 

TRAIM.NG. 



REVIEWS 

Educational Jims and Efforts 1880-1910. By Sir Pliilip Magnus, Longmans, 
Green, and Company, 6 by 9\i inches, pp. 228; price $2.25, net. 

The author of this book, for many years director of the City and Guilds of 
London Institute, Is one of the most prominent English educators of our time. Thru- 
out his career, Sir Philip Magnus has been an earnest advocate of manual train- 
ing, and to his efforts must be given the credit for much of the advancement made 
in English education, especially in the direction of technical and hand training. 

We have in this volume a record of this progress aiul of the author's experi- 
ences in the development of the newer aims and ideals in education, together 
with a selection of such of his addresses as are of continued and renewed interest 
in connection with the changes taking place in education the world over. 

The chapters which will prove most interesting to teachers of the manual arts 
are the first two, "Progress in Elementary Education," and "Some Problems in 
Secondary Education;" and "The Technical Instruction Movement;" "Manual 
Training in Schools: Its Origin and Purpose;" "Handwork and Headvvork: A 
Forecast;" "Handwork in School Life: Domestic Subjects;" "Manual Training in 
Relation to Health," and "The Training of Industrial Artists." 

The address on manual training was delivered on the occasion of the author's 
becoming president of the National Association of Manual Training Teachers in 
1894. "Handwork and Headwork" was given as his last address as president of 
that association. In 1903. In these two papers there is shown a keen Insight, a 
grasp of pedagogic principles, and an understanding of the practical problems of 
life that make the author's conclusions of Inestimable value to the teaching body of 
an}' and all countries. American educators who are puzzling over the problems of 
reorganization incident to the demand for vocational training will find in these 
chapters the answers to many of such questions, made by a man who has kept his 
finger on the pulse of European educational life for many years and has foreseen 
many of these very difficulties, which many seem to consider purely local and 
necessarily new. The following sentences which conclude the first chapter of this 
book ha^-e found an echo in many American magazines of the current year: 

"After forty }ears experience, we can arrive at no other conclusion than that 
our svstem of elementary education must be modified. To the altered conditions 
that have rendered necessary this change, reference is made later on. But there 
can no longer be any doubt that elementary Instruction must be based on practical 
work, and must have an experimental rather than a literary bias. Education, to 
be effective, must have regard also to the mileau in which the child lives, and 
one of its objects should be to utilize the influences of surroundings where they 
are helpful, and to correct them where they seem likely to prove harmful to the 
healthy growth of character." 

Some readers of this book may disagree with the author's phychology and 
pedagogy but there will be none, we believe, who will fail to gain from it a 
tonic sense of the broad relations of his work to the larger field of general educa- 
tion and to the world as a whole. 

409 



410 M.IM .^L TR.IL\I.\G MAGAZINE 

Forge- Work. Ky William L. Ugen, forcinLi; instructor, Crane Technical 
High School, Chicago. American Book Co. Cincinnati, 1912. 7^ix5 inches; 210 
pages : price, SO cents, net. 

Although this book contains drawings of a few exercise pieces, it is not a 
course in forging, but a te.\tbook on forging processes, methods, principles and 
materials, with ten pages of formulas and convenient tables added at the end. It 
is a textbook to supplement any teacher's individual course of problems, or such 
a course as he may select in printed form. In this respect it is in full harmony 
with the best recent thought on textbooks for the manual arts — a valuable source of 
information for the pupil, a convenience and stimulus to any teacher, and a step 
toward bringing about a definite standard of subject matter. 

The book is well written; it appears to be comprehensive enough without at- 
tempting to be exhaustive; it tells tlie vital facts and illustrates many of them 
with drawings well suited to tlie purpose. The line ilrawings illustrating pro- 
cesses are especially satisfactory. In tact, the book would seem to set a new stand- 
ard among texts on forging. 

Inside' Finis/ling. By Charles A. King, director of manual training, Eastern 
High School, Bay City, .Mich. American Book Co., Cincinnati, 1912. 7Vix5 in.; 
227 pages; price, 80 cents, net. 

Anyone acquainted with the books of the "King's Series on Woodwork and 
Carpentry" will welcome this one. In style and (]ualit\ it is uniform with the 
others. The scope of the book is unitpie. The first chapter is on heating, ventila- 
tion and refrigeration. Then follow chapters on floor laying, doors, window 
frames and sash, stair building, painting, hardware, estimating, and arithmetic. 

Just what the field of this book may be is, perhaps, not fully determined, but 
it certainly contains much subject matter that should come before advanced high 
school, normal school and trade school students in architectural drawing and car- 
pentry. The problems in aritiimetic will serve as an atiditional reason for using 
this book in some classes. 

Composition, By Arthur Wesley Dow, Doubleday, Page, and Company, 
9'4xlPi inches, pp. 12S; jirice $4.00 net. 

This book has long been a standard textb(K)k on art, the first etlition having 
been published in 1899. This 1912 edition is a fine piece of bookmaking, the form 
being well suited to the subject-matter. It contains a wealth of new illustrations 
consisting of line drawings, halftones, and color plates. Tiie latter, printed on 
greyed paper, are very choice examples of color-harmony, rich, clear, and satisfy- 
ing. 

The sut)jcct-matter of the book is tainiliai' In iiiaiiy studcnis and leaciiei's of 
art who have had the privilege of working under Professor Dow. It presents 
his theory of the synthetic method of art teaching — the approach ti> l)eaut\- thru 
the study of the three elements, line, noian, and color, lie considers composition 
or the building up of harmony, the fun<latnental process in all the fine arts. I'lie 
history of the way in which the autlu)r came to his beliefs ami iiis experience iti 
working out the new metho<l are told in the first chapter. Then follow discus- 
sif»n<t of the creation of-harmony by the use of the three elements. So-called rejire- 



REllEIVS 411 

sentative drawing is made secondary to design, in Mr. Dow's method, the student 
drawing from nature only that he may have material to combine and arrange in a 
good composition. The understanding of the principles of space art precedes 
representative drawing. This, it is at once apparent, is a reversal of the old 
established order of art teaching, which would have the student draw from nature 
for the sake of the drawing, the skill in reproduction, the representation being 
the end in itself. 

Teachers of the manual arts are mainly interested in art from tiie design 
standpoint. There is a growing demand that things made in manual training 
shops shall show good proportion, fine line, and harmony with their ultimate sur- 
roundings. This book, then, which emphasizes these very points, is especially 
commended to manual arts teachers, teachers who wish to appreciate really good 
design and who wish to teach their pupils to appreciate it. 

In his conclusion Professor Dow says: "The intention has been to reveal the 
sources of power; to show the student how to look within for the greatest help; 
to teach him not to depend on externals, not to lean too much on anything or any- 
body." Again he says: "Anything in art is possible when freedom is given to the 
divine gift appreciation." — V. E. W. 

Educational Hand-zvork, By T. B. Kidner, The Educational Book Company, 
Limited, Toronto, 6 by 7i/< inches, pp. 200. 

The author of this book, at the time of its publication, was director of man- 
ual training for the province of New Brunswick, in Canada. He is now occupy- 
ing the position of director of technical schools in Calgary, Alberta. The work 
presented in this volume has been tested in the schoolroom. It comprises paper- 
folding, paper cutting and mounting, patternwork and designing with colored 
papers, constructive work in paper, cardboard cutting and modeling, raffia work, 
clay work, basketry, and the construction of geometry models. 

The models and lessons are arranged in "stages" in a course of study which 
will be of help in arranging an outline for handwork. Much of the material is 
suitable for work in rural schools as well as elementary grades in city schools. 

While few of the models will be new to teachers in the United States, helpful 
suggestions may be found in methods and arrangement of lessons. The book is 
well illustrated and is printed in large, pleasing type. — V. E. W. 

RECEIVED. 

Proceedings, Eastern Art and Manual Training Teachers' Association. Third 
Annual Report, Baltimore, May 14-16, 1912. Secretary-Treasurer, T. R. Cogges- 
hall, Girard College, Philadelphia. 

Elementary Ji'oodzvorking. By William Noyes. A syllabus of a course pub- 
lished by Teachers College, Columbia University. Illustrated with perspectives 
and working drawings. Price 30 cents. 

Guarding the Public Health, The Community Institute, The Social Serivce 
Institute in Miliuaukee. Bulletins of the University of Wisconsin, Extension Di- 
vision. 



412 M IM.1I TRIIMXG M.IGAZISE 

The Teaching of Modern Languages in the United States. By Charles Hart 
Handschin, Miami Universit>-, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 
This is Number 3 of the 1913 bulletins sent out by the Bureau of Education. 

Annual Report of School Committee, City of Boston. 19i:. Tliis valuable 
report contains 116 pages and is illustrated. 

Bibliography of Exceptional Children and Their Education. By .Arthur Mac- 
Donald, Goveriunent Printing Office. Wasliington, O. C. Bulletin number 32, 
series of 1912. of the Bureau of Education. 

Bibliography of Child Study for the Years 1910-1911. Compiled by Clark 
University Library. Published by the Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D. C. Issued by the Bureau of Education as Bulletin number 26, 1912. 

Bibliography of the Teaching of Mathematics. By David E. Smith and 
Charles Goldziher. Bulletin number 29, 1912, Bureau of Education. Printed by 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Wisconsin Memorial Day Annual 1913. Compiled by O. S. Rice, State Library 
Clerk. Issued by C. P. Cary, State Superintendent. Illustrated. Contains 88 
pages of addresses, essays and patriotic poems. 

Report on Evening Schools for Year Ending July 31, 1912. By City Superin- 
tendent of Schools of New York City. Contains interesting diagrams, statistics, 
and illustrations, in 143 pages. 

The Minnesota State .Irt Society .Innual Report, 1912. Describes various 
activities of the society thrufnit the State, such as exhibits, lectures and classes. 

Board of Education, Kansas City, Missouri, Annual Report. Includes the 
annual report of Superintendent J. M. Greenwood, and reports of officers of the 
board. Contains 343 pages and is well illustrated. 

\eiL- Britain, Connecticut. Public Schools, Annual Report, 1912-1913. Con- 
tains 135 pages and includes reports of the Superintendent S. J. Holmes, the 
Principal of the High School, and other school officers. 

.Innual Report. Board of Education, Bayonne, AVac Jersey, 1911-1912. In 
addition to Superintendent Carr's report it contains interesting data regarding the 
Bayonne Vocational School, and the work of special departments. 

The Tii-elfth Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. 
Part I. The Supervision of City Schools. Part II. The Super-vision of Rural 
Schools. Published by the University of Chicago Press, in two volumes. 

Training Courses for Rural Teachers. By A. C. Monahan and Robert H. 
Wright. United States Bureau of Education, Bulletin No. 2, 1913. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, I). C. 

The One-Room and Tillage Schools in Illinois. By Francis G. Blair, State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Springfield, 111. This presents facts, ideals 
and suggestions for the betterment of the rural schools. It is an illustrated 
circular of 105 pages. 



VOLUME XIV NUMBER 5 



Manual training Magazine 



JUNE, 1913 



THE CULTURE ELEMENTS IN THE MANUAL ARTS. 

Robert W. Selvidge. 

OUR ideas of what constitutes culture depend largely upon our 
points of view. Recently, when asked for a brief definition of 
culture, a professor of mathematics said, "To me culture 
means a trained mind capable of careful and logical thinking." A pro- 
fessor of Latin said, "It means a knowledge of literature and art de- 
rived from a study of the classics, with the mental power and atti- 
tude of mind gained from such study." A joung lady said, "I think 
it means to dress with good taste, to appear well in society, to dance, 
to know something of m.usic, art, and the languages, and to conform 
to the well established social customs." A messenger boy gave the 
laconic reply, "Not eatin' with your knife, I suppose." These defi- 
nitions do not satisf}'. Culture means more than any of them 
or all of them combined. It means an appreciation which results in 
a broad human sympathy — a consideration for the life and work and 
hope and pleasure of others. It means an appreciation of the service 
society has rendered us and the power as well as the desire to serve 
humanity. Culture should do more than make sponges of us. It should 
fill us with the desire to give back to the world some of the good 
things we have received. 

We may divide education into two great divisions — education for 
culture, and education for vocation. The dominant idea in one is 
appreciation, in the other it is service. These ideas are not exclusive. 
What is cultural for one may be vocational for another. If we take 
a course in news writing in a School of Journalism, for the purpose 
of learning how news is written, such a course would be to us a part 

413 



414 Mri.MH. TRrH\L\G MriG.^ZISE 

of our liberal oihicarion : but it wo take tbo course with the view of 
beconiinii a reporter it would be a part oi our \t)cational training. So, 
if we take a course in chemistry in order that we uia\ read the current 
literature with intelliiience, and understand a little better the mate- 
rial world about us, the course would be cultural ; but if we take the 
same work, with a view of becominsz a chemist, the work is voca- 
tional for us. but it is none the less cultural. 

\'ocational training is cultural in st) far as it gives an appreciation 
of human endeavor. In the limiteil field which it covers it may be 
more highly cvdtural than an abbreviated course in the same line which 
usualh is considered desirable for its culture \alue. J course is iion- 
cultural not because of tvluit it contains hut because of ichat it docs 
not contain. The trouble is that vocational training often narrows 
us down to a particular Held before we have had time to get the desira- 
ble things outside the field of our vocation. Culture does not consist 
of a superficial knowledge of many things but it does include a know^l- 
edge of the essential facts of many phases of life. It being impossible 
for any one of us to acquire the sum total of knowledge, we select 
what we judge to be the most essential in the \arious fields and the 
acquiring of this we call a liberal education. 

If we are not wholly mistaken in the true meaning of culture, 
most of our liberal culture courses of today are sadly wanting in one es- 
sential feature. They give us an appreciation of the work of ancient 
Greece and Rome. We get a little knowledge of the problems of those 
people and how they solved them. We are taught to copy their w orks of 
art and to bvn'ld Greek temples for our money changers. We are 
taught a little of two or three sciences and in economics and sociology 
we are given a peep at our present day problems. These things are 
recognized as the background of what we call the liberal professions. 
The difficulty is that these alone tend to cultivate in us a leisure class 
ideal and such an ideal places our sympathies with that class. Such 
an idea of liberal education leaves out of consideration that vast mul- 
titude of workers who feed us, clothe us, and provide us with our 
luxuries. It leaves us utterlv ignorant of the things which surround 
us. W'v have no conception of what they cost in hninan energy nor 
do we know anything of the conditions under which they were pro- 
duced. Wanting this knowledge we can have no adecjuate apprecia- 
tion of the service rendered us. 



CULTURE ELEMEATS I.\ THE MANUAL ARTS 415 

PROPER EMPHASIS OX VALUES. 

Undoubtedh' work in the Manual Arts may be vocational and 
just as certainly it may be a part of a liberal education. It is voca- 
tional in so far as it enables a man better to perform his labors. It 
is cultural in so far as it enables him to appreciate more fully the ser- 
vice rendered in the production of the things about him. It is perhaps 
both cultural and vocational in so far as it helps him to understand 
the great social and industrial problems which, in a democracy, every 
man must help to solve. We pity the man who cannot appreciate 
good music and we might well pity the man who cannot appreciate 
a good construction. A skilled man contemplates a piece of good 
work with much the same sort of esthetic pleasure that we feel when 
listening to good music or looking at a good picture. 

We have not emphasized too much the general educational value 
of this work but we have, to a large extent, neglected to emphasize 
the vocational side. This last we might have done without in any 
w^ay detracting from its value as a culture subject. We have been 
influenced too much by the idea that a thing is good because it is 
made by hand. It is true that most of the old hand made products 
were honestly and substantially made and that much of the modern, 
machine made product is bad from the standpoint of design, material, 
and workmanship, but the difference does not lie in the fact that one 
was made by hand and the other by machine. The hand made goods 
were better because of the personal contact, sympathy, and under- 
standing between the producer and the consumer. The factory has 
destroyed this personal contact but the remedy does not lie in going 
back to hand production. We must go forward to the solution. The 
standardization of products, with the resulting economy, makes the 
factory system inevitable. A knowledge of the system is necessary. 
With such a knowledge we may understand something of the hope- 
fulness as well as the hopelessness of some forms of labor. It will 
help us to understand "the moving why they do it" when labor takes 
what seems to be an unwise or unsocial attitude. 

The handwork of our school shops gives valuable physical and 
mental training. It probably contributes more to the general develop- 
ment of the student than any other subject, but it gives little insight 
into modern industrial practices. Handwork is good for the boy and 
he needs more of it but he needs a different kind. There is little 
more reason, industrially, for teaching a boy to make a dovetail joint 



416 M.IM.IL TR.n.MXG MAG.IZISE 

by hand than there is from a commercial standpoint to teach him par- 
tial pa\ments. We need to teach boys how things are produced today, 
not because we expect him. necessarily, to enj2:ai:;e in an industial occu- 
pation but because we want him to understainl modern production. 

THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS IX MANUAL TRAINING. 

The men \\\\o ha\e labored loiiii in the field of manual training; 
usually insist that in all manual traininji worthy of the name there 
must be these elements — The analysis of tools and tool processes, 
systematic instruction in the use of tools, a study of materials, and 
an analysis of construction problems. There are many other desirable 
elements but without these we are hardly justified in labeling the 
course manual trainiiiii. There is another element just as necessary 
as those enumerated. It is one which we have quite generally neg- 
lected. It is instruction in industrial methods and practices. Stu- 
dents should know how the things which supply our wants are usually 
produced. They sliould know the essential elements involved in fac- 
tory production. This is necessary from the standpoint of culture as 
well as usefulness. Handw'ork alone in the school is not sufficient 
nor should the training consist in superficial instruction in a large 
number of occupations. 

The movement for industrial education need not involve the tear- 
ing down of our present organization nor destroy the broad basis of 
our general education. However, it will require additional instruc- 
tion in factory methods and practices. It may be necessary to increase 
greatly the time given to the subject and permit a student to elect a 
course with special reference to an industrial pursuit. Such a plan 
would add greatly to the usefulness of the course as a practical trai- 
ning for the b(j\ and if properly taught greatly increase his social 
vision. Even if he did not engage in the occupation it would give 
him a keener appreciation of society's contribution to his welfare. Such 
a training would tend to develop the social conscience and no single 
element is more needed in our national life todav. 



A MANUAL TRAINING WORKSHOP BUILT BY GRAM- 
MAR SCHOOL PUPILS. 

Charles G. Wheeler. 

IN these days when so much is provided for young people without 
effort of their own, it seems worth while to give a word of com- 
mendation when they themselves do something which is usually done 
for them. The grammar school bo3fs of Brunswick, Maine, have been 
using an unsuitable basement room for their manual training. The 
school authorities tried to find a place fit for a workshop, but were 
unable to secure any available building within reasonable distance of 
the school. The problem was then put to the boys themselves and they 
very readily undertook to solve it by building, with their own hands, 
a workshop upon the school grounds. The result is partly shown in 
the accompanying illustrations. 

The shape and proportions of the building were necessarily deter- 
mined by the dimensions of the land available and the proximity of the 
school-house itself. With the exception of a small sum for digging post 
holes, and the cost of the chimney, nothing has been paid for labor in 
the construction of this building. The bojs have done all the work. 
About half of the bojs have had one year's training in ordinary bench- 
work at the rate of two hours a w^eek, but the other half were beginners 
with no previous instruction in the use of tools. Yet all have worked 
successfully on this building. The work has been voluntary on their 
part, without compulsion or urging, and has been steadily carried on, 
not merely during the hours usually allotted to manual training, but 
also at all available times, before, during, and after school hours. 

On account of the rapid approach of winter it was thought best 
not to have the boj^s build the chimney, otherwise that also would 
doubtless have been done. In the spring it is planned to add concrete 
steps, to be built by the boys, thus giving them some lessons in the 
preparation and use of concrete. In fact, but for increasing the ex- 
pense, a concrete foundation would have been used for the entire 
building, instead of cedar posts, — an improvement which can of course 
be made at some future time. 

The width of the building is 16 feet and the length 70 feet, with 
a side porch 4 feet wide by 20 feet long, see Fig. 1. Owing to the 
peculiarity of the situation it was thought best to have but few windows 
on the side toward the schoolhouse. On the other side and end there 
is a continuous row of windows, as shown in Fig. 2, for abundant light 

417 



41S 



Ml MIL TR n.MXG MICIZINE 




A MANUAL TRAIMXG IfORKSllOP 



419 




420 



MJM.4L TR.UMXG M.IC.IZIXE 



is one of the most essential requirements of a s2:ood workshop. The 
windows have been placed as hi.Lrh as possible, to cive more available 
wall space and also to ha\c the liiiht come partly from above. By the 
use of secondhand doors and a few odd-sized windows a slight saving 
in expense has been effected. 

The smaller door in the porch is for everyday use. The large 



> 






V*. r. ■ f- ?— ■ Tr-'Tn-rrr-'FT- -7^- ■ ' .it. U '>,■'■■ V-r .-■' t.' 






ri rn 






^ 


1 
1 


. 







FIG. 3. THE INTERIOR IS DIVIDED INTO A LARGE ROOM FOR THE SHOP, AND A SMALLER 

FOR STORAGE. 



double doors in the end of the building are for occasional use in moving 
some large object, unloading boards, etc., the threshold being about on 
a level with the floor of a wagon. A rather flat roof — one-fourth pitch 
— was adopted (in spite of the fact that it is not so wcatlier proof or 
durable in this climate as a steeper pitch) to prevent excluding light 
from the windows of the adjacent school building. One of the numerous 
roofing fabrics would perhaps have made a more durable covering for 
this rf>of than shingles, but the latter were preferred on the ground of 
looks as the roof is quite conspicuous and the school building itself is 
a dignifiefl brick structure. 

'I he t> pe of constructicjn used for the frame is that in common use 
nowadays for buildings of this character. The sills are 6"x6" ; the 
studrh'ng, 2"x4" : the plates, 2"x4" (laid double); the floor beams. 



A MANUAL TRAINING IfORKSIIOP 



421 



2"x8" (spaced 12" apart and supported in the middle by a central 
longitudinal sill 4"x6") ; the rafters, 2"x6" (tied with collar-beams). 
The upper floor is of matched hardwood. At present the building is 
unfinished inside, but it could well be sheathed or lined with some form 
of "beaver-board", which would make it warmer as well as more 
attractive in appearance. The floor plans and elevations, Figs. 3 and 4, 
further illustrate the main outlines of the project. A tablet made by 
the boys is to be placed upon the outside. 




FIG. 4. THE THRESHOLD OF THE LARGE RECEIVING DOOR IS ABOUT ON A LEVEL WITH 
THE FLOOR OF A WAGON. 

No claim would be made that every joint is as accurately fitted as 
if this building were the work of regular carpenters, but the structure 
is thoroly, strongly, and neatly built. While an eye trained in such 
matters could detect minor flaws in the w^ork (as is, of course, always 
the case with the work of learners or amateurs), there is nothing about 
it to cause unfavorable comment from any ordinary observer, — and the 
trained mechanic would notice defects merely in unessential details. 
Much credit is due the officials of the School Department for their 
hearty cooperation. But for the cheerful help and patience of the 
different teachers also, it would have been hard to put up so large a 
building at the approach of winter and directly under the windows of 
five or six schoolrooms. The advantage of the training which these 
boys have received is obvious, as well as the advantage to the school 
and to the community. It is of course necessary to have an instructor 
who is familiar with such work, altho even without that, the advice and 
services of a carpenter as "boss" could be secured almost anywhere. 



4:: 



MrlM H TR.n.\l.\a M.ICAZISE 



The erection and tinishiniz of so larire a IniiKliiii: by hoys of grammar 
school age wouKl seem to many a rash undertaking, but when it comes 
to matters of practical execution like this the intelligence and capacit)' 
of the average hoy is often miderestimated. for he can turn out an 
astonishing amoimt of good work, under competent supervision. Ex- 
treme accuracy and a high degree of technical skill can not be expected, 
— for these come onl\- after long continued experience — -but work of 
this kind is not too ambitious for such boys, under proper instruction. 

It is believed that so large a structure has not very often been built 
entirely by i^rdnunar school bc)\s with so little previous training. There- 
fore this example may be of help to some school which despairs of having 
suitable quarters for manual training. The boys of the Brunswick 
grammar school have shown ho\\" to build a good workshop, and have 
had a good time doing it. The way they have taken hold and the spirit 
thev have shown about it have been very gratifying to the instructor. 




MKCHASICAI. TOV-CCmnOY, DKSICNKl) 

AM) KXKCUTKD HV I'FF.ll., CHICAGO, 

TEACHERS COI.I.KUE. 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND THE .MANUAL ARTS. ^ 

Frank M. Leavitt. 

DURING the past five ^ears two terms have come into promini-iit 
use in educational nomenclature. These are "vocational edu- 
cation" and "vocational guidance". One of the sub-divisions 
of vocational education is "industrial education", that education which 
relates more particularly to vocations connected with huildin}^ and 
manufacturing. It is my plan to discuss the relation of vocational guid- 
ance, industrial education, and that branch of school work which we 
call "the manual arts". It will be well for us to agree pretty closely 
as to w^hat we mean by each of these three terms. 

"The manual arts" have been accepted as a school subject largelv 
on the ground that constructive handwork contributes certain elements 
to the rounded character of an individual that neither literary nor 
scientific subjects can give. The manual arts activities require the 
working by plan for the accomplishment of some preconceived result. 
This involves a careful adjustment of one's own powers; the thinking 
of the thing thru, from the beginning to the end ; and the actual shaping 
and adapting of materials by known processes until the desired result 
stands, definitely right, a finished product. While I am entirely clear 
that the earliest advocates of manual training had in mind chiefly the 
education of the future mechanics of the country, it is equally clear that 
the schools have generally admitted this work into the curriculum for the 
purpose of improving the educational method of dealing with all 
children. 

"Industrial education" has come to mean something radically 
different from manual training during the last six or seven years. It 
does not mean a separate subject in the curriculum but rather a revision 
of the whole scheme of education during the last year or two before 
the pupil enters upon his vocational life. It means that the vocational 
motive shall be the central fact in this course and that the other school 
studies shall be related to the specific industrial w^ork as closely as may 
be. It is not intended to rob the course of any culture which it ever 
had for the children who leave school at an early age but rather to 
see to it that such culture becomes real and tangible thru its relation 
to life and its stern necessities. Mathematics, science, geography, 
hygiene, and even history and English are taught as vital factors in the 

^ Read at the annual meeting of the Wisconsin School Arts and Home 
Economics Association, Kenosha, Wisconsin, April 11-12, 1913. 

423 



4:4 l/./.Vr.//. TR.UMXG MAGAZINE 

eamiiii: of a liviiiii. It is assumed that the lirst essential of culture is 
economic competency. 

"Vocational truidance" we ha\e al\\a\s IkuI w hore\ er there were 
growing children entering upon tiie years of self support, hut the term 
has come to mean something more specific than that, a matter of scientific 
organization of pertinent facts in such a way that the\' may be made 
available and trustworthy guides to the child from the time when 
vocational interests become vital, whenever that time may be, luitil he 
has entered upon some career of profitable employment and has become 
sufficiently established in the career to give reasonable hope that he will 
eventually succeed in it. Vocational guidance concerns itself with the 
selection of suitable courses within the school ; the bridging of the 
chasm which lies between school life and vocational life; and the 
subsequent following up and heartening of the young worker. This is 
the time, to use the words of a Chicago cartoonist, "When a feller needs 
a friend", if he ever does in his life. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to describe the various plans 
which have been evolved in half a dozen cities for carrying on this 
work. Suffice it to say that in some places we find vocational counselors 
and vocational assistants employed in the schools; in others, that surveys 
are being made, educational, social, and vocational, as a basis for 
guidance ; that in another, courses of study are arranged in such a way 
that, in advising the pupils as to elections, the principal must naturally 
exercise some mejusure of vocational guidance; and that in still another 
the study of vocations is made one of the regular school subjects, with 
weekly assignments, recitations, and lectures. I say it is not the purpose 
of this paper to describe such plans in detail but merely to point out 
and to emphasize the fact that experimenting with the problems of 
industrial education leads inevitably to the belief that vocational guid- 
ance is an absolute necessity if vocational education is to be at all 
effective in accomplishing its purpose. 

With these three rather distinct and separate movements clearly in 
mind, manual training, indvistrial education, and vocational guidance, 
let us see if they may not be brought into closer relation with immense 
benefit to the school system. 

There are those who claim that industrial (-(hKation and vocational 
guidance are not propcrl\ matters for the public school system to 
promote and control. It is not necessar\ to enlarge on that fact, 
especially as regards industrial education. I do not |)ropose to discuss 
this question directly tlu) I wrjuld say, in passing, that I am unalterably 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND MANUAL ARTS 425 

opposed to the idea that anythin*^ which is fundamentally important to 
the development of children of school age, say from five to eighteen years 
of age, is or ever can be foreign to the American pidilic school system. If 
the schools, as now organized and oflficcred, are not competent to deal 
with the situation they should be speedily developed and improved until 
they are. 

ORIGINS OF THESE MOVEMENTS. 

Vocational guidance, even more than vocational education, came 
from without the schools. In Europe it originated with the adult 
labor exchanges but after a time it inevitably reached the schocd door 
and eventually crossed the threshold and became a part of its accepted 
organization. In the United States the progress has been along es- 
sentially the same lines, altho we have no public labor exchanges. It 
began with the advising of adults as to vocational possibilities, in them- 
selves and in their environments, and now, within six years of the 
establishment of the first "Vocation Bureau" in the country, vocational 
guidance is a familiar term in educational literature. 

The idea of adjustment between education and vocations is even 
more familiar, and it is safe to say that the schools have gone more than 
half way in making and projecting such adjustment. For example note 
the spirit of the resolutions passed by the National Education Association 
last summer: 

IFhereas: In spite of the fact that our schools have met well the social 
and economic problems which have confronted us to date, there has been an 
ever increasing demand by the public for greater practical proficiency on the 
part of our pupils of all ages and grades. 

JVhereas: Such liberal education has, in a measure at least, failed to meet 
this demand in the opinion of those who judge by results; and 

JUhereas: Many of our formerly well-accepted principles, as well as our 
educational traditions, are undergoing constant and rapid revision, as a result of 
the more recent scientific investigation and philosophic readjustments, be it 

Resolved: That this Association places itself on record as favoring such 
changes in the courses of study in our elementary and secondary schools, together 
with such changes in methods of instruction as shall make it possible to assist 
the pupil in the ready application of such knowledge as he may acquire to 
actual life conditions. 

Even more significant are the following quotations from the report 
of the New York Vocational Guidance Survey, made public last month. 
This survey perhaps was the most thoro and scientific yet made. Its 
conclusions, in part, are as follows: 



4:b M.^W.^L TR.IIMXG M.^C.IZIXE 

(11 A system of vocational guidance which would mean finding jobs for 
children under sixteen would not only he futile hut dangerously near exploitation, 
however well meant the intentions might he. The facts showed, broadly speak- 
ing, that there are no jobs for children under sixteen which thev ought to take. 
Employers' remarks in regard to cliildren under sixteen add to this impression: 
'•We don't want boys under sixteen." "They are too young." "We have no 
time to train them." "They spoil too much material." "They aren't ready to 
learn anything until they are sixteen." "They aren't any good." "We won't 
take them.'' "They aren't game to do real work." "Sixteen is the best age to 
start." 

(2) It is useless to attempt to guide children into vocations before we have 
nnore information. Neither the Vocational Guidance Survey or any other 
organization has adequate information at present about the demand for workers 
or the opportunities for and conditions of work and training in the twenty 
largest industries, not to mention the legion of minor ones. What the children 
want is vocational training. The kernel of truth in this popular movement for 
vocational guidance is the need of vocational training for children. Vocational 
guidance should mean guidance for training, not guidance for jobs. Hence, 
under present conditions the interests of public school children can best be served, 
not by the establishment of a vocational bureau, hut by the development of 
vocational training. 

A study of the facts of industry is, therefore, the only sound basis for 
discovering what tyf>es of industrial training — whether prevocational schools, 
vocational schools, continuation schools, or half-time work in school and shop — • 
are practicable and desirable for children between fourteen and sixteen, and 
sixteen and eighteen years of age. 

For these reasons the Vocational Guidance Survey has been changed to the 
Vocational Education Survey. The proposed survey will be carried on from an 
educational point of view, and its specific object will be to collect data about 
actual industrial conditions for the use of the schools in working out tj'pes of 
industrial training. We do not propose to plan such training, but we propose, 
if it is desired, to be an agency for the collection of necessary facts which the 
school has not the time to gather. 



COXCLUSIOXS. 

It seems to me that reflection on the facts and opinions p:iven above 
uill lead to the following conclusions: 

CI) Any system of vocational fjuidance leads inevitably to the 
establishment of vocational educatiftn. while a system of vocational 
education soon reaches its effective limits without the establishment of 
some systematic plan of vocational f^uidance. 

(2) Industrial traininji is needed to keep children out of low 
frrade. unproprcssive, and stultifying occupations, by interesting; them 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND MANUAL ARTS 427 

in a higher grade of industrial work and showing them how to rise 
thru the lower to the higher. 

(3) The best kind of \ocational guidance for 50 per cent of our 
school children is that which comes thru this kind of training, and in- 
telligent guidance is impossible without it. 

(4) This kind of guidance is possible only when it reaches down 
into the full time, compulsory school period. 

(5) It is fundamentally important that the school work shall serve 
to reveal and to shape the special aptitudes and tastes of the pupils, to 
the end that the individual may be directed along the line of his 
greatest possibilities. This is consistent with the principles of modern 
scientific management in our industrial plants. 

If the above conclusions are accepted, it is plain t(j see that there 
is a close and vital relation between the much criticized manual arts 
courses and vocational guidance. Indeed I believe that the teachers of 
the manual and household arts are destined to play a most important 
part in this latest progressive educational movement. At the present 
time, when so few superintendents and principals, relatively speaking, 
have made a study of vocational guidance, there will be a great oppor- 
tunity for these teachers to influence the situation by wise counsel and 
suggestion, and by offering to inaugurate experiments by which the 
details may be worked out. Indeed when one becomes discouraged at 
the difficulties and complications arising from the opposition of stubborn 
and conservative educators ; the unthinking resistance offered by the 
indifference of both the schoolmen and the general public; or by the 
short-sighted, short-cut policies of aggressive business men who feel that 
they are competent to settle the whole matter "out of court" so to 
speak; one comes back with a feeling of comfort to the assurance that, 
in the teachers of the practical arts, we have a leaven which must 
eventually leaven the whole mass. 

OPPORTUNITY OF THE MANUAL ARTS TEACHER. 

You teachers of the practical arts, however, can accelerate or retard 
the movement by your attitude and ideals. While I believe that the 
school arts have other and more general functions to perform I can not 
help feeling that in this movement to democratize the public school 
system lies the greatest opportunity for real social service. So I would 
urge that while you keep on organizing your courses for the most 
progressive children, those who are destined for higher education, you 
give heed especially to the horde of children who are now leaving school 



4JS M.lXi rJL TR.UMXG MACAZIXE 

altogether, and see what your courses, it properly modified, might do 
for them both in the way of vocational guidance and vocational training. 

In the first place I believe that the skeleton of the course or courses 
ma\ well be essentially like the good manual arts courses to which we 
have become accustomed, but I am sure that school programs must be 
made more flexible, and that courses in the manual and household arts 
should be subject to modification for individuals or groups who will 
not or may not complete the full program of studies. For example, there 
are, in most schools, a numher of over-aged children in the lower grades 
who might be admitted, £is individuals, to the manual arts courses of 
the upper grades. The fact that such courses are unrelated to the 
so-called regular work of the grade (an acknowledged weakness of 
such courses), serves, howe\er. to make the above plan easily possible, 
and where it has been tried it has worked well. 

It is probable too, that radical modifications must be made in the 
nature of the work done, especially' for the less progressive children. 
For large numbers of our children the following of a logical, progres- 
sive course of exercises, even wlien these exercises are sugar coated by 
being embodied in so-called "useful models", will have far less value 
than the doing of real and necessary work for the home or, perhaps 
better, for the school. For such children the regular courses may serve 
as a starting point, but supplementary work of a different nature fre- 
quently proves more stimulating antl suggestive. For example there are 
many bo\s who take little interest in working to the -^^^ of an inch on 
a coat-hanger, or a flower-pin. who would work like beavers on making 
and putting up some playground apparatus, or in mending furniture 
brought from home, or in helping build a lumber closet in the end of 
the basement. While I have held this opinion for the past five years I 
am constantly surprised at the regenerating influence which the intro- 
duction of such practical work has on a class. 1 here seems to be some- 
thing in the feeling that one is meeting a real need which puts an 
altogether different aspect on the work. Our manual training has fre- 
quently been too much like arithmetic, or technical grammar, to appeal 
U) boys and girls of the type about which I am now speaking. I can 
not help feeling that we have preached too much about "the dignity of 
labor", and have carefully excluded from our manual training practices 
everything which is roalI\- laborious. The models are too cf)mmonly 
"problems" and too rarely "jobs". 



VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE AND MANUAL ARTS 429 

EDUCATION FOR REAL WORK. 

It has been said frequently that our educational ideal is such that 
the school really trains children away from the home, the shop, and 
the farm. I seriously doubt whether some of our manual traininj^ has 
much in it that leads toward the industries. It is this that ^ives the 
semblance of sanity to the critics of our schools who maintain that 
industrial education if given at all, must be furnished by, and directed 
thru, other agencies than the public schools. It is obvious that this 
criticism must be met in some such way as above suggested. 

There is one school system where 10 per cent of the manual training 
time of each pupil may be required for work on things needed by the 
city, and where special classes devote from five to ten hours a week in 
actual productive work. Such work unquestionably gives vocational 
guidance. Even if it guides away from industrial work of an unin- 
teresting type it has value. There is one school where the work is 
organized on a factory basis, and while it seems something like play 
to the boys for a time, they generally reach the conclusion that they 
do not care to do that kind of work ten hours a day, six days a week, 
and fifty-two weeks in the year. This work has undoubtedly lengthened 
the school career of many a boy. 

But you may ask me if, by this method, boys and girls are not being 
taught to hate work? I do not think so. They may be learning to 
hate deadly monotonous work, and I hope they are, but they are being 
taught that there is thinking back of all work for someone, and that 
their best line of progress is thru such work, and not around it, pro- 
vided they must enter a factory, as undoubtedly many must. It is to 
those who must, and to those others on the border line who mayj that 
the care of the practical arts teachers should be sympathetically given. 

It is said that the very traditions of our educational institutions 
exercise a "guidance" away from manual work of any kind. It is my 
belief that this is the case, and that the teachers of the practical arts 
will do much to remedy this condition of affairs. By developing an 
interest in real work and by enabling children to experience joy in 
productive labor, these teachers will exercise a genuine "vocational 
guidance". 

While others are trying to inspire the upper 15 per cent of our 
school children by proclaiming that there is "plenty of room at the top", 
let us say to the others, "Cheer up, there's plenty of room at the 
bottom". It is the struggle to get u'ay to the top that is the curse of 



430 M.IM.n. TR.^IMXC M.lCl/lXE 

our country and society toda\. A "top" if/ipl'us a "base" ami those wlio 
are destined to form the "hase" of our social aiul economic structure 
should be just as precious in the e\es of the public scliool authorities as 
their more fortunate brothers and sisters. We slu)uld teach, we practi- 
cal arts people, that there is room a lont: way this siile of the top for 
success, for \irtue. for ser\ ice, and f(u- all the things which make life 
worth the living:. Because it has apparently been shaped for the few 
who can jjo to the top. our school system has been likened to a pyramid 
standing on its apex. It is time that we turnetl it o\er aiul >()u and 1 
can help to do it. 

Many changes will have to be made besides these in the courses 
of study, but one is perhaps more important than the rest and that is 
the modification of our views as to who should teach our boys and girls. 
Did it ever occur to you that man\ boys and girls who have made 
slender success of their school work have later in life learned from their 
employers and business associates more than the schools have taught the 
brightest? There is a lot of good teaching outside of the school and 
it some of those "teachers" were in our school faculties we should have 
fewer- children leaving school as soon as the law allows. We pro- 
fessional teachers should remember that we have no monopoly on the 
ability to interest, guide, or instruct children. Larger and larger duties 
are being laid on the school every year and we should welcome to our 
fraternity new life anil new know ledge and new blood from the outside 
world. I presvmie that you and 1 do not ha\e much to do with the 
certification and appointment of teachers, but, so far as our influence 
is felt, we ought to show that we nvv^l and w c want this addition to our 
ranks. 

And so I believe that it is our special function and privilege to 
exercise a genuine vocational guidance by preaching the gospel of work 
and the dignity of workers. In literature, biography, history, and 
technolog)-. we have ample opportunity of calling attention to the 
honorable, attractive, and indispensable part \\hich work has had in 
the devehjpment of the race, and still holds in the training of American 
citizens. 



THE A B C OF A PHILOSOPHY OF HANDWORK.' 

Francois Mentre. 

Translated from the French by William 'I". Bawden. 

JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU advised the .voun^r men of fortune 
of his day to learn a trade, for, said he, "A revolution is ap- 
proaching, and the man who has a good trade will be well taken 
care of". To this reason, which one may wish to have expire by 
limitation, may be added the actual instability of fortimes and the 
increasing mobility of capital. But it is not in this strictly utilitarian 
view that the pupils of the new schools are initiated into practical work. 

Independently' of those considerations which relate to each kind of 
work in particular, there may be formulated certain general remarks 
concerning the process of culture ; for it is, in fact, a questif)n of 
culture. It seems to me that the conscientious practice of handwork 
of any kind brings with it a triple benefit ; at the same time physical, 
intellectual, and moral. 

In the first place (and this is the point on which I rely the least, 
because it is self-evident), the child learns to take care of himself with 
his hands, these admirable tools, the varied functioning of which has 
inspired the creation of instruments and machines. He acquires more 
facility of body, of hands and, so to speak, of tact. If he is naturally 
clumsy it corrects his native awkwardness ; he learns not to pound on 
his fingers when driving a nail, and he learns how to adapt his move- 
ments to the effort demanded. On the contrary, if he is gifted he 
increases the power and precision of his activities. In various ways 
handwork brings about a natural g3'mnastic, which is salutary for 
health and favorable to the rythmical development of the body. I will 
add that it refreshes the mind and that it diverts the attention during 
the hours of digestion from matters that are pm'ely intellectual and 
bookish. 

For that very reason, and just in the measure that it diverts one 
from books, it is intellectually formative. For, in general, all our 
education is too symbolic and verbal ; we instruct the child to handle 

1 Mentre: ABC d'Une Philosophie des Travaiix Manuals; I'Education, 
A Quarterly Review of Home and School Education, published by Librairie 
Vuibert, 63 Boulevard Saint-Germain, Paris; Vol. IV, No. 4, December, 1912, 
pp. 504-506. 

431 



45: .v.v.vr.vz. tr.iimxg m.ic.izixe 

not thiiiiij;, but the sijiiis of thi^ix^^. Practical WDik. puts him in im- 
mediate contact with nature and with natural habits. In this view 
handwork is a permanent lesson in determinism and an incomparable 
school of science. Nature does not bond herself to all our fancies; 
she has laws whicii we are bound to observe if we would achieve our 
purposes. If we violate these laws she reminds us without consideration; 
she is an inflexible teacher who sanctions all our faults by a check. The 
teacher of French sa\s to a pupil that his task is not well done, 
and he attempts to pro\e it to him; the pupil, perhaps, alread\ has no 
doubt on this pt)int ; but he does not render an exact account of the 
causes of his failure nor of the remedies w hich are to be applied. The 
teacher of carpentr\ has no need to interrupt in order to show the 
learner that his joint "pla\s", that his taboret "wobbles", and that his 
measurements are inaccurate. Experience itself, often somewhat un- 
pleasant, serves to indicate the defect and to correct the pupil. Hand- 
work then offers an inestimable intellectual benefit; better even than 
science itself, it teaches the existence of laws and demands respect for 
them. Further, it requires quite early an elementary understanding 
of drawing, of descriptive geometry, even of physics and chemistry. 
Bookbinding, carpentry, forge-work ma\- serve for the introduction to 
the teaching of drawing and of applied geometry. Will some one say 
this is appiiid drawing, applied geometry? So much the better, I will 
reply; for that drawing, for that geometry permits nothing that is 
arbitrary or that is "almost" right. 

MORAL AND SOCIAL VALUES. 

Handwork teaches the pupil to do well whatever he does, not to be 
satisfied with approximation ; to execute his w ork carefully, in a 
finished and perfect manner; therein lies the moral efficac\ of this work. 
If the learner derives from it this conviction that work half done is 
useless and even harmful, he will have transferred into a habit a 
fundamental pedagogical truth; I ma\- say almost the only pedagogical 
truth. I^ut, here as everjwherc the personal profit is doubled by a 
social prf)fit. At the same time that the xoung man learns to care for 
and to value the work of his hands he learns to hjve the artisans, his 
brothers. Experience at a trade dissipates rapidly the prejudice of 
inferiority that exists against handwrirk, a prejudice that is still too 
current among us in spite of the efforts of Diderot and the Encyclo- 
pedists. In conversing with an artisan the pupil observes that his 



THE ABC OF .1 I'llll.OSOl'UY or IIISDIIORK 433 

vocabulary is rich, precise, expressive; that his kiiowlcdi^e is protuuiul, 
if not always extensive; finally, that his jiul^inu-nt is scjund. A \lh)oA 
artisan does not ahva.\s know how to explain a thin^ but he can do it ; 
which proves that he understands it perfectly. To repeat a comparison 
of AI. de Rousiers, this workman who passes on the street with his 
bundle of tools has to deal, perchance, with intellectual matters more 
than a member of the Institute. After living; the life of a workman 
for a time, how can the pupil fail to reach the point of understandin<i 
and respecting him? How can he fail to interest himself ultimately 
in his needs and in his kind? It is not necessary for this that his 
teacher of rhetoric comment on the beautiful sonnet b}- Sully Prud- 
homme, entitled "A Dream" {Un Songe) . 

Certainly I am far from pretending that all the pupils of the new 
school derive from practical work the triple benefit that I have just 
analyzed. That presupposes native dispositions that are too little 
common ; it presupposes an application and a perseverance of which not 
all are capable. But all pupils derive some profit from it. Our age, 
which has its defects has also its beauty and its grandeur ; the actual 
scope of decorative art seems to me to be one of its characteristics. 
On all sides we are attempting to revive the traditions of our old 
artisans who are at the same time artists. The word art designates the 
two things, in olden times inseparable. 

Furniture making, bookbinding and printing, glass making and the 
other industries, are at this moment experiencing a profound revival. 
Our young people ought to associate themselves with this movement, 
which is bound to increase, which is already and which will become 
still more in France a source of richness and an artistic inspiration. 

They ought to understand this movement, to encourage it by their 
patronage, and to participate in it themselves. Practical work furnishes 
to them the key to this prodigiously interesting world; this reason, by 
itself alone, would suffice to justify the place of handwork in modern 
education. 



METALW ORk WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT FOR 
THE GRAMMAR GRADES AND HIGH SCHOOLS. XH.^ 

Arthur F. Payne. 

ENAMELING. 

ENA^H'LINCi is a process tlu' technical explatiatioii of which is 
easil\ given and readiU iiiiilerstood. and at tlie same time it is 
a process that taxes the patience and artistic skill of the ex- 
perienced worker: but the result in its finished perfection of line, tone, 
and color is one that fully repa\s the necessary expenditure of time 
:uid patience. 

Enamel is simply a ilelicatc glass coloretl with \arious metallic ox- 
ides that is melted on to the metal, sometimes directly on to the sur- 
face but more often into a depression or cell prepared to receive it. 
There are four distinct types of enamel work, the "cloisonne," "champ- 
leve" sometimes called "basse-taille." relief and repousse enamel; "plique- 
a-jour" or open cell enamel ; painted or "limoges" enamel. The most 
common is the cloisonne which the Japanese have made so popular in 
this country. This is probabl\ the oldest form of enameling, the an- 
cient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans having practiced it many years 
before Christ. The Byzantines were noted for their splendid cloisonne 
work in the fourth century. The most famous piece of cloisonne 
enameling in the world is the well known Alfred jewel that was made 
by order of King Alfred the Great, and was tlug up at Athelney, 
England, where Alfred during his lile time established a monastery. 
The cloisonne, enclosed, or cell enamel work is made by drawing a 
design on a piece of metal and bending soft pieces of wire or thin 
flat strips of metal to the outline of the design and soldering them on 
to the metal with hard solder, thus forming a series of enclosures or 
cells into which the ground enamel is placed and melted. The first 
illustration of Japanese cloisonne shows the steps in the process. Num- 
ber one is a piece of copper with the design drawn on; \undier two 
has the design worked out in thin soft brass and soldered into place 
with silver solder; Number three has the first coat of enamel fused 
on; Number four has the second coat in place; Number five is turned 
over to show the back. It is sometimes necessary in large flat pieces 
to melt enamel on the back ; this is to do away with any danger of 

» Copyright, 1912, 1913, l)y Arthur F. Payne. 

434 



METAUVORK WITH INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT 



435 







t 





45b 



M.LM II TR.IIMXG MACAZISE 




"champleve" enameling: etched cells ready for 
the enamel. 



the onanu'l crackiiiii frDiii the unoqvial tension it the enamel was on 
one side only. If the enamel is in small cells and on thick metal this 
precaution is not necessary. In number iive the cells have been roughly 
formed by solderinsi on a number of spirals w ithout any attempt at a 
design. Number six shows the linished piece with the cells full and 

ground oft level with 
the carborundum stone, 
and lired again to get 
the gloss finish. On 
small pieces "'cloison- 
ne" is not a difficult 
process, but care must 
be taken to use as little 
soKler as possible as 
the zinc in the solder 
volatilizes with the successi\e firings of the enamel, the gas oozing 
thru the enamel leaving holes that are oftentimes tlifHcult to fill 
satisfactorily 

The "Plique-a-jour." open cell, or transparent enamelwork is made 
by building up a design of Hat strips of metal without any back. The 
cells must be small enough to hold the enamel in place by capillary 
attraction while it is wet. The piece is fired in a mufHe. This type 
is very difficult to make but it gives a very beautiful result. The 
design is outlined by the strips of metal with the light coming thru 
the enamel giving beautiful tones and graduations of color where the 
enamel is thick or thin. 

The "Limoges" or "painted enamel" is another rather difficult 
type of enamel work. The metal plate for this work is curved con- 
vexly in the center to give it stiffness. A coat of black, white, or 
transparent enamel is melted all o\er the surface. The design is then 
painted on with vitrifiable colors, fired again, and finally covered over 
with a thin smooth coat of transparent enamel. 

I he "Champleve" enamel w ith its various modifications of "baisse- 
taille," relief, or repous.se is the easiest and best type of enamelling 
for the average wf)rker to begin with. The cells in champleve enamel- 
ing arc made in various ways, the\ may be etched, sawn, or chased. 
The easiest method is to etch them into the surface of thick metal. 
No. 17 ga\ige H&S is about right. The photograph shows three hat- 
pins with the cells cfched out ready for the cnaincl. The method 
of etching is the same as previously described except that it is necessary 



METALU'ORK If ITU IXEXFEAS/i ,: EQilPMENT 437 

to etch a little deeper, and It is better to etch a little slower than 
usual. The cells must be perfectly clean and brij^ht before the enamel 




'champleve" enamelixg with etched cells. 





JAR COVER READY FOR ENAMEL; CHASER JAR COVER AFTER SECOND FIRING. 

CELLS. 



is put in. The third photograph shows a number of silver and copper 
tiepins with enamel in cells that are etched out. It is necessary to sol- 
der the pins on \\ ith soft solder, as the heat from the hard soldering 



43S 



M.LM.n. TR.n.\i\a m.ic.izixe 




would discolor the enamel. The cells in some of the tiepiiis are only 

partialh hlleil with enamel, this lea\es the surface of the enamel con- 

ca\e which iiives a Liraduation of color that is sometimes quite pleasinij. 

In the silver watch foh the cells were sawn out with the saws 

and saw-frame pre\iously descrihed. The 

ilesi.^n was transferred to a piece of twenty 

sia.ire sterlinix silver and the cells sawn out. 
This piece was then soKlered on to another 
piece of sterling silver, thus makinji cells of 
the sawn out desiixn. The cells were filled 
with enamel which after firiniz was ground 
level with the carborundum stone and fired 
a^ain for the final i2;la/.in>2:. 

In the case of the jar cover the cells were 
made by the chasing method. The cover was 
tilled with chaser's pitch, then stuck on to 
the pitch block- and the design was outlined 
with the "tracers" and the cells were made 
by beatin,ii the metal down with the 
"planishers". This style of chasing is known 
as "recess"' chasing and makes an easy and 
elifective method of decoration in itself. The 
same cover is shown after two coats of enamel 
ha\e been melted on. It is now ready for 
grinding level with the carborundum stone, 
and the final firing to obtain a smooth shiny 
surface. The illustration of the square box 
cover is another application of the chased 
cells. The chased silver hatpin is a further 
modification of chasing and enameling. When 
champleve cells are made and a design chased 
(jr carved in the bottom of the cell, the name 
bassetaille relief or repoiisse is given to them. 
A transparent enamel is always used with this 
t>pe, the design at the bottom being seen thru 
the enamel. 

Etching, sawing, and chasing are the easiest methods of making 
the ceils for the enamel. These having been described we will now 

-See the February, 1913, tuirnl)er, p. 25S. 




"champleve" enamel- 
ling WITH SAWN CELLS. 



METALirORK It ITU LXEXFEXSIIE EQUIPMENT 



439 



beg:in a description of enamel and the methods of applying and tiriny; 
it. As stated before enamel is a glass that is colored with metallic 
oxides, opaque white is colored with oxide of tin, cobalt blue with 
oxide of cobalt, yellow with oxide of uranium, green and turquoise 
with oxide of iron, violet and purple with oxide of manganese, and 




CHASED SILVER HAT PIN WITH 

BACKGROUND OF BLUE 

ENAMEL. 




SQUARE BOX COVER WITH ENAMELLED 
HANDLE. 



so on thru many various shades and colors. All colors may be obtained 
in opaque or transparent enamel. The enamel is bought by the ounce 
and comes in flat cakes about five inches in diameter and a quarter 
of an inch thick. The enamel is broken into small pieces with a ham- 
mer and ground to powder in a wedgewood mortar with the pestle. 




MORTAR AND PESTLE, PIECES OF ENAMEL, 
SPATULA, AND CARBORUNDUM STONE. 



A three inch mortar is plenty large enough for the beginner. (A 
mortar and pestle, pieces of enamel, a spatula, and a piece of carbo- 
rundum stone are shown in the illustration.) It is best to have a 
little water in the mortar to stop the small pieces of enamel from 



440 



M.LM.Il. TR.IIMXa M.IC.IZIXE 



FtftMC 




INSIDE CONSTRLCriON" OF HOMEMADE 
ENAMELING MLFFLE 



fl\inir out. Pi) not pound the ciiaiiu'l, but place the mortar on a eliair 
and make use of the weiiiht ot the body to ^riiul the enamel. 

After tlie enamel is iiroiiiul about as fine as the finest salt, wash it 
by tilling: the mortar with water, allowing the enamel to settle; then 
pour off the water which will be somewhat milky in color, repeat this 
two or three times until the water is clear. Then fill the cells with 
the wet enamel, using the spatula as a spoon. The spatula is a piece 
of I" square steel hammered to a spoon shape on one eml aiul to a 
point on the other. AVhen the cells are full tap the edize of tlie metal 

with the spatula, this will make 
an\ air bubbles come to the surface 
and will make the enamel settle 
dow n perfectly smooth. Care must 
be taken to fill the cells carefull>- 
aiul not to lea\e any enamel on the 
metal surface. Next apply the 
edge of a piece of soft blotting 
paper to the edge of the enamel, 
this will ilraw off the water. 

The enamel is now ready for 
firing. Small pieces may be fired 
over a bunsen burner or an\ blue g;is flame; the larger pieces re- 
quiring more heat may be done over the hotter blow-pipe Hame. But 
in either case it is absolutely necessary that the flame should not come 
in contact with the enamel, as the flame will reduce the metallic oxide 
with which the enamel is .olored, and spoil the color of the enamel. 
A twisted flattened bunch of fine iron wire is a good support for the 
piece while it is being fired. Heat the piece slowly until the moisture 
in the enamel is evaporated then hold the piece steadily in the flame 
until the enamel melts and glazes. Allow it to cool slowly as any 
sudden cooling is liable to crack the enamel. The enamel will have 
shrunk considerably in the firing and it will be necessary to fill the 
cells a second and perhaps a third time, if it is desired to have them 
full and level. If the enamel is to be Hush and smooth with the sur- 
face of the metal it ma\- be ground level with the carborinulum stone 
wet with water, or wiih a smooth sharp file, then it is fired again to 
get the finish glaze. Sometimes the cells are first filled with a color- 
less transparent enamel, called "fondant" or "flux"; and the colored 
enamel applied as a second filling; this makes the color lighter and 
more transparent. 



METALUORK KITH lAEXPEASIlE EQVIPMEXT 



441 



The pieces of enamel work that for any reason cannot he fired 
o'.er the open flame of the bunscn burner or blowpipe ma_\' be iired 
in a muffle. A muffle is a furnace in which tlie flames pass around 
a clay dome in such a way that the ilome and the work j^et red hot, 
but the flame does not touch the work. Muffles that are placed on 




INEXPEXSIVE HOMEMADE ENAMELING MUFFLE. 



sale are expensive, the cheapest costing about $17.00 and they are also 
expensive to operate usually requiring about one hour to melt the 
enamel. However a perfectly satisfactory muffle may be easily made 
to use in connection with the blowpipe and foot bellows. The muffle 
shown is made from a two gallon oil-can, some broken brick and fire 
clay, and a clay dome that costs seventy-five cents, making a total 
cost of about $2.00. This home made muffle also costs less to operate, 
as it will get hot and melt the enamel in about fifteen minutes. The 
photograph together with the sketch shows the manner in which the 
muffle was made. If at any time it is desired to rem()\e small pieces 
or specks of enamel, repeated applications of hydrofluoric acid will 
remove them. 



44J 



U.V.Vr.V/. TR IIXIXC M.m.lZlXE 



It is ;il\\;i\s ;ul\ isabU' to test tlu- iMianu'l bi'tun- usin<: it t)n any- 
valuable piece ot work as enamels are sometimes touiul the fusing 
point of which is higher than that ot the metal it is to be melted on. 
I have had more unift)rm success with the enamels of the Chas. M. 
Robbins Co.. Attleboro. Mass., altho Devoe aiul Reynolds; Draken- 
feld 5: Co.: and the John Dixon Co.. all of New ^drk City, sell good 
enamels of various grades. Some eiiameUers mix a \er\ small amotmt 
of borax or a little oxitle of leail w ith enamel that tloes not melt readily. 
This is a convenient thin^: to know for use in exceptional cases, but 
enamels treated in this w a\ are ne\ er so good ; the best results are 
secured by bu\ ing iiood enamel and then testing before using. 

(To hi' ioritl/iuiit.) 




SHEET-MFTAI. WORK DONE BY BOYS AT 
STATE REFOR.VIATORV, PONTIAC, ILLINOIS. 



WHAT THE GRADUATE FROM THE EIGHTH GRADE 
SHOPWORK SHOULD KNOW. 

Joseph Berg. 

HOW much can you get out of a boy taking manual training 
in his last two years of elementary school?" I have often 
heard this question discussed and the thought came, "H(nv 
much do you get into him?" In my experience, teaching freshmen 
in a technical high school, I am convinced that there is much left 
unsaid. I have been asked, not a few times, what in my opinion is 
fundamental in introductory woodwork, enabling the pupil to proceed 
with high school work without the usual necessity of going back to 
the "A, B, C" of the course. A brief review is advisable of course, 
but so much time is necessarily consumed by pupils learning the pro- 
per use of tools and equipment, economy in material and in general 
efficiency, that the year is half gone before we have really accomplished 
much work. ]\Iuch of this is simple information the teacher takes for 
granted the pupil has learned before entering high school. 

There is a move on foot in some technical schools to eliminate 
cabinet work from the first year, giving more attention to technique 
found in patternmaking and joinery. This is a step in the right 
direction for technique has been neglected in many places for want of 
quantity. Quality has often been forced out to make way for big showy 
exhibits of quantity. A teacher of piano demands correct technique 
from the beginning, realizing its value later in the course. Altho 
perhaps more trying at first to both pupil and instructor, it will more 
than repay later. If a shiftless method is practiced, a habit is formed 
which is hard and sometimes nearly impossible to correct. As an 
example — Let a boy commence using a brace, turning, say with the 
right hand, and in a few weeks ask him to use the left, then notice 
the confusion. Not that this is wrong, but has the question "which 
is proper," ever occurred ? The gage is made to push or draw, but 
does the same boy do both? The boys, in a great many instances, 
are left to their own resources thereby getting an improper start and 
we find they are handicapped later thru force of habit. 

I herewith mention what, in my experience, is found wanting in most 
cases. I believe many of these points are overlooked by teachers, but 
very often the time has been too limited to cover them. I should say 
that upon leaving the eighth grade or entering high school a boy who 

443 



444 .W.V.Vr./Z. TR.UXIXG M^C.^ZIXE 

has had, say two \ears of manual trainini;. would bo properly informed 
and make a iiood student if he knew: 

How to reail a rule (not ruler). 
How to add and subtract fractions of an inch. 
That sandpaper is ijraded numerically, the average being No. 1. 
The correct method of tearing sandpaper. 

That a block should be used when sanding flat luifinished surfaces. 
That sandpaper shoidd be torn into rectangular pieces to fit block. 
That a sandpaper block should always be of soft wood. 
That no sanding should be done imtil all tool work is finished. 
Tiiat worn sandpaper becomes useful later. 

To call a bit by name and size. 

That a bit is not a bore. 

That a bit is not a drill. 

That the figure "9" on a bit means y% inch, not No. 9. 

That a brace is not an "auger" or "borer." 

That bits should never be filed on outside. 

That bits should never be filed by pupils. 

That direction should not be reversed when drawing out bit. 

That a properly filed bit needs little pressure. 

That holes are generally measured center to center. 

That the use of a file be avoided wherever possible. 
That a file when used cuts only one way. 

That grinding without water heats to a blue and destroys temper. 
That "sharpen" does not mean "grind." 

Never use center of oilstone or grindstone for narrow tools. 
1 hat flat side of plane blade or chisel should never be ground. 
That flat side of plane blade or chisel should never be raised when 
whetting. 

'I o lay the plane on its side to avoid dulling blade and cutting bench. 

That the cap iron, lor bcnchwork, should be set about ^\."' from 
edge. 

That a mrxiern iron jack-plane i> not a scrub-plane, as the old fash- 
ioned wooden one was. 



U'lLlT GRADUATE OF EIGHTH GRADE SHOULD KXOIC 445 

That the plane should not be held dia<;onally, except when cutting 
across the grain. 

That good work is impossible with ilull tools. 

That the scraper should be reserved for curly grained wood. 
That the sharpening of a scraper should not be done by pupils. 

How a rip-saw differs from a crosscut-saw. 

That the number on a saw indicates number of teeth per inch. 

That a rip-saw is not always numbered 8 and a crosscut-saw, 10. 

That the back-saw be reserved for close work. 

That it is necessary to have a line squared across two adjacent 

faces to cut off square. 
That no time or labor is saved by sawing around the piece. 

That a large chisel will do better work than a small one. 
That chiseling across the grain is possible and correct in many cases. 
That a mallet should not be used except for heavy duty. 
To watch the chisel edge, not the handle, when using mallet. 
That mallet or hammer should be held one-third the handle length 
from end. 

That a bevel should not be called a "bevel square". 

That gage and square are useless if not used properly. 

That they should be held firmly against the work when testing or 

gaging. 
That the gage point should be filed like a knife edge and should 

actually cut a line. 
That the gage point should not project beyond tV inch. 
That the gage should be tilted slightly in direction of motion. 

That a screwdriver should never be sharpened like a wedge. 

How to determine size of nail or screw. 

That "12 D" means 12 penny and is about 3V' long, etc. 

That screws have a gage (diameter) as well as length. 

That screws should never be driven without first boring thru top 

piece. 
That size of bit is determined by gage of screw. 



44« .V.V.VC.7/. TR tiMSG MAGAZINE 

What "toe-nailinj:" means. 
That a nailset is not a punch. 

That a handscrew is not a chimp. 

How to adjust a handscrew. 

That a vise w ill hold the work without placinjz entire weight on 

handle. 
That Le Page's glue is only one kind of glue. 
That "the more glue, the stronger" is a mistaken idea. 
That a loose joint with much glue is weaker than a tight one with 

less glue. 
That a thick glue is worse than none. 

That shellac does not dry in half an hour as is generally believed, 

it merely sets. 
That shellac must he thin and applied quickly. 
That the work must not he handled the same day, if possible. 
That wood tiller is not intended to fill bad joints and ruts on 

surface. 
That "Sawdust and Glue" is a poor workman's Motto. 




WASTE PAPKR BOX, MADE IN 

READING, PENNSYLVANIA, 

HIGH SCHOOL. 



SHOPWORK AND MATHEMATICS FOR GRADE I. 

James McKinney and Sarah M. Mott. 

FOR several years the writers have been striving to find handwork 
for the little six year old child which would not alone he 
training for the hand but which would supply a deeper need 
and be a joy in the doing. The educative side has naturally been the 
uppermost thought in the teacher's mind but educative from the child's 
point of view rather than from the adult's. The things in which a 
child is interested out of school have been considered, and the making 
of such things has been introduced into the shopwork. The play interest 
being uppermost at this time, playthings are a large part of the shop- 
work. The little girl playing at housekeeping with mother, and the 
little boy eager to give father a helping hand in the jobbing about the 
house, have been happy in finding a possibility of carrying on these 
activities in the school. The teachers have tried to adapt the work 
presented in the following pages so that there may be a childish, rational, 
and educative working out of these desires. 

Growth in concentration has also been another aim in all this work 
and for this purpose the objects made in the shop have been those re- 
quiring some time for completion. In the case of the play houses in 
particular this is obvious. While some of the smaller things such as 
tables and chairs may be finished in a lesson or two, the completion of 
the whole house is attained only after weeks of labor. This steady ap- 
plication to a definite line of work is a great factor in habit forming. 

Nor have the ethical and social values of the shop been overlooked. 
Frequently members of the class are called upon to join forces in doing 
a piece of w^ork, and adaptation and adjustment to the work and to 
one another make for social development. Many of the toys constructed 
are made for the definite purpose of giving them to some one else. This, 
as well as the fact that there are frequent chances for unselfish actions 
in choice of tools, material, etc., make for a growth in ethical living. 

There is very little question today about the value of handwork for 
children ; there is, however, a most varied opinion about the type of 
handwork best suited to the Primary School. Shopwork for Grade I 
has been as much discussed as mathematics for the same grade. The 
writers, however, after several years of successful work, are satisfied 
that no other form of handwork has a deeper-rooted hold on the 

447 



448 .l/J.Vr.VZ. TR.UMXG M.IGAZISE 

children's interest. Xnr does any other subject call for better or more 
rational traininix in mathematics. The little wooden products of the 
shop are substantial to\s and are cherished far more than the high 
priced ones bouLrht at the stores. 

I he shop has furnished the real motor interest for the mathematics 
and enlivened the subject often considered so difficult for the young 
mind to grasp with an\- sense of its usefidness or importance. 

NATURE OF THE BEXCHWORK. 

In all the benchwork the measuring is confined to .'," and 1" 
divisions. The benchwork consists of planing edges to width, cutting 
pieces to lengths which do not exceed 3" in width or I" in thickness, 
(the y pieces being onl\- \\" wide), nailing, and sandpapering. 

The tools used are a pencil, ruler, block-plane, back-saw, hammer, 
sandpaper, a brace and bit (in one model), and occasionally a miter-box. 

The children work at the same benches which are used in all our 
school work, and the adjustment for height is made by the chiUlren 
standing on a platform. 

When the children enter school in the fall, one of the early lessons 
is bulb planting. The necessity of marking each child's pot is recognized 
and immediately becomes a motive for the first piece of shopwork, 
which is a plant label. 

The stock used to make the label. Fig. 1, is a piece of whitewood 
|"xU"x7", rough sawed. The children are asked to run their hngers 
over the piece of wood. Questions are asked about it ; answers as "it 
feels rough", etc., are received. Pieces of sandpaper and sandpaper 
blocks are distributed. The class is shown how to smooth the two 
broad sides of the board, and test for smoothness by touch. The narrow 
edge is smoothed by planing. (Very little demonsnation is really 
needed for this work as the children are so keenly interesteil in the 
process.) Before beginning an\ measuring work, the teacher has found 
it advisable to test tin- children's knowledge about their rulers. The 
ruler used has \" and \" divisions; use of a board which is converted 
into an improvised ruler having division similar to the one used in class, 
has helped greatly in the demonstration. 

The measuring or layout of the label is now taken up. A finished 
label is shown and a drawing of the hoard given to the children is put 
on the blackboard, one line is made straight to represent the planed 



SHOPWORK FOR GRADE I 



449 



edge. The size of the label is jiiven. and 1" wide and 6" long is 
written on the drawing. By the use of the blackboard the class is now 
taught how to measure. The end of the ruler is placed vertically even 
with the straight line of the blackboard drawing and one inch is 



Z 



F.G.I. 

Plant L/^bell. 



pL 



ff 



3i 



-loo 



CD 



1 


^^8 


' 


M -I'vj , :/ 


1 


1 ' -I'N 1 


1 


M 1 !/ 


<\J 


J 1 








Section of Tence:. 



measured across the drawing and a mark made; this is repeated near 
the other end. A horizontal line is drawn thru the points. The 
children then go to work and lay out their boards following the above 
example. Holding the ruler even with the planed edge is the important 
point, and it is a good plan to have the children watch the teacher 
hold the ruler and board various ways and get them to find out why it 
is important to have the ruler perfectly even with the planed edge. 
The board is now planed down to the line. The length (6") is 
measured off by the same method, the ruler being held horizontally. 

Sawing off to length is the next step. The work should be held 
in a bench-vise, or placed on a bench-hook. The lay-out of the pointed 
end is as follows : — Two inches are measured along one edge from the 
end ; and repeated on the opposite edge. The center is marked by sight. 
A line is drawn from the marks at the edges to center point on the 
end. The point is shaped by planing. 



450 M.LM.n. TR.UMSC M.IG.IZISE 

This method of nieasurini: by the use of parallel points is repeated 
in all the work. No try-squares are used. 

Our own fall planting next leads us to observe the farmer's prepara- 
tion for winter. The sand table is converted into a farm and the fields 
are fenced in. These fences are the second piece of shopwork. and their 
construction calls for more mathematics. 

The stock for the farm fences is iziven in Ioiil: strips: -J"x^", and 
^"xf". A strip is ixiven to each chiKl and made smooth by sandpaper- 
inir. Two rails. 4" loniz. aiul two posts 2" lonii; are marked and cut 
off, using saw and bench-hook. After all the children have a number 
of pieces cut off. a demoi\>;trati()n of nailiiiii is >iiven. After the sections 
of fence are made. Fij2;. 2. the mathematics lesson may be as follows: 

How many rails did you need for one piece of fence ? 

How many rails did you need for two pieces of fence ? 

How many nails are used in one piece of fence? 

How many nails are used in any given number of pieces? 

How many sections of fence are needed to fence in a field 8" long x 4" wide? 
12" long and 8" wide? 8" long and S" wide, etc. 

And for the child who has a mathematical mind — What are the dimensions 
of a field which needs 12 sections of fence? 

Some questions involving labor may arise if the class is mature enough; 
such as — If it takes one hour to make a section, how long will it take to make a 
given number of sections? If it takes 2 hours? 

The farm work is particularl\ well adapted to children at this time 
of >ear as the fence making is extremely simple and while the less 
efficient children make fences, some of the more able children make more 
difficult things such as farm-house, barn, chicken-coops, drinking-trough, 
etc. Then the question ma\' be asked, "Which is more difficult to 
make, house or fence?' "Which man should be paid more, the one 
who builds fences, or the one who builds houses?" 

M AKINC. THE CRATHS. 

It is the custom of the Ethical Culture School to make Thanks- 
giving donations to hospitals, nurses' settlements, and \arious poor 
families. Crates are needed in which to pack man\ of these donations 
and the First Grad? makes crates for several of the older grades as 
well as ioT themselves. vSee Fig. 3. 

Size: — 8"xlO"x2' for slats and side. The stock is given as follows: 
enfJs, actual size. ;^"x8"xlO"; s/afs, 'i"x2\"\2'\". 'ilic finished size 
of slat is r'x2"x2'. 



SHOPffORK FOR GRIDE 1 



451 




S > 



45J M.IM .11. TR.ll.\l.\C .M.IC.iZIXE 

The mea^^^uriiii: and planiiii: repeat rhe work done on the phint 
label. This work by contrast is much huiier aiul uim's exercise for the 
fundamental muscles of the body. Tw o 1 J " nails are used in each end 
of each slat. From these large crates, the following questions arise: 

How long is this slat? 
How wide is this slat? 
How many slats on top of crate? 
How many slats on bottom? 
How many slats on top and bottom together? 
How many slats on one side? 
How many slats on top, bottom, aiul one side? 
How many slats on other side? 
How many slats on top, bottom, and both sides? 
Each slat has how many nails? (4) 
How many nails have two slats? 

How many nails have four slats, etc.? Some children count all the nails. 
Following tlie oral work tiie teaciier writes the formal facts as they are 
deri\ed on the blackboanl, always \vritiiig answer: 

4 4 4 

4 4 4 
— 4 4 

5 — 4 
12 — 

16 

Then the class sometimes make a smaller crate which they fill with 
candy and give for a Christmas present. The candy is made of con- 
fectioner's sugar and also furnishes a mathematics lesson. 

The size of the small crate is 2"x3"x4". Stock is given as follows: 
ends, *''x2l"x7"; slats. l."\\" any length. The piece for the ends is 
measured and planed to width, then measured and sawed off to length. 
Slats arc sanded smooth, measured for length, and cut off. One nail is 
put in end of each slat. These crates have three slats on top, .^ on 
bottom, and 2 on each >i(le. From these arise such (piestions as; 
Describe sour crate. Length and width of slats; number on top, bottom 
and sides. Dimensions of ends. 1 he following formal facts are de- 
rived and w ritten : 



3 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


- 


— 


2 


6 


5 


3 



10 



SHOPJf'ORK FOR GRADE I 453 

The candy is made in the coukinjz chiss and may easily be made in 
any schoolroom. The teacher prepares the fondant beforehand — .[ of 
this is colored pink, ]- yellow, } oranjje, and j- remains white. Each 
part is usually flavored differently. Each child is given a piece of each 
color. He is also given 4 halves of English walnuts, 8 cloves, and 8 
small pieces of citron. He takes one portion of the fondant, let us 
say the pink. He divides it in half; each half in half again (cjuarters) 
so that he has four pieces. He then rolls each little pink piece into a 
ball making candy apples, using clove for blossom end and citron for 
stem. The yellow is used in the same way excepting that pears instead 
of apples are made. The orange is converted into oranges, while the 
white is made into four flat pieces upon each of which a half of walnut 
is pressed. The child then has sixteen candies, four of each kinii, and 
the previous lesson of 4+4+4+4=16 is recalled. Sometimes the cost 
is computed but not usually, as the thought of giving of one's labor 
is usually emphasized in the Christmas gift. 



THE PLAY HOUSE. 

This, the largest piece of work of the year, is begun immediately 
after the holidays and is usually completed about Easter. 

Each child is given a small packing box (the size used is 12" deep, 
10" high, 19" long) which he may transform into a sitting-room, 
dining-room, bed-room, kitchen, store, theatre, post-office, or stable, 
as he desires. See Fig. 4. It is best to have the boxes uniform in size 
in order to simplify class directions. The boys of an older grade cut 
out the windows and then the rough box is given the little child. He 
planes the box, making it smooth. He then frames the windows as 
follows, see Fig. 5 : 

Stock for ivindow frames: ^"xf", any length, (top and side 
pieces) ; j"x4", any length (sills). The pieces are smoothed up in 
the strip and then measured off to the required lengths: four side 
pieces, 5" long; two top pieces, 4" long; two sills, 4" long. A 
drawing of the window is put on the blackboard and sizes are written 
out, as 5" long, etc. The cutting off is done on the bench-hook with 
the back-saw. 

After framing the windows, the child paints the outside of the 
"house" as it now becomes, and also stains or paints the floor. If a 
"store", he paints the entire inside a light color. 



454 



M.lM.n. TR.ll.MXG M.IG.IZISE 



Questions on the windows are as follows: 

How long: are the side pieces of the window frames? (5"1 

How long must a piece of board be out of which to cut enough sides for 

one window? For both windows? For windows for two houses, three houses, 

or any given number of houses? (In this way children learn to count by 5's). 

How long are the tops of the window-frames? (4"). Then follow questions 

similar to the ones given above. 




FIG. 4. THE PLAY HOUSE. BED-ROOM. 



Flow many window sill> on one window? How main' on hotli windows? 
On any given number of windows? 

How man\ nails in each piece? In each window? In liotli windows? 



Formal work arisinji from this is as folhjw s : 



1 


4 


5 


5 


10 


2 


2 


8 


1 


4 


5 


5 
5 
5 


HI 


2 


2 
2 
2 

2 
2 


8 


2 


8 


10 


20 


2 


16 








20 




8 
















2 
















2 





16 



SHOPWORK FOR GRIDE I 



455 



mioo 



lO 



acii 



F.Q.5. 
Win bow T^/jnE: 



^t^c 



^2 









hiH4 -iH 



Fi<i.6. 
CnaiR.. 



>ojoo 



I L__«.X1[ 

L I i 



1 L'i 
1± 



j^ 



B^iac 



X 



f\J 



rn -' 



ria.7. 

Table.. 



<ii- 



4 



M 



-H 



■y-\^ 



( • 



^O 



hlH 



F(Q 8. 

riQ.EPLflCt. 



FIGS. 5, 6, 7, .AND 8. 



456 .l/.V.Vr./Z. TR.UMXG M.^G.IZIXE 

These facts are also \\ ritten on the blackboanl with answers. 'I1\e 
class has now learned the ilouhles oi numbers as follows: 

12 3 4 5 8 

12 3 4 5 8 

2 4 b S 10 16 

These as well as the other facts previously stateil are drilled upon 
from time to time in the manner familiar to e\ery experienced lirst 
grade teacher. 

The class has also learned to count by Is. and thiiiL^s in the school- 
room are frequently counted : — children, desks, chairs, pencils, erasers, 
papers, etc. A countin>: game is often played, coiuiting by I's, 2's, or 
5's. one pupil beginninix where another leaves off. After a little while 
the class is read\ to put the facts known orally into this form: 

1 2 8 12 
111 1 etc., indefinitely. 

2 3 9 13 

2 4 6 8 

2 2 2 2 etc., to 20 or more. 

4 6 8 10 

5 10 15 20 

5 5 5 5 

10 15 20 25 etc. 

And now begins the making of furniture for the house. The entire 
class makes at least two chairs. Ibis is a good point of departure as 
by the time the chairs are finished, the children are capable of doing the 
more independent work which the furnishing of the various houses 
requires. The children gain decided power thru this independent work. 

Stryck for chair. Fig. 6. sea/ ir'xir'xU": or ir'xU", any length 
to he cut off by the children. This can easily be done by the help of a 
miter-box. fiark, |"xl';" any length. 

M AKINC; OF CHAIR. 

The seat bh»cks are sanded smooth. The backs arc measured 3|" 
h>ng. and cut off, (the b<jard being held flat in the tail vise), then 
measured for width and planed to size. 



SUOl'IIORK FOR c:r IDE I 457 

Assembling of C/itiir: — A careful ilcinoiistration ot nailing: is jzivcn, 
bringing out the causes of splittint^, etc. The method given is as 
follows: The back is placed on seat and position of nails marked with 
a pencil. The back is now laid on the bench and one of the lower nails 
driven in part way. The seat is now held firmly in tiie \ ise and the 
back nailed on. Before the second nail is put in the final atljusting of 
the back should be made. 

Stock for Table. Fig. 7 :—Top, ]"x4r'x4"; pi//rir. l"\l". any 
length, or ^"x|"x2"; base, V'x2V\ any length. 

MAKING OF TABLE. 

Top. One edge of the top is planed smocjth. (the children being 
cautioned about planing too much off this first edge). Then measured 
off to width (4") and planed to size. 

Pillar. The four sides of the piece of wood are made smooth b\- 
sandpapering, then measured off to length (2"). The sawing of this 
piece is done in a small miter-box, as the ends are required to be nearly 
square if the table is to stand properh^ 

Base. One edge is planed smooth, then measured to width. Length 
of piece is now measured (2") and cut off (the board being held in 
the vise). 

Assembling. The center of the top is found by drawing the 
diagonals. At the intersection of the lines a 1" nail is driven in till 
the point shows thru on the other side. The nail point is placed on the 
center of the end of the pillar and then the nail is driven "home". A 
second nail is put in to keep the top from turning. The base is attached 
by the same method. 

Stock for Fire-Place, Fig. S:— Jambs. ^"xl:i"xll" (for two pieces) ; 
breast board, ^/'x\\"xT' \ to'P, i^xiy^xS". 

( To be continued.) 



REPORT OF A COMMITTEE ON MECHANICAL DRAW- 
ING FOR HIGH SCHOOLS. II. ' 

Fred D. Crawshaw and J. D. Phillips. 

B. Penciling. Empha<iis placed on accurate pencil mechanical draw- 

ing. Omit dimensions, dimension lines, and extension lines 
in the following preliminary work, in penciling. 

L Rectangidar objects. 

a. Demonstration. Pencil drawing from orthographic sketch Ala. 
Explain pencil layout. The correct use of the tools should be clear- 
ly and fully shown and explained. The construction of the square and 
rectangle may be presented at this point. 

b. Classroom liork. Pencil mechanical drawing of sketches Ala and 
Alb. 

c. Home liork. Pencil practice in freehand lettering. 

2. Objects having inclined faces. 

a. Demonstration. Pencil drawing from orthographic sketch. A2a. 
The construction of the triangle, hexagon, and octagon may be present- 
ed at this point. 

b. Classroom ivork. Pencil mechanical drawings of sketches A2a 
and A2b. 

c. Home ivork. Pencil practice in freehand lettering. 

3. Objects having circular edges. 

a. Demonstration. Pencil drawing from orthographic sketch A3a. 

b. Classroom ivork. Pencil mechanical drawings of sketches A3a 
and A3b. 

c. Home ^i-ork. Pencil practice in freehand lettering. 

4. Objects having tangent edges. 

a. Demonstration. Pencil drawing from orthographic sketch A4a. 

b. Classroom 'iL'ork. Pencil mechanical drawing of sketches A4a 
and A4b. 

c. Home ivork. Pencil practice in freehand lettering. 

C. Inking. The classroom work in divisions 1, 2, 3, and 4 to be 

inked on paper. The classroom work in divisions 5, 6, 7, and 
8 to be inked on tracing cloth. Omit dimensions, dimension 
lines, and extension lines in the following preliminary work 
in inking. 

' Part I appeared in ilie April, 1913, number. 

458 



MECH.^MCAl. DR.nilSG I OR UKJll SCHOOLS 459 

1. Rectangular objects. 

a. Demonstration. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch Ala. The correct use of tools should be clearly and fully 
shown and explained. Pupils should never be left to find out for them- 
selves the proper use of a tool. 

b. Classroom ivork. tnk the pencil mechanical drawing made 
from the sketch Ala. 

c. Home ii.'ork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

2. Objects having inclined faces. 

a. Demonstration. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A2a. 

b. Classroom n.vork. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A2a. 

c. Home ivork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

3. Objects having circular edges. 

a. Demonstration. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A3 a. 

b. Classroom ivork. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A3 a. 

c. Home ivork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

4. Objects having tangent edges. 

a. Demonstration. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A4a. 

b. Classroom ivork. Ink the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A4a. 

c. Home ivork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

5. Rectangular objects. 

a. Demonstration. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch Alb. Explain why tracing cloth is used. 

b. Classroom ivork. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made 
from the sketch Alb. 

c. Home ivork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

6. Objects having inclined faces. 

a. Demonstration. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A2b. 

b. Classroom ivork. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made 
from the sketch A2b. 

c. Home ivork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 



460 l/./Vr.// TR n\l\C MICIZISE 

7. Objects having circular edges. 

a. Demonstration. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A5b. 

b. Cliissroom zi-ork. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made 
from the sketch A3b. 

c. Home zvork. Ink practice in freehand lettering on tracing cloth. 

8. Objects having tangent edges. 

a. Dt-monstration. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made from 
the sketch A4b. 

b. Classroom ziork. Trace the pencil mechanical drawing made 
from the sketch A4b. 

c. Home 'liork. Ink practice in freeliand lettering on tracing cloth. 

D. Freehand Letterixg. Start lettering work at the beginning of 

the course. Have the class use only upright capital letters 
and numerals until division G is reached. Beginning with 
division G use inclined capital and lower case letters and 
niuiierals. Continue the practice on upright capitals and 
numerals thruout the course. Letters to be inked should not 
be pencileil. Letters j'-." bi.izh. The letters and numerals 
should be considered in the following order: I L T H F E 
Z N M A V W K X Y U J O Q C G D P R B S 4 7 2 5 
3 6 Q 8. 

L Pencil work. This work should he done with a 2H pencil on 
regular drawing paper. 

a. Demonstrations. Analyze three or four letters or numerals each 
class period. Consider form, direction of strokes, and spacing. 

b. Classroom ivork. Practice the letters considered in Dla. Short 
practice periods of from 10 to 15 minutes in leiigtii are recommended. 

2. Ink work. Tracing cloth is recommended for the practice work 
in ink. 

a. Demonstrations, (omiiosiiion and titles. ;\ siiort demonstration 
each period. 

b. Classroom liork. Practice the work presenteil in the abo\'e 
demonstration. Short practice periods continued. 

E. P'rekham) Pi;rsi'I;ctivi^ L'se blank pai^cr. 

1. Rectangidar cbjects. 

a. Demonstration. I'se the cube as a measure unit in making a 
perspective drawing of some simple rectangular object. Use the object, 
and freehand perspective and orthographic sketches. Object suggested, 
butt-joint box. 



MECHANICAL DRAHISG FOR UlC.ll SCHOOLS 461 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a perspective sketcli of a similar rec- 
tangular object to an enlarged scale. Object, orthographic sketch and 
perspective sketch furnished. Object suggested, oilstone box. 

c. Home ivork. Furnish each pupil with orthographic sketches of a 
number of simple rectangular objects usually found in the home, pre- 
ferably not those for which perspective sketches have been furnished. 



2. Objects having inclined faces. 

a. Demonstration. Use object, orthograiiiiic and perspective sketches 
and measuring devise. Object suggested, wall bracket with rectangular 
top and back and single triangular brace. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a perspective sketch of a similar object. 
Object and orthographic sketch furnished. Object suggested, flower box 
with sloping sides. 

c. Home ivork. Furnish each pupil with orthographic sketches of a 
number of objects having inclined faces, preferably not those for which 
perspective sketches have been furnished. Objects usually found in the 
home should be selected. 



3. Objects having circular edges. 

a. Demonstration. Use object with curved edges, preferably cir- 
cles or semicircles. Use object, orthographic and perspective sketches. 
Develop the ellipse measure. Show relation of axes in circle perspective. 
Object suggested, cylindrical cup. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a perspective sketch of a similar object. 
Orthographic sketch furnished. Object suggested, flower pot. 

c. Home ivork. Furnish each pupil with orthographic sketches of a 
number of objects having circular edges, preferably not those for which 
perspective sketches have been furnished. Objects usually found in the 
home should be selected. 



Objects having tangent edges. 

a. Demonstration. Use object, orthographic sketch and perspective 
sketch. Object suggested, pen-tray used in A4b. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a perpsective sketch of a similar object. 
Orthographic sketch furnished. Object suggested, bread-board. 

c. Home ivork. Furnish each pupil with orthographic sketches of a 
number of objects having tangent edges, preferably not those for which 
perspective sketches have been furnished. 



462 .l/.V.Vr.VZ. TR.H.MXC M.Ui.^ZlXE 

AVURKING DRAWINGS. 

Objects should be seU-ctcd haviiiii parts which will make it possible 
to introihice convciuioiis in appio.\iniatt'l\ the tollowinL:: onlcr: 

Object lines: full lines. cU)tteil lines. 

Dimension lines; linear distances, tlianuters, ratlii, angles. 

Extension lines. 

Arrowheads. 

Foot and inch marks. 

Drilled holes; representation, size. 

Tapped holes; representation, size. 

Crosshatchiniz. 

Broken sections: shafts, etc. 

Bolts and nuts. 

Screw threads. 

F. Dimensions and Conxitntions. The preliminary work in letter- 
ing should be completed before this work is started. The 
objects selected for the following work should he more c jmplex 
than those previously used. 

1. Objects having plane surfaces. 

a. Demonstration. Dimeiisinn and extensidii lines. .Aniiwheacis. 
Tse object and freehand perspective and orthofjraphic sketclies. Explain 
the bhieprinting process. Object suggested, taboret, stool or similar ob- 
ject being made in the shop at this time. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a freeliand orthographic sketcli, pencil 
mechanical drawing, tracing, and bhieprint of a similar object. Dimen- 
sioned freehand orthographic sketch furnished. Object suggested, small 
piece of furniture similar to stool or taboret. 

c. Home 'tiork. Place the dimensions on tiie ortliographic sketch Ale 
antl A 2c. 

2. Objects having curved surfaces. 

a. Demonstration, nimension and extension lines. Use object and 
freehand perspective and orthographic sketches. ()bject suggested, small 
piece of furniture with curved svirfaces. 

b. Classroom liork. .Make a frecliand oriliogr.iphic skctcli, jiencil 
mechanical drawing, tracing and blueprint of a similar object, {dimen- 
sioned freehand perspecti\e sketch furnished, (diject suggesctd, object 
similar to the one use<l in the above demonstration. 



MECHANICAL DRAUISG FOR HIGH SCHOOLS 463 

c. Home ^vork. Place the dimensions on tlie ortlio^rapliic sketches 
A3c and A4c. 

Note: — If any consideration is to he given to the planes of projection it 
should be done at this point. 

G. Oblique Views. Conventions continued. 

1. Objects having plane surfaces. 

a. Demonstration. Positions of oblicjue views. Use simple object 
in an inclined position. 

b. Classroom ^vork. Make a pencil mechanical drawing and trac- 
ing of a similar object. Freehand orthograpliic sketch not including the 
oblique view furnished. Simple object in an inclined position. 

c. Home ^vork. Having given two orthographic views of an object 
to find an oblique view. Furnish class with the given views. 

2. Objects having curved surfaces. 

a. Demonstration. Methods of drawing oblique views of curves. 
Use of irregular curve. Object suggested, 45° V pipe fitting. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a pencil mechanical drawing and tracing 
of a similar object. Freehand orthographic sketch not including the ob- 
lique view furnished. Object suggested, 45° elbow or angle pillow block. 

c. Home ^vork. Having given two orthographic views of an object 
to find an oblique view. Furnish class with the given views. 

H. Sections and Developmexts. Conventions continued. 

1. Objects of prismatic or cylindrical form. 

a. Demonstration. Sections and developments. Object suggested, 
three-part pipe elbow. Demonstration developed from view showing 
pipe joints as straight lines. Find one other view and develop patterns 
of two dissimilar parts. Explain also the solution of the problem assum- 
ing that the pipe is prismatic instead of cylindrical in form. 

b. Classroom zvork. Make a dimensioned pencil mechanical draw- 
ing and tracing of a four part pipe elbow. Draw at least two views 
and the developments of dissimilar parts. Freehand orthographic sketch 
of view showing pipe joints as straight lines furnished. 

c. Home ivork. Make a freehand orthographic sketch (including 
developments) of a similar hexagonal pipe elbow. 

2. Objects of pyramidal or conical form. 

a. Demonstration. Sections and developments. Object suggested, 
funnel. Explain method of finding the patterns for the surfaces of an 
ordinary funnel. Explain also solution assuming that the funnel is cut 
obliquely. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a working drawing of a similar object. 
Freehand orthographic sketch furnished. Object suggested, sprinkling 



4t)4 M.lXL.n. TR.IIMXG MAGAZINE 

can spout. Assume tliat tlie large end of spout is cut obliquely by a 
plane. 

c. Ilontf ziork. Make a freehand orthographic sketch (including 
de\ elopment^ of a pyramidal-shaped funnel cut obliquely. 

1. Interskctions Axn Devei.oi'ments. Conventions continued. 

1. Intersections of W. Riizht circular cylinders. 

X. Recn^ilar prisms. 

Y. Cylinder and prisms. 

a. Dftnonstrattori. Intersections and developments. Object sug- 
gested, sheet metal pipe T. Explain method of finding intersection and 
pattern when pipes are of different diameters. Explain also the solution 
of the problem when one or both of the pipes are prismatic in form. 

Note: — Demonstration should include the solution for a pipe Y if it 
is desired to consider oblique intersections. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a dimensioned pencil mechanical draw- 
ing (including patterns) of a pipe T when one of the pipes is prismatic 
in form. See case V above. 

c. Home liork. Make a dimensioned orthographic sketch (including 
patterns) of a pipe T when both of the pipes are prismatic in form. See 
Y above. 

2. Intersection of W. Cylinder and cone. 

X. Cylinder and pyramid. 

Y. Prism and cone. 

Z. Prism and pyramid. 

a. Demonstration. Intersections and developments. Object sug- 
gested, a conical hopper opening into a cylindrical conveying machine. 
Explain method of finding intersection and patterns when the axes of 
conical and cylindrical parts intersect at right angles. Explain also the 
solution of the problem when the conical part is pyramidal or the c\lin- 
drical part is prismatic in form. 

Note: — Demonstration may include the intersections and develop- 
ment when the parts intersect at other than right angles. 

b. Classroom i^-ork. Make a pencil mechanical drawing (including 
patterns) of a pyramidal hopper entering a cylindrical con\e\or at right 
angles. See case X above. 

c. Home ivork. .Make a dimensioned orthographic sketch (including 
patterns) of a conical hopper entering a prismatic conveyor. See case 
\' above. 

J. Det.mi. and Ass^..Ml'.I,^ nRAVVlNO. The best application of a course 
in mechanical drawing, as it will be used in roinnicK iai prac- 
tice, i'N in detailed and assembled machine parts. The thvision 



MECHANICAL DRAWING FOR HIGH SCHOOLS 465 

of the course, here outlined is therefore reserved for the last 
to serve as a review of all former divisions and to prepare 
directly for drafting room practice. 

1. Detail drawing. 

a. Demonstration. Purpose of detail drawing. Its relation to as- 
sembly drawing. Arrangements of groups of views. Grouping of parts 
depending upon shop operations under different shop conditions. Objects 
suggested, lathe head-stock, lathe tail-stock. Small pump. 

b. Classroom work. Freehand orthographic sketch, pencil mechani- 
cal drawing, tracing, and blueprint of the details of an object having 
not more than six dissimilar parts. The object used in the demonstration 
should not be assigned for classroom work. 

c. Home work. Freehand orthographic sketches of the details of a 
monkey wrench. 

2. Assembly drawing. 

a. Demonstration. Purpose of assembly drawing. Drawing room 
practice. Use object selected for demonstration J la. 

b. Classroom work. Freehand orthographic sketch, pencil mechani- 
cal drawing, tracing and blueprint of the assembled parts of the object 
selected for Jib. 

c. Home work. Freehand orthographic sketch of the assembled parts 
of a monkey wrench. 

K. Isometric and Cabinet Projection. Only a limited amount of 
this work is recommended. 

1. Isometric projection. 

a. Demonstration. The principles of isometric projection. Use a 
simple object having a combination of straight lines and circles. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a pencil mechanical drawing of an ob- 
ject similar to the one used in the above demonstration. 

2. Cabinet projection. 

a. Demonstration. The principles of cabinet projection. Use a 
simple object having a combination of straight and circular edges. 

b. Classroom ivork. Make a pencil mechanical drawing of an ob- 
ject similar to the one used in the above demonstration. 



EDITORIAL 

AT its recent meetinji in New York Cit\ the Eastern Art and 
Manual Training Teachers' Association adopted the report 
of a committee which had for several months been making a 
careful study of the problem of revision of the Constitution and By- 
Laws of the Association. The work of the committee included a 
critical examination of the organization and methods of administration 
of a number of other associations. 

The most significant change proposed was the creation 

Awakening ofof a board of directors in which is to he centralized the 

' ' ^^^ responsibilit\- for the conduct of the Association's affairs. 

Organizations „,. i i j • r , • , , j , , 

1 he composition and the duties of this board are modeled 

after the general scheme in use in a number of the more successful 
technical and scientific societies. Permanence in policy, efficiency in 
administration, and progress in development are sought to be secured 
by the election to this board each year, one or two members to serve 
for terms of three to five years. Each individual thus elected to a 
place of authority and responsibility remains in it long enough to learn 
something of the nature of the duties to be performed, to acquire from 
others similarly situated a vital interest in the professional welfare of 
the Association, and to achieve something in the way of influencing and 
directing the development of progressive policies. In the course of 
years these individuals will return to private life, as it were, to inoculate 
the rank and file of the membership with a spirit of intelligent en- 
thusiasm for the work of the Association. 

A plan similar to that adopted by the Eastern Association has been 
in operation during the past year in the Western Drawing and Manual 
Training Association, during which time the Council, as it is called, 
has considered a number of interesting and important problems. It 
may be appropriate to refer briefly to one of these for the suggestion 
that it contains for other organizations. 

The Council, at the recommendation of certain inenihers of the 
Association, has been making a definite study of the possibility of 
developing a form of program that shall meet the needs of the Associa- 
tion in the highest possible degree, and one whose main features might 

466 



EDITORIAL 467 

remain unchanged from jear to year in order that the members might 
become accustomed to its arrangements and possibilities. In some 
years the sessions of the convention have extended from Tuesday to 
Friday, in others from Monday to Thursday or Wednesday to Saturday; 
at some conventions a solid program has been provided that left no 
time free for study of the exhibits, while others have made such pro- 
vision; some programs have arranged the round table discussions at 
different hours, so that the member who wished might attend both 
the art and the industrial education discussions, for example, while in 
other programs all the departmental sessions were set at the same hour. 
The Council set itself the somewhat ambitious task of attempting 
to formulate a plan that would appeal to the largest possible number 
of those interested. Do most of the members find it easier to adjust 
their home work so as to be absent the latter half of the week, or the 
earlier? Would most of the members prefer an arrangement of the 
departmental sessions at the same hour, with the consequent opening 
up of at least one afternoon which might be left free for study of 
exhibits, meetings of committees, etc? Would it be possible to secure 
a more general participation in the conduct of the affairs of the Asso- 
ciation by placing the annual business meeting at some other time than 
the traditional closing session of the convention ? These are some of 
the questions that have been carefully considered. The resulting pro- 
gram was presented at the Des Moines meeting with the expectation 
that its working would be carefully and critically observed by the 
Council, the program committee, and the members of the Association 
generally . The results, without doubt, will be of much interest. 

p -uy* The study referred to very briefly in the preceding para- 

of the graphs is but one of a number that are engaging the 

Survey Idea attention of the leaders in these two Associations. It 
certainly seems appropriate to see in these activities evidence of an 
awakening to a new sense of the opportunities and responsibilities con- 
fronting the workers in these fields. The one feature of the educational 
situation that seems to impress the administrator most forcibly is the 
fact that the manual arts, along with other new types of work, are not 
so completely organized and systematized as the older forms that have 
been taught for generations. We are only beginning to have text-books 
and standards, whereas Latin and mathematics have been in a thoroly 
organized form for years. There are, of course, advantages in this as 



46S Mrl.\L\^L TR.^IMXG MAGAZISE 

well iV disadvantages, and they cannot be discussed here. The im- 
portant thing is for the workers to realize the significance of the fact 
that affairs are in a state of evolution, and the importance of real 
study, and attitude of open-mindedness, and iiuii\idual contribution to 
progress on the part of every one. 

Another evidence of professional alertness is to be seen in the report, 
recently prepared, by a committee of the Wisconsin School Arts and 
Home Economics Association, which appears on another page of this 
number. A reading of this report would be a good thing to prescribe 
for a sluggish executive committee, or program committee, in almost 
any of our Associations. Without discussing it in detail, it may be 
submitted that the knowledge of its own Held which is suggested by 
this report is one of the necessary presuppositions of intelligent and 
purposeful activity on the part of any organization. Why should not 
ever\ Association of teachers and supervisors of the manual arts conduct 
such a survey of its field to discover what its real problems are, use 
some scientific method in the search for solutions, and then act? 

— William T. Bawden. 

Kach year in connection with the annual conference of 
The Outlook ^^^^ National Association of Manual Training Teachers of 

P^ngland a "souvenir handbook" is published which con- 
tains, in addition to the program of the conference and facts concerning 
the place of meeting, a number of "conference greetings" which are, 
in fact, letters written by some of the prominent schoolmen in England, 
who are in s\mpathy with the work of the Association. These "greet- 
ings" reflect, in some degree, the current thought, and help to mark 
the steps of progress. The conference, which is always at Easter was 
held this year in London, and the handbook is an especially large one, 
covering 138 pages. From this we give the following which seem to 
strike a most encouraging note: 

From Dr. M. E. Sadler, Vice-Chanccllor of the University of Leeds. 

The place of handwork in education becomes more important year by year. 
Madame Mor)tessori, developing the experience of Pestalozzi, Froebel and 
ScKuin, has emphasized its value in the training of young children. The ex- 
perience f)f the preparatory trade sdioois in London, Leeds and elsewhere shows 
how great a future lies before manual training in elementary and intermediate 
ccjucation, not to speak of the part which it has to play in all standards in 
elementary schools, both in town and country. In secondary schools, even in those 
where the linguistic tradition of the Renaissance is still dominant, handwork 



EDITORIAL 469 

seems likely to receive great attention as a factor in liberal education. In con- 
tinuation schools, in technical classes and in the technological departments of 
universities and university colleges, handwork in its various forms is obviously 
a cardinal feature of educational training. 

But this movement does not mean that education is becoming, in the bad 
sense of the word, more utilitarian. On the contrary, it is the physiological 
and cultural value of handwork which is strengthening its claim to ampler 
recognition in educational policy. 

Behind all this, there is an even deeper social significance in the increasing 
importance of handwork in educational thought. It has been the fashion to 
disparage manual labor as compared with clerical. There is already a change 
in the current. This new regard for the dignity of craftsmanship is reflected in 
the change which is coming over our educational outlook. 

From Sir Harry R. Reichel, Principal of University College of 
North Wales. 

"I should be obliged if you would convey to the Easter Conference of the 
N. A. M. T. T. an expression of my cordial good wishes for the success of the 
meetings. There can be no doubt that we are on the eve of developments in our 
educational system which will invest the branch of training in which they and 
I are specially interested with a new importance by making manual training an 
essential element in a good general education." 

From Professor W. Ripper of Sheffield University. 

In the future there will be still greater developments of this important de- 
partment of school work. There will, therefore, be an even greater demand 
in the future than in the past for wise guidance, sound judgment, and experience 
on the part of your leaders. I have no doubt they will be fully equal to the 
claims made upon them. 

From P. B. Ballard, Inspector of Schools under the London County 
Council. 

I wish to express my hearty good wishes for the success of the Easter Con- 
ference. During the last decade each succeeding Conference sees a marked 
advance in the manual training movement — an advance not to be measured by 
the mere increase of expenditure on handwork material ; for it is largely of the 
nature of a spiritual conquest. The educational claims of handwork are being 
recognized in wider and wider circles. It forms an essential part of that so- 
called new educational system and whatever system may in the future 

rise into popular favor one thing may safely be predicted of it: if it does not 
make provision for the training of the hand, it is doomed to failure. 

Following the "greetings" are a dozen papers written h\ men in 
closer touch with the work. The first of these is an excellent paper 



470 ^^.^.\L■,ll. trjimxg m.ig.izixe 

on *'An Aid in the Cure ot Truaiic\ " by Dr. James P. Haney of New 
\oTk City. All the others are by En.irUshmen. (^f these the two that 
especially attracted our attention were those ot Mr. Moss of London 
and Dr. Riley, secretary of the Hull Education Committee. Mr. 
Moss reviews the handwork of the London elementary schools, pointing 
out some of the recent chanjies. He says. 

Perhaps the most significant event which has occurred during recent years 
is the change of the control of handwork centres. During the vears 1909-10 the 
Council decided to place the handwork centres under the control of the head- 
masters of the schools to which they were attached, and to put the handwork 
teacher on the staff of the schotil, thus recognizing the importance of combining 
for educational purposes what had formerly been two isolated units. This 
important change may prove far-reaching in its effects upon the educational 
activities and life of the school. 

The headmaster who wishes to do so may now formulate a curriculum, the 
carrying out of which shall employ and coordinate the varied elements of the 
teaching power at his disposal. Under no other conditions would it have been 
possible to realize that change in school method which the results of moderq 
research have proved to be so desirable and necessary. 

"Definite attempts are made to Coordinate the work of the school and the 
centre in such subjects as arithmetic, drawing, composition, geography, object 
lessons, nature study, and practical science; suggestions are made as to the 
division and coordination of the work to be accomplished by the teachers in 
the classroom and the handwork centre respectively. It will be seen how far, 
educationally, the teaching of handicraft has travelled since the initial experi- 
ment in the year 1885. 

During the last few years definite and persistent attempts have been made 
by educationists in London to extend handwork teaching to the "neglected 
middle" of the schools. The Conference appointed by the L. C. C. mentioned 
above had included in its reference "the necessity for a scheme (of handwork) 
linking up the kindergarten work with the existing handicraft schemes." The 
Conference began its sittings in March, 1909, and published its report in May, 
1912. During the earlier deliberations of the Conference arrangements were 
made in about 90 schools to put into operation an experiment for introducing 
handwork in the junior classes. Before the Conference had concluded its sittings 
this number was increased to 200. The kind of work done in these exi>erimental 
schools, falls, broadly, into three classes, according as the aim is: — 

(1) To render more vivid and real the instruction in other subjects. 

(2) To encourage domestic industries. 

(3) To provide systematic and carefully graded instruction in paper, 
cardboard, clay, rafia, strip wood, etc. 

An important feature is the provision of a practical workroom in every 
new school. Not only has the Council decided upon this for new schools, but 
also to secure the '■ame in existing schof)ls where accommodation is available. 



EDITORIAL 471 

While it is early yet to speak of definite results accriiiii.u from this exten- 
sion of handwork, it is granted, by those who are in a position to observe, that 
the results, educationally, amply repay the experiment. 

Dr. Riley sounds a note of warnin^^ against extremes in correlation 
and the heuristic method of teaching handwork. We quote a feu- 
sentences : 

It appears probable that manual instruction is not destined to escape from 
efforts to influence it by some of the prevailing infatuations of the day. Two 
features only will be referred to. 

It is being suggested that manual instructors should not show a boy how 
to do anything; he should be shown the tools on the bench and the wood in the 
corner, and left to "express himself" without interference. The procees of 
education is presented as coming not from the outside, from the teacher, but 
entirely from inside the boy. The only thing the teacher has to do is to stand 
out of the light, and let the boy evolve himself. 

"It is a mistake to believe that the function of the educator with regard to 
children's curiosity is to stimulate it. Education has to use that innate impulse, 
but in using it to prune and direct it." 

"In all educational work the corrective element must come into play." 

"The very purpose of education is to interfere with natural development, so 
as to secure a richer expression and a fuller exercise of the higher powers." 

The second feature to which reference may be made is the infatuation for 
correlation. Of course, it must at once be granted that the various things which 
are done in a school course, and the way in which they are done should make 
all proper provision for such mutual help and advantage as may be derived from 
the influence of one study upon another. 

In the re-action from the method of treating school subjects in watertight 
compartments, which is taking place, the usual characteristic extravagance is 
displayed, and "correlation," which is intrinsically good, may possibly meet 
with some discredit from the absurdities of some of its supporters. 

Strong efforts are being made to correlate manual instruction with the 
other work of the school, and when this is done in a proper spirit the result 
must be profitable. Unfortunately, the enthusiastists are not satisfied with 
securing that where one subject has a definite influence on and relationship with 
another. They demand that every subject shall have an influence upon and 
relationship with every other subject in the school curriculum, and insist upon 
drawing up a scheme of correlation lesson by lesson. 

Thus we have in one scheme the first lesson in the workshop correlated with 
an arithmetic lesson based on 2+2-(-2-f-2=:8, and this for boys twelve years old. 

The difliculties encountered in these chessboard schemes have been treated 
with some ingenuitj', but when one notes that the clay pipe and soap bubble of 
the modelling lesson are correlated with the South Sea Bubble of the history 
lesson, one is moved to unholy laughter. 

Referring again to England, we wish to congratulate George F. 
Johnson of Liverpool, editor of Educational Handwork on the new 



472 



M.-!\U.^L TR.-llMXG MAGAZlSE 



form of his valued magazine. With its new cover printed in red and 
brown on rough tan paper, its india-tint coated paper for the text, its 
ornamental initials and department headings, it seems like a new 
publication. In the contents, too, we realize that some new forces 
have been brought into line to build up this official organ of the Educa- 
tional Handwork Association of England. Surely there is a great field 
for a magazine that will go forward consistently in the direction that 
Eiiucational HaTulnork is now going. 

— C. A. Bennett. 




ASSOCIATIONS 

BOSTON MANUAL TRAINING CLUB. 

At the meeting of March 8, the subject for discussion was "Manual Arts for 
Vocational Ends," and the Club was exceedingly fortunate in having with them 
as guests Charles A. Bennett, Editor of the Manual Training Magazine, and 
Henry Turner Bailey, Editor of the "School Arts Magazine," both of whom 
participated informally in the discussion. No stenographer being present, it is 
not possible to give a summary of their most excellent and inspiring talks. The 
discussion was led by Alexander Miller of Brookline, Harry L. Jones of Somer- 
ville, and Ludwig Frank of Boston, formerly of Fitchburg. 

At the meeting of April 26, John C. Brodhead, Assistant Director of Manual 
Arts, Boston, presented a paper on "Manual Training," illustrated by stereoptican. 

Svnopses of the papers of Messrs. Miller, Jones, Frank, and Brodhead follow: 

Edward C. Emerson', 

Secretary. 

MANUAL TRAINING FOR VOCATIONAL ENDS. 

Mr. Miller: I am not a believer in the old adage "off with the old, on 
with the new" as applied to manual training. I believe that manual training 
has done good work, that it has come to stay, that it has a bigger future than 
it has a past, and, while its methods may be different, still as time goes on it 
will not be superseded. Industrial and vocational work will have their place 
in the school curriculum as will manual training. Why should adverse criticism 
land so heavily on manual training courses? 

What have the academic courses done for manual workers? Nothing very 
specific, and, while the manual department of a school is expected to supply 
many demands of a mechanical nature, but little or no return is made to further 
the interests and convenience of manual arts workers. The time is nearing us 
when all departments of school must work in harmony, each supplying what it 
can to every other. Watch the conductor of the orchestra ; see how he feels 
the music; his whole soul seems to be wrappd up in it; he has forgotten himself; 
see how he calls out each variation; he seems almost to be playing the instruments 
himself, and the result of such concentration is an excellent harmony. Oh, for 
such a leader in manual arts, in industrial and vocational training; one who 
will unite all departments of languages, mathematics, science, physics, chemistry, 
art, and bring out to the fullest the possibility of a harmonious education for 
all pupils. 

The call for industrial classes in our elementary and liigh schools is a 
normal demand and should be met by our teaching force with the heartiest 
response and highest effort. The demand is due to the lack of any apprenticeship 
system such as we had in former years. Are boys trained as thoroly today? No! 
We hire a boy, make a shop drudge of him, and let him steal his trade if he is 
smart enough. It is not long before he passes himself off as a full fledged work- 
man, lies his way thru life, gets further knowledge in his trade at your expense 

473 



474 M.LM.n. TR.IIMXG MAGAZINE 

and mine, and proves himself hv his poor workmanship to be a fair sample of 
our so-called industrial system. 

As such are the prevailing conditions of producing workmen, is it any 
wonder that the public looks to its school system for something better? I 
believe that our schools should stand en masse for "Honor in Work"; to do an 
honorable and satisfactory piece of work should be the teacher's and pupil's 
chief desire and effort. Where is the lost joy of the worker, the love of the 
work for the work's sake, the doing of things "on honor''? Everything seems 
to be "hustle! hustle!" never mind doing a thing well, only get it done, and get 
the other fellow's money. 

Right here I want to pay tribute of respect to the Sloyd Training School of 
Boston, under the leadership of Mr. Larsson and Mr. Sandberg, for I truly 
believe that few schwils in this country have had greater influence in the direction 
of excellence in workinanship or whose product more truly illustrates the best 
and highest attainment of the worker ! 

Why are we doing so much with machinery when we have another great 
held in the building trades. Just consider what a field it is and how little it is 
cultivated in school work. Our teachers are just beginning to realize that 
much can be done in teaching boys, and girls too, the planning and construction 
of a dwelling. I believe that the study of architecture and building should be 
cultivated in our inilustrial classes, not to the exclusion of machine work, but 
in harmony with it, and in some cases in correlation with it. Such a study opens 
up the trades of the concrete workers, bricklayers, stone masons, carpenters, 
plumbers, and many more. Consider if you will ^vhat can be done with 
concrete! Here alone is a great field. 

Let us approach this problem with dignit\ and with highest effort, and in so 
doing I feel sure that the schools of our country can do much to correct in- 
dustrial evils and give to our children a point of view of the working world 
that is worth while. 

DISCUSSION. 

Nfr. Jones: Each manual arts teacher and each school must work out their 
individual problems. The aim in the work shovild be the ^velfare of the 
state, and certain things should he standardized witiujut affecting the individuality 
of the boy and girl, or weakening the interest in work. 

The American public school system is maintained to prepare boys and girls 
for good and useful citizenship, and if manual training and drawing are to 
remain a part of our public school courses, their educative value, whether given 
from the point of view of general culture or for specific training for life's work, 
is dependent on the attitude which pupils are allowed tf) assume towards their 
work. Incorrect and slovenly habits of thinking and doing have no place in 
manual training. Organization of subject matter is as essential in the manual 
arts as in any other line of endeavor. We must consider the ninety or more per 
cent and provide for the masses and not some imrticular class. Provision should 
be made for a system of tmiversal education. If tnanual training is worth 
while, we should never give up the idea tliat it is for every boy, and that it 
is just as important in liis plan of life as any other subject in the curriculum. 



^SSOCI.^TIOXS 475 

If the manual arts are to be considered a fad, let us drop tliem from the 
schools. If they are to educate for the industries, if they are to benefit the in- 
dustries by training men of judgment and balance, if they are to emphasize 
skill, technique, and good workmanship, if they are to prepare young people for 
actual work of life while they are being given the refining and uplifting in- 
fluence of the non-vocational studies, if they are to prepare for something definite 
at whatever time the boy might leave school, and not prepare him solely for 
some higher institution, let us keep the manual arts. 

In the lower grades, keep in touch with vocational and industrial activities, 
giving the child an outlet for his physical energy, giving him means of occupa- 
tion with familiar material, and enabling him to acquire a techni<iue and a 
degree of skill in fundamental operations in vocational activities. 

The manual arts will establish a standard of neatness, precision, judgment, 
and the cardinal principles which are necessary in all life's work. 

In the upper grades and high school the manual arts should have a strong 
vocational bearing, differentiating the work in a marked degree in the VI grade 
and above. The work in the first two years in the high school should be both 
cultural and industrial in character, and taken by all the students. There should 
be specialization in the work for those who leave early, definite "unit" courses, 
and work specifically industrial in character, designed to serve definitely the 
needs of those who elect to enter vocational service. Manual arts in the last two 
years is not necessary for those planning to enter college. 

Mr. Jones explained his work in Somerville. His aim in the manual arts 
is to impart a knowledge of the arts which will be of practical service to tlie 
pupils after they leave school, and at the same time assist them in the develop- 
ment of culture, refinement, and taste. 

The grade work consists of drawing, constructive work, design, and color. 
The drawing is plain every-day drawing, with instruction similar to the 
instruction given in arithmetic, reading, and writing. Design and color are 
not taught as separate subjects, but correlated with everything possible. 

Center work is emphasized in the first four grades. A piece of work, or 
some interesting topic is selected for the "center" and everything, for the time 
being, is grouped about that piece of work. School, home, and personal inter- 
ests are most frequently selected. Mr. Jones showed the correlation of one 
center, "transportation," with history, geography, spelling, arithmetic, and 
language. There is correlation of drawing and manual training with all subjects 
in all the grades, also differentiating of drawing in the different high school 
courses, as commercial, preparatory, manual arts, general and fine arts. 

Mr. Jones urged the manual training men of the state to make a firm stand 
in their work and continue to stand by its principles. 

GOVERNING PRINCIPLES. 

Mr. Frank: Manv educators, departing from time worn school traditions 
and customs, now perceive in the grade schools real educational possibilities apart 
from fitting for the high school, and in the high school possibilities for all boys 
and girls of the community, not merely for those destined for college and the 



476 M.lXL.n. TR.IIMXC M.IG.IZIXE 

professions, but for that lari:er body of pupils wliose aptitudes, capabilities, and 
needs are not so much academic as practical. Tliat the aim of the manual arts 
work of the elementary schools, or up to the pupil's fourteenth year, at least, should 
remain largely general or cultural seems detinitely established. It is absolutely 
evident, however, that it is possible and desirable to adapt the work of the 
grades somewhat more closely to community needs and interests, and to bring 
it into closer harmony with domestic vocational interests. That pupils destined 
for the trades should have some more adequate preparation than is now generally 
provided, is coming more and more to be recognized. 

I have noted here a few general principles whicli iiian\ manual arts 
teachers feel should govern to a greater or less degree the work in the grades 
or before distinctly industrial training is taken up. The work of the 7th and 
Sth grades and first year of the high school should be more thoroly correlated 
with other vitalized or industrialized school subjects. The successful accom- 
plishment of tliis obviously demands more time than is now given. The work 
should meet a definite school, home, group, or individual need. Of these needs 
the largest social group should be met first. 

Fine workmanship ought not to be expected nor insisted upon, but the 
article, when completed, should adequately meet the need in response to which 
it is made. It must "work". Projects should as a rule be selected from the 
world's work, from articles of common manufacture. The world's work includes 
the work of the school and of the home. Wliile the work in general should be 
such that it can be performed v.holly b\' the pupil, structure and design mav 
in some cases be such that the children can perform only the simpler operations 
and process, e. g., assembling parts too difficult in structure, and beyond the 
ability of the pupil to plan and make; the planning and execution of the more 
difficult parts being done by ad\anced pupils, those of higher grades, or even 
by the instructor. 

The pupils should be introduced to the world's work as it is actually done. 
As a rule, pupils should not be refjuired to perform entirely b\ hand processes 
which are now always done mechanically or by machinery in actual practice. 
Insistence upon school methods regardless of shop practice can yield better 
industrial knowledge. So far as school work is concerned of course there are 
reasonable limits. Rightly handled, work including such operations would be 
found to yield sufficient manual training to be valuable and at the same time 
give the pupil a larger general knowledge of how things are done in practice 
and of the purpose of machinery and mechanical devices. Nothing should be 
done simply for the sake of keeping pupils busy. There is plenty of work that 
appeals to higher motives. While benchwork in wood undoubtedly has many 
advatjtages f)\er other forms of benchwork for schools, we should not confine 
ourselves to it to the exclusion of work with other materials. It is not necessary 
that every finished product be a mf>vable piece of furniture or apparatus. Many 
useful things may be done that will vield cultural \aluf, useful knowledge, and 
skill, such as repairing furniture, caning chairs, framing and jiassepartouting 
pictures, cutting and setting glass, fitting keys, packing faucets, painting, sf)lder- 
ing, etc. 



ASSOCI.lTlOMi 477 

That all pupils of the high school would be heuehted by one or two vears 
of freehand and mechanical drawing and manual training or houseiiold arts few 
can doubt. It is impossible to accomplish this however without lengthening the 
school day, and increasing the plant and teaching staff. 

Perhaps the more pressing or Immediate need, however, is that of modifying 
the present manual arts work with the view to adapting it to the needs of boys 
and girls who are to enter the trades and mechanical occupations. Such pupils 
should have the opportunity to benefit by some cooperative plan such as that 
outlined by Dr. Schneider of Cincinnati or to enter a special trade schof)l at tlie 
end of the first or second high school year. 

Actual experiments in the Cincinnati and Fitchburg high schools, in the 
Lewis Institute at Chicago, and other places have demonstrated that tlie coopera- 
tive scheme is profitable alike to the student and manufacturer, and continues 
the school life of many boys and girls who would otherwise enter the industrial 
field but illy prepared for advancement. The cooperative plan is based, as you 
know, upon an agreement between a group of manufacturers and a school 
system whereby the former agrees to institute and carry on a thoro and compre- 
hensive apprentice course in their particular trades, and in which the school 
agrees to give both general and specialized instruction to the apprentices. The 
cooperative plan in Cincinnati Is carried on in high schools In which all courses 
are offered. These courses are designed to discover aptitudes, and give general 
manual dexterit)' In the first two years. The students are then placed In com- 
mercial shops and continue their schooling either on the alternate week plan for 
the next two years, or one-half day a week if the necessity of the individual case 
requires it. In June of the second year, after their preference for a special 
trade has been discussed with their teacher, they are placed with employers who 
will start them on the wages of third year apprentices. If they do not make good 
by September, they may return to school and change their course. The schools 
are not trade schools, but they enable boys and girls to discover their aptitudes, 
and enter a trade intelligently at sixteen, which is the legal age in Ohio. The 
school then follows them for two years, and gives them the practical knowledge 
while the skill in the trades is given in the real shop. 

The Fitchburg plan differs from that at Cincinnati in that boys only are 
taken, and that they enter the shops at the end of the first instead of the second 
year. 

Altho it is difficult to predict just what form industrial education will take 
In the future, it seems that the cooperative plan has many advantages over the 
trade school, among which the following may be enumerated. The pupils work 
under cormnerclal shop conditions, which would be difficult, if indeed possible, 
to parallel In the trade school. Little special school shop equipment is required 
after the first or second year. The pupils receive pay while learning, and are 
thus enabled to take the course and continue in school. The plan is not dis- 
approved of by the trade unions. 

MANUAL TRAINING. 

Mr. Brodhead: Manual training is not training of the hand; It is more 
nearly training thru the hand. Manual training gives the individual more 



47S M.iM'.^L TR.^IMXG MAGAZINE 

complete command of himself and a keen sense of physical realities, more 
practical control of "things" and physical processes, a sense of the social signifi' 
cance of industries, more social intelligence and social enthusiasm, and the capac- 
ity to sense accurately, to think truly, and to judge logicallj-. 

Because manual training results in objects of interest, use, and beauty, the 
value of the work is frequently measured by such products whereas the real 
value of the work from the adult standpoint lies in the better habits, wider 
knowledge, and greater power which have resulted from the work. The pupil 
is interested in the visible tool processes and object, the teacher in the thinking, 
planning, and discriminating which has been going on. 

In the first three grades, the work is largely with paper, cut, folded and 
pasted to form emblems, toys, weather signals, drinking cups, and cards suitable 
to special occasions, and to represent buildings and their furnishings, vehicles, 
etc. Occasionally rwine, cloth, and paper fasteners are used and letter and 
crayon decoration added. 

It is intended to take advantage of the dramatic and initiative instincts of 
little children to teach them to follow simple directions; to use the simple tools 
of every day life, pencil, rule, crayon, paste, and scissors; and to know the 
square, circle, rectangle, triangle, etc., and to broaden their ideas thru contact 
with these materials and tools. 

In the fourth grade it is possible to read and make working drawings and 
to illustrate the work of the sheet metalworker, introducing the simplest tools 
of the draftsman. With cardboard of good colors are made geometric forms, 
trays, envelopes, and boxes, round and square, open and covered. The methods 
of folding and working out these patterns are similar to those used in sheet 
metalworking. 

Building on the experience with cardboard, the fifth grade concerns itself 
with the problems of the bookbinder, using heavy pasteboard, paste, tape, linen 
thread, attraaive cover and lining papers, and book cloth in harmonious colors. 
Individual planning and sketching are required, and memorandum pads, needle 
cases, calendar stands, post card holders, portfolios, and even sewed books, all 
in durable materials, result. Many of these articles, such as notebooks for 
class use, portfolios for principals or teachers, stiff covers for "Courses of 
Study" or other pamphlets, boxes for lower grade materials, and cases for draw- 
ings, become of immediate use in the schools. Here the power to adjust oneself 
to conditions is emphasized, and another world craft is interpreted. 

The big boys' schools in the city are situated where artistic temperaments 
may be hoped for, and there modeling has been introduced in the middle grades 
with much success. Pupils represent in bas-relief, or the round, street scenes, 
games, signs, animals, flowers, etc., and design tiles, tablets, moldings, and 
pottery, working from the same sort of patterns, drawings, or blueprints (made 
by the pupils) as are used in commercial shops. 

During the three upper grades, benchwork with special equipment and in- 
structor brings more closely to the boys a knf)wleclge of the processes involved in 
construction from a variety of materials, and gives them the ability to plan 
simple articles and to select the right tools in making them. In each grade at 



ASSOCIATIONS 479 

least one problem in design is worked out, thereby promoting an appreciation of 
what is fine in construction. 

In making things in quantities, there is a chance to illustrate simp methods, 
team work, and the division of labor, and to give an intelligent understanding 
of the fundamental and modern crafts, and a sympathy for the workers therein. 
Based on such shopwork, other manual training, and drawing, the bov's inclination 
for a future industrial career can frequently be discovered. The first year 
introduces the tools and simpler processes of woodworking. While the instructor 
knows that it is the "boys" and not "problems" that he is after, the demand is 
insistent for as good work as possible. 

The second year produces some skill and accuracy and introduces more 
advanced processes. As nearly as is found possible and advisable, the processes 
practised by the best cabinet-makers are used. 

During the third year, a boy is expected to apply his knowledge and skill 
in the solution of special and personal problems, even if thev involve other 
materials than wood. 

For the thoro training of beginners, and in order that all the tools and 
processes shall be known, the flexible course above hinted at is laid out for 
the first two and one-half years. But this is freely interrupted when pupils have 
practical ideas to carry out or when work for the schools presents an opportunity 
for thoughtful, useful work. 

The last half-year of the eighth grade is devoted to problems suggested, 
executed, and sometimes designed by the pupils. It would be difficult to give any 
idea of the wide range and the total number, the excellence, and the money 
value of the objects made by the boys, aside from any course, in the sixty-five 
manual training rooms in the elementary schools. Reports from forty-six instruc- 
tors, covering a period of one year, show as high as seventy-five pieces per room 
in some cases. The problems vary from drawing-boards and T-squares, frames, 
sail boats, wastebaskets, photographic apparatus, game boards, candle sticks, 
necktie and plate racks, cutting and ironing boards, footstools, toys, skees, mono- 
planes, bats, and bird houses, to chestnut and oak furniture such as book and 
magazines cases with glass doors, music and medicine cabinets, piano benches, 
tables, desks, chairs, (straight arm, rocking and Morris) taborets, ottomans, 
settles, costumers, gas lamps, screens, umbrella stands, clock cases, sideboards, 
window seats, sewing and shoe polishing stands, ladders, carts, hammocks, and 
sleds. The making of the above has involved working with leather, brass, copper, 
glass, cloth, reed, stains, varnishes, fillers, paints, cord, gas pipe, and wire, as 
well as wood and together with the sharpening of skates, repairing of wheel- 
barrows, boxes, sleds, etc., has given the pupils valuable and vivid experiences. 

Boys now devote about ten per cent of their time to work for the schools. 
This promotes unselfishness, and furnishes to the work the stimulus of real 
needs. It would be easier almost to name the kinds of work not undertaken by 
these willing boys and teachers. They have made drawing stands, easels, tables, 
taborets, footstools, leg rests for cripples, batons, pedestals for statues, bulletin 
boards, book racks, modeling boards, basket bottoms, looms and loom appliances, 
filing-stamp, savings and other boxes, ventilators, cages, door stops, bench stops, 
vise handles, towel and tool racks, yard sticks, screens, loose-leaf covers, 



4S0 .u./.vr.// TR iimm; m.icazise 

bookbinders' gages, aiul athletic ami piiysical apparatus. lhe\ liave planed doors 
and drawers, repaired stiH>ls, desks, frames, maps, and flag standards. Tliey 
have extended platforms in halls, made and put up shelves, hound hooks, uncrated 
and set up benches, and set glass. 

It cannot be disputed that all this work has a decided and substantial monev 
value. It would lose its educational usefulness if it did not come up to com- 
mercial standards. The year's work of one school in fitting up a domestic science 
center in 1910-11 was valued by a prominent furniture dealer at $200, for 
furniture alone. On the other hand, this work has not decreased the activities of 
the local dealers and craftsmen. The schools do not yet receive the financial 
support that they need and deserve, and the economies effected in the lines describ- 
ed above have simply enabled the schools to spend more elsewhere or to have 
needs supplied which could not otherwise have been satisfied. 

NATIONAL EDUCATION ASSOCIA IION. 

It has always been found necessary for the Secretary's ofHce to circularize 
the members of the Association at least three times each year. In view of the 
fact that the postal laws admit publications issued quarterly at second-class rates, 
the Secretary presented to the joint meeting of the Board of Trustees and Execu- 
tive Committee, held at Philadelphia, February 26, a proposition to establish the 
N. E. A. Bulletin, publish it at least ((uarterly, and enter it as second-class 
matter. After a full discussion, a resolution was passetl instructing him to 
carry out the plan suggested. 

The September number will contain information for tiie benefit of those 
members who were not present at the summer ineeting — such as the list of officers 
elected, the resolutions adopted, and a short simimary of the proceedings of the 
meeting. The December number will contain tlie program and announcements 
for the meeting of the Department of Superintendence, llie March number will 
contain a summary of the business transacted at the superintendents' meeting, and 
a general outline of the plans for the summer meeting. The June number will 
contain the program and detailed arrangements for tlie summer meeting. 

FIFT^-FIRST ANNUAL CONVENTION. 

Acting upon the autlif)rity conferred by the Board of Directors, the Executive 
Committee announces that the fifty-first Annual Convention of the National 
Education Association will be held in Salt Lake City, Utah, July 5-11, 1913. 

Meetings of the National Council will lie held on Saturday, July 5; Educa- 
tional Sunday will be observed on Julv G\ and the general sessions will open on 
July 7. 

Copies of the Bulletin containing full infitrmation with respect to railroad 
and hotel rates, program, etc., may be obtained upon request, from the Secretary, 
D. W. Springer, .Ann Arbor, Mich. 

IOWA MANUAL AR IS ROUND TABLE. 

The manual training round table of the South-Kasiern Iowa Teachers' 
Association held at Fairfield, April 3, 4, and 5 was well attended and an excellent 



ASSOCIATIONS 481 

program, under the leadership of O. L. Chaney, Burlington, was presented. On 
the topic "How can manual training teachers make their work better," G. H. 
Nichols, Grinnell, gave the following four suggestions: 1. By visiting schools 
and keeping a record of the school and work done. 2. By visiting factories and 
noting their methods. 3. By reading books and magazines on this line of work, 
and also trade journals. 4. By doing summer work; that is, if the teacher has 
a theoretical education, get practical work; and if the teacher is a mechanic, 
attend summer school and get the theory. 

A discussion of the subjects of the program resulted in a committee being 
appointed and the following resolutions were drafted: "Inasmuch as the time 
at present cllotted for the teaching of manual training in the grades is insufficient. 
Be It Resolved: That we, the manual training teachers of south-eastern Iowa 
go on record as favoring no less than one-half day per week in the grades for 
this subject, and that they promote a continuous agitation until the time is allotted 
for the same. And Be It Further Resolved: That a copy of these resolutions be 
reported to the Iowa Manual Arts Association, and their hearty cooperation in 
this movement be urged ; and that copies be sent to the Manual Training Maga- 
zine and other educational papers." Committee: F. E. Hiler, Fairfield; G. H. 
Nichols, Grinnell ; H. D. Repass, Ft. Madison. 

Excellent exhibits in both manual training and domestic science were displayed 
and much good was derived from the meeting. 

H. D. Repass, Secretary, 

Fort Madison, Iowa. 

MISSOURI ASSOCIATION OF APPLIED ARTS AND SCIENCE. 

The Missouri Association of Applied Arts and Science met In conjunction 
with the Department of Manual Arts of the Missouri State Teachers Association, 
at Springfield, on November 14th. An excellent program was given, including the 
following topics and leaders of discussion: "Methods of Teaching Food Prepara- 
tion," by Miss Louise Stanley, University of Missouri; "The Relation of Drawing 
to Other Subjects," by Miss Elizabeth Shannon, Warrensburg; "The Individual 
Project versus the Prescribed Model," by George H. Jensen, St. Louis. 

It was decided to place all the departmental meetings of the manual arts 
section of the State Teachers Association, In future, under the control of the 
Missouri Association of Applied Arts and Science. A district organization was 
affected whereby the State will de divided into smaller districts for more effective 
work among the teachers of the manual arts In the smaller cities and towns. 

The next meeting of the Association will be held in connection with the 
State Teachers' Association at St. Louis, in November, 1913. The officers elected 
for the ensuing year are: President, E. O. Slater, Springfield, Mo.; Secretary- 
Treasurer, F. A. Aurand, Springfield, Mo. 

WISCONSIN SCHOOL ARTS AND HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION. 

The committee appointed one year ago at Eau Claire to investigate and 
report upon the activities and tendencies in drawing, shopwork, and home 



482 M.^Xi.lL TR.^IXIXG MAGAZINE 

economics during the current >ear and make recommendations for topics for 
discussion at the next meeting of the Association has prepared the following 
summary report: 

The committee divided up its work under the three heads suggested in the 
above paragraph. Each member assigned to a particular subject secured in- 
formation either by visitation or correspondence or both, from a large number 
of public schools, normal schools, and universities in Wisconsin and surrounding 
states, and from typical schools of all grades in other sections of tlie country. 
The detailed report on the entire investigation is in the hands of the secretary of 
the Association. The following is a brief summary of the principal findings: 

DRAWING. 

Mrs. Addie C. Pond. 

1. The principal line of work in the lower grades is memory sketching. 
Quick imaginative drawings are made of objects and scenes which are first 
studied direct and worked out in detail. 

2. A much closer correlation between drawing and shopwork in the upper 
grades and between drawing and all lines of handwork in the lower grades 
of school and drawing and the activities in the home exists than was apparent 
a very few years ago. 

3. Drawing is rapidly becoming a copartner with vocational subjects as a 
means of natural community interest and expression. It is being adjusted to 
vocational lines of work especially in the upper grammar grades and high 
school. In some cities a regular course in handwork, making use of community 
materials largely, has been introduced as low as the first grade and extended 
thru to the fifth or sixth grade. This course is closely correlated with the 
courses in art and domestic science and is often under the supervision of the 
director of drawing as in St. Louis, Mo. 

4. A semi-industrial type of drawing is the latest effort on the part of 
drawing teachers and supervisors. This is manifested particularly by a pre- 
dominence of design in all grades, but especially in the upper grammar grades 
following the composition and pose study of the lower grades. 

5. There is a strong tendency toward departmental teaching above the 
fourth grade, whereas, only a few years ago, this was true above the fifth or 
perhaps the sixth grade only. The special drawing teacher is therefore finding 
a larger place in the public school grades below the high school. 

home economics. 
Mrs. Flora Patterson. 

1. A close correlation with home work especially in rural districts. In an 
increasing number of places school credit is given for an approved form of home 
sewing, cooking and several lines of home making. 

2. More scientific work is being done than formerly in the upper grades, 
high schools, and colleges. Courses of study are being developed with greater 
care for continuity in subject matter and method of presentation. 

3. A tendenc>- is apparent toward a greater utilization of tiie inexpensive 
but artistic and serviceable fabrics and the cheaper and more nutritious foods. 



.-ISSUCI.ITIOAS 483 

The "make-over" both in clothing ami foods is being emphasized more than 
formerly. This perhaps is due to the influence of the vocational education 
movement. 

It is quite possible that the national movement for Federation of House- 
wives, which is "To uphold the enforcement of laws which aflFect food supplies, 
the family health, the cost of living, and to secure further legislation wiien 
necessary toward that end" has an influence upon the organization of material 
for the public school domestic science work. The Parcel Post also has had some 
influence in this direction. 

4. An increase in the number of institutional luncii rooms in the larger 
school systems and institutions. The home economics departments are, in 
increasing numbers, serving lunches and preparing food for school consumption. 
More and more the classes in sewing above the elementary grades are finding it 
possible to do some work for the community thus increasing the social responsibility 
of the school. 

5. Both sewing and cooking are being pushed farther down in the grades. 
In many special schools and in several of the larger school systems cooking as 
well as a simple form of sewing is begun in the first grade. 

SHOPVVORK-MECHANICAL DRAWING. 

F. D. Crawsaw. 

1. The lower grade work remains much the same as it has in the past, but 
with a tendency toward change in two directions: 

a. The project is considered not so much as formerly for its own sake. It 
is selected because it fits into a general scheme of correlation but represents also 
a good problem in construction in which the standard of technique is regarded 
as important. 

b. Better materials are being used and more regard is given to good color. 
A closer correlation is being secured between drawing, both freehand and 
mechanical, and the construction work. This is especially true in the grammar 
grades. 

2. A greater variety of materials are being used in the grammar grades. 
With rare exceptions woodwork, with a very little freehand working sketching, 
was the one subject from the beginning of the si.xth grade to the end of the 
eighth up to two years ago. Now in the central west, and to some extent in the 
east, thin metal, larger woodwork, some concrete, and occasionally forging are 
introduced in the seventh and eighth grades. This means a pre-vocational oppor- 
tunity and a breaking a^vay from the formal course of projects in woodworking 
only. 

3. As there is a tendency toward differentiation in the grammar grades, so 
there is even a stronger tendency in this direction in the high school and a strong 
leaning toward early as well as late high school specialization. 

a. Mechanical drawing is tending toward a course in working drawings 
without the usual number of instrumental and geometrical sheets. 

b. Woodworking is becoming very practical. Fewer abstract exercises, 
such as joints are being used. When they are introduced it is principally for 
the purpose of giving definite practice in construction details just before they 
are used in some project of social and utilitarian value. 



4S4 M.JM.H TR.IIMXG MAGAZINE 

c. Framing is taking a place with advanced furniture and cabinet making in 
the sophomore high schw>l year and with it arcliitectural drawing is being 
introduced. 

4. In the normal schools more time is being given the manual arts. There 
is a tendency toward special rather than general preparation for teaching. There 
is also a tendency toward specialized normal schools — some one in each state 
becoming special in manual arts. 

5. The universities are introducing manual arts work for prospective 
teachers. Sometimes this is done in the department of education. In other cases 
the work is given a "departmental" or "course" basis. There is a tendency 
toward the production side of shopwork, making use of the greatest possible 
number and best commercial shop methods. This is particularly true in the 
engineering colleges. 

CONCLUSION. 

In general your committee finds: 

1. A great increase in the number of public sciiools offering work in draw- 
ing, sewing, cooking, and shopwork. 

2. A strong tendency toward real correlation and cooperation. 

3. An industrialization of all forms of handwork to make them meet the 
real needs of the people. 

4. Specialization both in the organization of subject matter and in the 
teaching done. 

5. More practical and scientific courses. 

It is along these five lines of development that your committee would 
recommend special papers and round table discussions for the next meeting 
of the Association. 

Respectively submitted, 
Flora S. Patterson 
Addie C. Pond 
F. D. Crawshaw 

EASTERN AR r AND MANUAL TRAINING TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. 

The annual gathering of art and manual training teachers at the Ethical 
Culture Schools, New York, March 20-22, was as interesting as the teachers 
were interested. 

The question might justly be raised whether the meeting and renewal of old 
acquaintances, the forming of new friendsiiips and the consetjuent exchange 
and interchange of ideas and experiences, at the meeting, and later on, was not 
intrinsically more valuable to the teachers, more fruitful in promoting progress, 
more refreshing to mind and body, than the more formal presentation of papers 
and their subsequent discussion. 

The reason for this greater benefit accruing to tlie attending members from 
the more informal part of this and similar meetings, from this personal and 
confidential exchange and interchange of ideas and experiences, may be found 
in the fact that these incidental talks touch upr>n and include the social and 
economic side of the teacher's daily activity as well as the pedagogic side. 



ASSOCIATIONS 



485 




TURNED MAHOGANY TABLE, TEACHERS COLLEGE EXHIBIT, EASTERN ART AND MANUAL 
TRAINING teachers' ASSOCIATION. 



4S6 M.^^^i■.^L tr.umxg magazise 

As a matter of fact the social, the economic, the ethical, and pedagogic 
problems of our industrial life are so closely related, so intimately interwoven 
and inter-changing in their various aspects, that a more liberal recognition in 
formulating the program of these annual meetings of these problems in their 
different relations might be considered a gain in helpfulness to the members. 
The economic side of manual training and vocational education might be 
discussed by the members sending in statetnents of cost of their respective 
scluxils, these stateinents then to be made the subject for a discussion upon 
maximum effectiveness for the good of the commiuiity at a minimum cost per 
pupil, and then going before the people as a compact body to tell them of what 
the people need and what it can be furnished for. 

This would impress the people with the business acumen of the teachers, 
create contidence, bring the teachers closer togetlier, giving them self-reliance 
as a body, enabling them to stand before the people and their respective school 
boards more in the position of leaders, collectively and individually, in this 
branch of education. 

Upon the social and ethical side of the vocational education problem there 
is a wide field for discussion in trying to answer the question how the assump- 
tion by many school people, that vocational education has little or no cultural 
value, can be refuted and how, in its particular sphere of usefulness, manual 
training and vocational education can be made, and ought to be made, just as 
culturally effective as professional education. That other social problem, 

whether and how manual training and vocational education can be made useful 
in counteracting the atrophving influence of modern factory work, might also 
furnish many points for discussion, thus again making the intelligence and 
experiences and observations of the art and manual training teachers serviceable 
to the community, and incidentally, raising their own standing and self-reliance 
in the bargain. 

The foregoing reflections bring us to a consideration of the more formal 
program of the meeting. The value of a program lies in its latent possibilities 
to serve as a sort of clearing house for the multiplicity of ideas brought together 
in a convention of teachers and offering an opportunity for a crystalizing out, 
as it were, of the best there is contained in that multiplicity of ideas, to serve 
the teachers as a guide in their search for progress and improvement. This would 
require topics and speakers representative of those social and economic interests, 
aside from the teachers, of course, which are to be benefited by their work. 

As to the topics the selection of subject matter was highly commendable but 
there were too many. There were 27 topics spread over 9 meetings, leaving 
out the banquet. The meetings lasted an average of three hours each. Allow- 
ing 30 minutes for lost motion at each meeting, there remained a total of available 
time, ff>r presentation and discussion of each topic, of 51 minutes. The main 
speaker was accorded 30 mituitcs, and discussion 10 minutes if there was one, 
and 50 minutes if there were two speakers. In this case, or when the speakers 
overran their time and were not checked, as was frequeiuly the case, there was 
no opportunitA' for discussion from the flw)r wiiich is often more valuable than 
the paper itself. Hence, one or ni most two tojiics |ier sosioii miglit he found 



ASSOCI.ITIOXS 487 

more valuable, and the meetings as a clearing house for ideas would come nearer 
the realization of their purpose. 

Concerning the representation of related interests this meeting, and all 
teachers' meetings for that matter, show a touch of the aristocratic tendencies of 
our American educational system. Of consumers of the teacher's product there 
seemed to be only two upon the program, and only one consumer had interest 
enough to remain thru all the sessions of the meeting. This is a subject deserv- 
ing of the attention of the association. 

Coming down more specifically lo the merits of the things said, where there 
was so much said that was good, it would be impossible to do justice to every 
topic. Hence, only a few points are picked out at random. The perennial dis- 
cussion about nomenclature seems to be a waste of time in as much as there is 
liability to lose sight of the fact that it is not the name of the school which 
determines the nature of its work, but the nature of the work of the school is 
determined by the industrial necessities outside of the schoolroom. That is to 
say, as long as our training for vocations remains general in its scope the 
principal part of this training consists in manual work, that is in learning the 
manipulation of tools. But as our industries developed, additions and varieties 
in this training of the use of tools were required and as time goes on there will 
be other requirements and there will be no end of changing the nomenclature if it 
is thought necessary to give a new name to every new requirement by our 
industries. 

When, in 1874, at Erie, Pa., the writer established the first school of this 
sort in Pennsylvania, he called it industrial school, because it served the needs 
of the industries and while the requirements for this kind of education have 
greatly changed since, it still serves the industries and is therefore in its basic 
application, still industrial, or vocational, training, whether it is offered in the 
sixth grade or in the high school. Similarly, training in the use of tools is 
manual training in the sixth grade as well as in the high school ; hence, the 
one or other name applied thruout would serve the purpose, as expressive of the 
basic principle, irrespective of changes in form of requirements by the industries. 

To us industrial outsiders it appeared as if the point of training for com- 
petition should have received more emphasis and recognition, especially by the 
eastern teachers. Owing to the west straining every nerve to develop its own 
industries as its population increases, in order to become independent of the 
eastern industries, and the south likewise waking up, competition will become 
keener, demanding a more intensive cultivation of our mental resources in the east. 
Moreover, European industrial countries are likewise straining every nerve to head 
us off in the markets of the world and they all spend a great deal more money, 
time, and energy for the education of their industrial workers than we do. Hence 
the necessity for the manual training teacher to study the situation in order to 
shape his work accordingly and to do justice to himself and to his pupils. It 
will not be many years before the activities of our eastern steel works will he 
confined to a territory east of the Mississippi. 

One point brought out deserves particular consideration. In speaking of 
the efficiency of teachers it was rightly said to be unjust to expect $2,0(10 worth 
of work for $900. It was also rightly said that the public must be educated 



488 



M.IM.II. TR IIMXG MrlG.lZIXE 



up to a realization of the value of the work done by the manual trainino; teachers. 
As usual, however, there the matter stopped, instead of appointing a committee 
to propose ways and means how to educate the public and then doing it. Not 
much, tho, will be accomplished along those lines unless our schools and teachers 
become more democratic and thus get nearer to the people. Our great body of 

teachers stand isolated and are not 
understood by the people, hence their 
value to the community is underesti- 
mated. Neither collectively nor in- 
dividually do our teachers make ef- 
forts to impress their intelligence, their 
worth, their valuable psychological ex- 
periences upon their environment. 
They do not study the situation, they 
stand aloof amidst the surging sea of 
social and economic problems which 
keeji tiie outside world in a ferment. 
The teachers do not seem to have suf- 
ficient confidence in tliemselves to as- 
sert themselves, hence they are not ap- 
preciated by tiie people. Especially 
tlie women teachers should study the 
situation with increase of their in- 
fluence. Our botly of teachers has the 
strength of a lion if they will only 
exercise it; but they act like a lamb. 

How extraneous social and economic 
conditions force attention from our 
schools and shape their character was signally illustrated by the remarks of 
F. G. Bonser and W. T. Bawden in discussing the topic: "What Constitutes 
Manual Training." It is a distinct advance in the conception of the function 
of manual training, and a credit to the manual training teachers, to have such 
a broad view taken and to grasp and to expound the idea tiiat manual training, 
or industrial etiucation, or whatever else it may be called, is after all a social- 
economic question with ethical requirements of a high order, more even than it 
is a pedagogic question. 

Whenever our manual training teachers, male and female, full\ giasp the 
significance of the fact that their work, in its various forms of application from 
the highest degree of industrial art to the teaching of plain industrial arithmetic 
in the eighth grade, will result in the shapitig of millions ot dur population for a 
new sfKrial-economic status such as we have nf)t had thus far in this country, 
then the value of this work will be greatly increased. Hetice the necessity not to 
neglect in our scheme of broader art and manual training the civic and ethical 
elcmcnt-s. Any purely mechanical dexterity training which ajijicals only to the 
selfifihness of the industrial worker, creating no other desiie l)ui lo get all out 
of the *ocial soil without feeling aii\ obligations to |)ul something back into it 
in the >hapc of social service, will sfxmer nr later icaci injurinusly tipoii siK-iety. 




CANDI.E-STICK IN BL.^CK WALNUT AND 

COPPER, TEACHERS COLLEGE EXHIBIT, 

EASTERN ASSOCIATION MEETING. 



.ISSOCI.ITIOXS 4S9 

Altogether the meeting was of a progiessix e nature, insiiiring, animated, and 
enjoyable in every way. It now remains with the newi\ created board of 
directors to advance the interests and tlie scupe and usefiihiess of the Association. 

Pali. Krkuzpois'tner, 

Ahoona, Pennsvlvania. 

TWENTY-FIFTH EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ACADENHES 

AND HIGH SCHOOLS IN RELATIONS WITH THE 

UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. 

The topic discussed in the Manual Arts Section of the Conference was the 
articulation of high school manual arts courses with general college work. 

In all of the papers, and in the ensuing discussion it was noted that such 
courses undoubtedly contribute greatly to the success of the rest of the high 
school work and to the subsequent life of a large number of pupils whether they 
attend college or not. It was maintained tliat these more general values outweigh 
the specific value of the manual arts as college preparatory subjects and amply 
justify the high school in administering manual training courses in any event. 

In the discussion of the narrower question, the value of manual training 
as a college preparatory subject, the well known objections of the technical uni- 
versities to giving credit for high school manual training and drawing were 
taken up in considerable detail and the position of such objectors shown to be 
untenable, and it was made evident that the attitude of several technical colleges 
is distinctly less liberal than many general and classical colleges. 

The following quotation from one of the papers well expresses the evident 
opinion of those present regarding this matter of articulation: "If in order to 
righth' connect with college, it is necessary that there be continuity of work, 
the same courses of instruction carried on in unbroken line, then there is no 
hope at present for pupils of manual arts courses except in a very few strictly 
technical colleges. Two roads may join, however, without going in the same 
direction. All that is necessary is that a traveler may pass from one to tlie 
other without inconvenience. We maintain that if a pupil on leaving a manual 
arts course is prepared to carry successfully the work of a given college, he is 
ready for that college. We hold that if a pupil, who has finished a four years' 
high school course, has the abilitv- to do freshman work in college, he ought to 
be given credit for all of that high school course whether classical or manual 
arts." 

This whole discussion emphasized the desirability of authentic information 
regarding the degree of success attained in junior college work by students 
entering the university with liberal entrance credit for manual training and 
drawing. 

Perhaps the most significant point made, so far as the University of Chicago 
is concerned, was that relating to the preparation of teachers of manual and 
industrial training. It was shown that one reason why manual training does 
not articulate better with college work is because of the difficulty of securing 
manual training teachers who have any acquaintance with the higher institutions. 
It was shown that, in the nature of the case and in light of the great demand 



490 .l/.V.VrJZ. TR.nXIXG MAGAZINE 

for such teachers, it is practically impossible to find any considerable number of 
men who will give four years to college preparation, unless in these four years 
they can secure a liberal amount of necessar>- technique; that is to say, an 
amount enabling them to teach successfuly in high schools. 

Another quotation from one of the papers is as follows: "Now if colleges 
and universities are really interested in helping solve high school difficulties, here 
is one to try their mettle. There is a most urgent demand all over our country 
for trained vocational teachers. I know of no profession in which the demand so 
far exceeds the supply. Let the colleges and universities establish courses for 
teachers, to which actual tradesmen may be admitted. In Indiana our recent law 
provides that up to 1915 schools may employ as teachers, without examination, 
skilled workmen regardless of scholastic attainments. We would really prefer 
that these men and women have training added, but where is the course for 
teachers to which the fact that they are skilled artisans admits them? These 
nnen and women direct from the trades have narrowly specialized training and 
they are called upon to teach more broadly than they have practiced. Such a 
teachers' course in a university as suggested would add the needed breadth. I 
understand the University of Wisconsin is beginning a work of this kind." Sub- 
sequently the plans of the University' of Wisconsin for carrying on this work 
were discussed. 

At the close of the meeting the following resolutions were adopted as cover- 
ing the major considerations of the conference: 

WTiereas: The major purpose of instruction in the manual arts in the high 
school is to contribute directly to the vocational efficiency of the pupils, and 

Whereas: It is still a debatable question whether manual training in the 
high school will contribute materially to the subsequent success of an individual, 
as a student in the universities other than technical, and 

Whereas: No one seems to doubt the value of such training for success in life, 
after, or without, college training and experience, and 

Whereas: The University- of Chicago has already recognized this general 
value of manual training in the high school, and gives liberal entrance credit 
for such work, and the University', therefore, is in a peculiarly advantageous 
position to collect data on the above mentioned debatable question, therefore 

Be it Resolved: That we earnestly request the University of Chicago to 
investigate the matter for the purpose of throwing such light on the question 
as a study of the records may reveal. 

Wilson H. Henderson, Secretary, 

Hammond, Indiana. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 

Geo. a. Seaton, Editor. 

TROUSERS HANGER. 

The problem of finding a project simple enough for those of limited wood- 
working experience, which will be sufficiently useful to make it something more 
than a mere exercise, is exceedingly hard to solve. We can then be duly grateful 
to D. K. Hiett of East Orange, New Jersey, for the drawings of the trousers 
hanger. The trousers hang over dowel rods which are easily removable from 
the frame when lowered into the position shown in the perspective sketch. To 
hang the trousers up they are first folded over the rod and the latter slipped into 
its place in the frame. The hanger may be made to accommodate any number 
of trousers, and when folded up against the closet door or wall and held in 
place by the hook, it occupies but little space. 



CHILDS CHAIR. 

Under the direction of C. E. Paul of Faribault, Minnesota, the students in 
manual training have constructed forty chairs from the drawings given. These 
chairs were made for use in the primary rooms. In order that they might be 
light enough to be easily handled by the small children they were made from 
pine which was finished with red paint. The same lightness might be gained 
by using such a wood as chestnut, which can be stained for an effect quite dif- 
ferent from the painted pine. 



SLEIGH POLE. 

The students of Bemedji, Minnesota, have been turning out a number of 
unusual problems under the direction of A. D. Bailey. The work produced 
seems to be adapted very successfully to the needs of a rural school and may 
prove suggestive to others similarly located. The drawing presented in this 
issue is that of a sleigh pole. 



LUNCH TABLE. 

The girls of Vocational School, No. 25, Albany, New York, operate a lunch 
room, which was furnished with 25 lunch tables made by the boys. The drawing 
of this table was sent in by Oakley Furney, director of vocational education in the 
public schools of Albany. 

491 



492 



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i\IORRIS CHAIR. 



The excellent photograph shows a Morris chair made in the Bovs' High 
School of Reading. Pennsylvania, under the direction of W. E. Hackett. The 




MORRIS CHAIR. 



proportions are pleasinji and the constiuctioii varies l>ut link- from the standard, 
except in the method f>f the adjuMal)le stop for the hack. Tliis can he seen 
both ill the photograph and iti the working drawing. 



SHOP PROBLEMS 



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SQUARE FERX STAND. 

The photograph and drawing of the square fern stand furnish an interesting 
example of some of the work being produced under the direction of E. F. 
Kranquist at the Northeastern State Normal School, Talequah, Oklahoma. This 
is a Cherokee Indian School. The fern stand is out of the ordinary- but very 
pleasing in its proportions. The construction thruout is with the mortise-and- 
tenon joint. 




FERN STAND. 



CURRENT ITEMS 

GOOD REASONS FOR TEACHING WOOD-TURNING IN THE 
HIGH SCHOOL. 

Tlie reasons tor teacliing wood-turning in the high school which are here listed 
were contributed by W. Melvin Fox of Hibbing, Minnesota. Mr. Fox says, 
in introduction, that the class of pupils, the selection of a course, and the 
question of finance should all be considered in discussing the advantages of a 
course in wood-turning. His list of advantages folio\vs: 

1. Wood-turning develops a splendid tool technique. 

2. The necessary exactness of every movement and the science of every cut 
gives the pupil in time a marvelous accuracy. 

3. Nowhere else in the field of manual labor will there be found such a 
close correlation of mental processes and motor activities. 

4. The scientific side of the subject correlates it closely with physics and 
demonstrates forcibly the laws governing revolving bodies. 

5. It is one good field for modeling and therefore opens a vast field for 
applied design. 

6. It correlates with art and architecture. 

7. It demonstrates the need of variety, precision, decision, and judgment. 

8. It fills to some extent a home need both in the way of making new 
articles and of making repairs. 

9. It fills a larger need in the commercial world, in an endless variety of 
turned furniture, furniture parts, house furnishings, tools, etc. 

10. It has a value in familiarizing the pupil with the handling of machines. 

11. It develops a feeling of importance and self respect, a confidence in 
one's own ability, as one sees his hands, directed by his judgment, shape into 
new and pleasing forms some object on the lathe. 

12. It is a splendid preliminary training for pattern-making and the 
machine shop. 

13. It is an excellent supplement to cabinet making. 

14. It is the keynote of interest in the manual training world. It appeals 
to every typical American boy. To him it is the port of all real desires and the 
haven of many imaginary ones. The wood-turning shop is where he repairs his 
athletic and calisthenic paraphernalia, his trinkets and playthings. 

15. It is the course that comes nearest to play and that is the course that 
means the most in the development of any boy, and in the hands of a skillful in- 
structor has educational value \vithout measure. 

16. It can be used as an incentive to accomplish other work. Fine results 
are obtained by making the wood-turning class a privilege instead of a require- 
ment. 

17. In the shaping of bowls, trays, spindles, pedestals, and other forms, it 
has a strong tendencj' to develop tlic aesthetic, and in its advanced stages becomes 

500 



CURRENT ITEMS 501 

productive of positive woiks of art, creating a love of ami a desire for the 
beautiful. 

18. It will help greatly to awaken a genuine interest in work and a love 
of labor for labor's sake, and any course is justified which dots that. 

AN INTERESTING PLAN OF REORGANIZATION. 

S. H. Holmes, superintendent of schools in New Britain, Connecticut, 
presented to his school board at a spring meeting a plan of school extension and 
reorganization which may prove suggestive in some features to the school 
authorities in other localities. New Britain now has a central grammar school 
which is overcrowded, necessitating additional housing room. The superintendent 
proposes as part of his plan a prevocational school, which will relieve the 
crowded grammar school, and which will be open to those who have completed 
the sixth grade and are thirteen years of age. The plan provides that from 
this school course, two years long, the pupil may go to a trade school with a 
three year course, thus bringing the pupil to eighteen years of age, the acceptable 
age in industry. Graduates of the prevocational school may also enter the 
regular high school. 

In the prevocational school, which should have a six-hour day, half of the 
time would be devoted to academic lessons and half to handwork, including 
drawing. The lines of work suggested for the handwork are, for boys, ele- 
mentary woodworking, metalworking, electric wiring, patternmaking, foundry 
practice, and electrical construction ; and advanced metalworking, also book- 
keeping, printing, typewriting and stenography. For girls are suggested cooking, 
laundering, dress and garment making, millinery, embroidery, homemaking, care 
of infants and invalids, bookbinding, typewriting, stenography, printing, and 
bookkeeping. Specialization in any one line for the entire two years would not 
be permitted, the aim being rather the gaining of such experience in several lines 
as will help the pupil to find himself. 

Superintendent Holmes' plans include other features, such as a day con- 
tinuation school, the trade school managed cooperatively by city and state, an 
improved high school curriculum, and changes in the first six years to provide 
a school for defectives, an ungraded school for foreigners in which the work will 
be cut down to the essentials of the three R's, a vacation school in which children 
may catch up if they have fallen behind their classes, an open air school for 
nervous and anaemic children, a course of study as at present maintained, and 
a course limited to essentials for retarded children. 

This plan would appear to be truly democratic in that it would provide 
education for every type of child in the communitv-. It will prove especially 
interesting to those who are studying the development of grammar grade manual 
training into work of a prevocational nature. 

James A. Barr, of California, who was last year made manager of the 
Bureau of Conventions and Societies for the Panama-Pacific Exposition has again 
been honored by the management. In April he was appointed chief of the De- 
partment of Education for the Exposition. This appointment means much to 



502 M.IM.Il. TR.UMXG M.IGAZISE 

manual arts teachers, for Mr. Barr's interest in the newer forms of education is 
well known. He believes that one of the great features of the educational exhibits 
at the Exposition should show in a comprehensive way the relation that education 
bears to industry and to vocational work. Service, social, industrial, and educa- 
tional, will be the kevnote, sounded thru congresses, conferences, and exhibits, as 
Mr. Barr is planning them. Those who are acquainted with Mr. Barr will be 
contident that everything possible will be done by the chief of the Education 
Department to make the Exposition representative of the most progressive move- 
ments and" of the highest ideals in the educational world today. 

SCHEDULE OF STUDIES IX THE FITCHBURG COOPERATIVE 

COURSE. 

The cooperative course in the high school at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, is 
now in its fifth year of existence. Apprenticeship is now offered in ten trades, 
with fourteen manufacturing establishments cooperating. The course at present 
has an enrolment of 125 students. Those who are studying this cooperative plan 
will be interested in the following schedule of studies in the Fitchburg cooperative 
course. 

Periods per 
First Year (all work in school) : week. 

English and current events 5 

Arithmetic, tables and simple shop problems 5 

.Algebra 5 

Freehand and mechanical drawing and bench work 8 

Second Year (school and sliop work alternately) : 

English 5 

Shop mathematics, algebra and geometry 5 

Physics 4 

Civics 2 

Mechanism of machines 5 

Freehand and mechanical drawing 6 

Third Year (school and shop work alternately) : 

English 5 

Shop mathematics 5 

Chemistry- 4 

Physics 4 

Mechanism of machines 5 

First aid to injured 1 

Freehand and mechanical drawing 6 

Fourth Year (school and shop work alternately) : 

English 5 

Commercial geography and business methods 2 

Shop mathematics 4 

Mechanism of machines 4 

Physics, electricity and heat 4 

Chemittry 6 

Freehand and mechanical drawing 5 



a RREXT ITEMS 



503 




^g 



■^ 5 



504 .i/.y.vr.vz. tr.ii.mxc migazixe 

rHK NEW TYPE OF RURAL SCHe^OL. 

The district school is in the process of evolution. Here is proof. Summit 
School No. 1, located in the lake district of Wisconsin near Oconomowoc, is a 
rural graded school, having an enrolment of sixty pupils and employing eight 
teachers. The work in the school does not extend beyond the eighth grade but 
there is an attempt to give to these pupils every advantage which a city school 
affords. 

The school is housed in a well etpiipped niiulern building containing in 
addition to corridors, cloak rooms, closets, furnace room, and toilets, four school 
rooms, an office, and a manual training room. Two acres of ground give ample 
play space and well chosen apparatus helps the cliildren to find exercise suited 
to their strength and liking. 

The teachers are college ami norinal school graduates whom the school 
board has sought because of their ability and known efficiency as teachers. A 
well trained and resourceful young woman has charge of grades one and two, 
a teacher of experience and of a sympathetic attitude has grades three and four, 
two men and a woman each of whom has taught for years, is a college graduate, 
and has had special work along his respective line, have grades five, six, seven 
and eight in departmental work. In addition to these five who give all of their 
time to these pupils, there are three other teachers. An expert from Nashota 
Seminary comes twice a week to direct physical training, a talented and en- 
thusiastic art teacher gives two days of each week to this school, and a German 
woman from Berlin who has taught in England and France has classes each day 
in French and German for pupils above the fourth grade who care to elect 
these subjects. 

In industrial work, there is hand-loom weaving in the primary grades. 
Above those grades there is designing for the decoration of the home, the making 
of articles of wood which the pupils desire for themselves or which the school 
needs, the selection and gathering of seed corn, the testing of seeds, and visits 
to the near-by Pabst stock farm to compare the various types of cattle and horses 
and to fix an ideal for stock. In the spring there are the children's gardens and 
the planting of grasses of economic importance. 

In other ways besides the teaching of the children this school tries to minister 
to the needs of the community. Two of the recitation rooms are so arranged 
that they can be thrown into one assembly room seated with opera chairs. Here 
many public entertaiimients are given, all of which are free. A singer and a 
pianist have given a program especially adapted to children; the patrons of the 
school have listened to a lecture on the subject, "Reaching All Children," and 
have heard illustrated lectures on, "Rural Life in Scotland," "The Dairy Cow," 
and "Live Stock in Europe." Since the school possesses an excellent stereopticon 
and a kinefoscope these last were easily appreciated by the children. 

I'p to September, 1911, this school was the ordinary one-room country school. 
At that time the Board of Education, composed of progressive farmers with 
mo<lern home-*, began to bring about this change. Taxes have increased and a 
wealthy stockman of the neighborhood has contributed largely from his private 
income, but the boys and girls are worth it. What this scliool will become is not 



CLRRliXr ITEMS 



505 



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506 M.JXU.^L TRAIMXG MAGAZINE 

yet evident for in so short a time it is barely possible to get things started. 
Those in charge are awake to suggestions and are working on plans to make this 
school answer still more fully to the needs of its community. 

The National Education Association will hold its fifty-first annual conven- 
tion July 5-12, at Salt Lake Cit>-. Those attending will be able to combine 
profit and pleasure to an unusual degree. The trip to Salt Lake City over any 
of the lines of travel is an ideal vacation trip in itself. Easily accessible from 
Salt Lake Cir\- are the Yellowstone National Park, and Glacier Park in Montana. 
The railroad rates are especially favorable for combining these park trips with 
the convention. The outing at Salt Lake may also be advantageously combined 
with a tour of California and the Pacific coast. Salt Lake City itself, is a 
favorite resort of the tourist, including natural and architectural features of rare 
attractiveness. The general meetings are to be held in the Mormon Tabernacle 
which seats 8,000 people comfortably. Places for departmental meetings have 
been arranged within a radious of five blocks of the Tabernacle, providing the 
best facilities available for such a meeting in the LTnited States. 

The program will be definitely announced early in June. Arthur L. Willis- 
ton, principal of Wenrvvorth Institute, Boston, is president of the manual train- 
ing and art department of the convention. Manual arts teachers will also find 
much outside of their own section meeting to interest them. Five other conven- 
tions of educational interest are to be held at the same time in Salt Lake City, 
including the School Garden Association of America, and the National Com- 
mittee on Agricultural Education. 

George P. Hitchcock has been appointed assistant to Frederick B. Pratt in the 
administrative work of Pratt Institute, Brookhn, and has been made vice- 
chairman of the general faculty of the Institute. Mr. Hitchcock was the last 
director of the Institute High School and all concerned are rejoicing in his 
return to the Institute. Mr. Hitchcock is a graduate of Amherst College. Short- 
ly after his graduation he was asked to return to his home city, Fitchburg, Mas- 
sachusetts, to become principal of the high school. From 1903 thru 1905 he was 
principal of the Institute High School, and from there went to Brookline, Mas- 
sachusetts, as headmaster of the high school, where he has remained up to the 
present time. .Mr. Hitchcock has studied, during this time, at the New York Uni- 
versity, and law in Boston. He has been admitted to the Bar in Massachusetts. 
Mr. Hitchcock is actively connected with important educational organizations 
in Massachusetts. 

A bill, which provided tliat pupils need not take manual arts subjects in the 
elementary schools if their parents filed written objections, was presented in the 
Massachusetts legislature in March. It aroused no little feeling, especially in 
Boston, where the protest against compulsory manual training first started. The 
bill failed of passage, largely on the ground that it would establish an unde- 
sirable precedent in the way <>i parental interference with progressive educa- 



CURRENT ITEMS 



507 



tional features. The promoters of the measure were opposed to manual training 
as not being "practical" as compared with the regular academic subjects! This 
appears amusing in view of the country-wide demand for manual training and 
vocational education to supply the "practical" elements lacking in the old 
established curriculum. The same word is used to describe two entirely different 
points of view. 

Judging from newspaper accounts, the whole controversy in Boston originated 
in the insistence, on the part of some too-zealous teacher, on mat weaving as a 
suitable line of handwork for boys of grammar school age. It will be recalled 
that in a recent abortive attempt to have manual training dropped from the 
Chicago schools this same matter of mat weaving by older children was a focal 
point of criticism. While manual training, like other subjects, will never be 
altogether proof against hobby-riding teachers, it should be possible, thru care- 
ful standardization, to prevent much of such futile criticism. 




MADE BY STUDENT IX YE ATM AN HIGH 
SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS. 



FOREIGN NOTES 

Bv H. Willi A MS Smith. 

A veteran educationalist and a noted politician — Sir Jolin Gorst — recreates 
himself in his old age by further educational experiments. In a recent inter- 
view he said: — "In my own school (in that part of England where he resides) 
I have introduced gardening and woodwork both for boys and girls, and we 
provide gardening and light woodwork tools. Vou remember the distinction 
made by the Germans between the 'bix)k school' and the 'work school?' Well, 
I am all for the "work school;' and the remarkable fact is that in my 'work 
school' the children are much cleverer at tiieir books than they are at the 
'book school.' " Here is a veteran statesman, father of a lately-deceased states- 
man, — Sir Eldon Gorst of Egyptian record, — who is an enthusiast for manual 
training. It is a good sign in a nation wlien its old men persist in youthful 
traits. 



An article on "Practical Education and its Aftermaths" in The School- 
master is distinctly unfavorable to those developments in manual training which 
"have trodden on tlie corns" of the ordinary- primary teacher. It contains the 
usual statements, i. e. "Manual instruction as a means to an end is ex- 
cellent but manual instruction as an end in itself is to be avoided at all 
costs." It's a nice debatable point. "The mental side of human nature 
is of more importance than the physical." Oh ! these sunderers of 
what God has joined together, they are the bane of education ! "Let us 
have manual instruction in our schools by all means, but it must be strictly 
subordinated to the real work of education." Vou all know what the real 
work is, don't >nu? I ha\e merely referred to this article as an example of 
the faint praise with which it is still sought to damn English manual training. 
The Times, in commenting upon an address by Sir J. A. Cockburn, says 
".Manual and mental education imtiuestionably lielp one another; but it is 
to be hoped that, in trying to remed\ neglect of the first, educational theorists 
\vill not be led into the mistake of undervaluing the second. * * * Manual 
training is an excellent thing in its jilace, but it does not offer any royal 
road to education." I feel no concern about what the theorists will be led 
into: the men who are rn/ikiri(r manual training know wluit callouses on 
the hand feel like: there's no theory to deplore there. I'll give The Times 
time enough though. A year or two ago I do not think it was aware of manual 
training at all. 



.Mr. J. W. l . X'inall, chairman of the Information Hureau of the National 
Society of Arts Masters, lectured recently on "Art and Manual Training in 
the School." In effect he said that the more there was of both, and the more 
both were combined, the better. lie averred also that "The scholar blessed 

508 



FOREIGN NOTES 509 

with creativeness aiul manual and artistic dexterity is to be ranked eciually 

high with the mathematical or mental child." Tliat sounds old to us, doesn't 
it? — but it is very new indeed to some people. 



Mr. Albert Winfield, a Somersetshire teacher, is a very strong and able 
advocate of rural manual training, and wliat he says is heard over the whole 
of England. He pleads for "more practical work, not necessarily agricultural 
and gardening, excellent as these subjects are, but hand and eye training, 
simple cookery and housewifery within the school walls." Very modest, mod- 
erate demands! 



The 16th annual Conference of the National Association of Manual Train- 
ing Teachers was held in London at Easter and was addressed by a good ninnber 
of prominent educationists. An excellent exhibition of handwork was held 
In connection with the conference, and a very good handbook was issued as a 
souvenir of the occasion. Subsequent discussion seems to have clung most round 
some remarks made by Mr. R. Blair, Education Officer, L. C. C, at the public 
meeting, which have been taken by many as hostile to manual training. IJut 
1 feel sure that Mr. Blair, holding such a position as he does, and acting 
in it as he has done, does not undervalue manual training. In his speech 
he asked some rather irritating questions, bearing almost wholly on the utilitarian 
side of our work, but I think the best plan for the teachers will be to answer 
those questions as soon as possible, and then request Mr. Blair to ask some more. 



The Minister for Education has submitted proposals to the Legislature 
Council of India for establishing a broader basis of education by special grants 
for hotels, school h\'giene and manual instruction, costing two lakhs of rupees. 



The second International Congress on the teaching of domestic subjects is 
to be held at Ghent, Belgium, from June 15 to 17. The Association of Teachers 
of Domestic Subjects is sending delegates from England. 



The Department of Education for the Cape of Good Hope is offering 
prizes for competition among the pupil teachers of native training schools where 
school gardening is being carried on. Classes in woodwork and cardboard 
modelling with the related drawing are being very successfully carried on at 
Cape Town. These classes are free to all teachers in State-aided schools. 



The Superintendent of Education at Swansea, Wales, reported to the Edu- 
cation Committee that a number of parents objected to their children taking 
domestic subjects, saying that they could teach them cookery and laundering 
at home. It was felt, in order to put a check on their attitude, that a test 
case would have to be taken, so that parents might know that they had no 
right to withdraw their children from those subjects any more than others. It 



510 M.ixr.n. TR n\i\G magazine 

was decided tliat tlie next parent responsible for withdrawinii" a child should 
be prosecuted. 



Miss Mahoii in her presidential address to the Irish National Teachers' 
Organization was unsympathetic towards manual occupations in the schools. 
This attitude of mind is not the right one in a person wlio should know that 
manual training is likely to be one of the best things to change matters for 
the better in "the most distressful countrv." 



The Educational \e^;:s of Scotland says: — "Practical subjects have pushed 
tiiemselves into the classroom to a degree which to some people spells tianger. 
Vet there they are, and there they are likely to remain. * * * Scotland has, 
with some quite explainable reluctance, come into line generally in the matter 
of the curriculinn of its day schools with the practice of other countries in 
giving increased prominence to practical training of the hand and eye, and 
of adapting the general scheme of work to meet the cliange." It is incon- 
ceivable that when any good thing is going, a Scotsman siiould abstain from 
participating. The\ were rather reluctant at first, but now it's there it's 
going to remain. Oh yes, Scotland's all right! 



The handwork teachers of Scotland ha\e hitlieito be'ongeti to one of two 
bodies: The Scottish Association of Manual Iraining Teachers and the 
Scottish Sioyd Association. It is hoped to merge the two associations in one, 
to be called The Educational Handwork Association of Scotland. 'rhe\' deem 
the words "Educational Handwork" to explain more to the la\ mind than 
either "Manual Training" or "Sloyd." May be! May be not! 



Dorsetshire Education Committee recommends the gradual introduction 
of the manual method of teaching into its rural schools (a) by obtaining 
and spreading information as to the best examples that are to be found in 
various parts of the country, (b) by gi\ing every encouragement and freedom 
to capable teachers who are willing to try the method, (c) by providing 
classes for the training of teachers for this special purpose, or by giving 
facilities to teachers to attend such classes as alreadv exist. 



Nottingham has sixteen centres which liave been made thoroly adecjuate. 
There is a model house, where hf)usewifery is taught in all its branches, and 
to this has lately been added a model flat. i'he e<iuipi)ing of a housewifery 
centre costs the cit\' .£120. while upkeeps and salaries account for .mother 
£120 to £140 per annum. 



At (owes, the head<)uarters of the Royal ^':l(•llt (lui), the experiment of 
teaching boys cooking has been sucli a success that the authorities are intro- 



FOREIGN NOTES 511 

duciiig it elsewhere. 'J'lie Chairman of the Isle of Wi^lit Kilucaiion Committee 
says the boys have fairly beaten the girls at cooking. 



In opening a new domestic subjects centre at York, Miss V.. V. Ihiglies, 
a Welsh educationist, advocated the widening of the curriculum by teaching 
the girls woodwork, and even bootmending. Mrs. Edwin Gray, ex-president 
of the National Union of Women Workers, said, whether a woman had a 
lot of servants or none at all, domestic science and practice were a necessity. 



An exhibition of the work done by the children attending Leyland In- 
fant's School, Lancashire, was held recently. The display consisted of basket 
work, clay modelling, wood-carving, paperwork and needlework, and it included 
a model of a railway station complete to freight and passenger trains, and 
a model of their own school: both models being prepared bv the children. 
Miss Isabel Thwaites, the Head Mistress, is widely known for her efforts in 
school handwork experiments. 



That marvelous movement, the Boy Scouts, bids fair soon to set the pace 
in education by doing things. x'\t a Manchester school 200 scouts, representing 
19 troops, have enrolled for special purposes, one of which is practical geog- 
raphy, including surveying with the Ship Canal as a base. Employers in 
Manchester are recognizing the value of the "badges" which scouts obtain and 
filling their vacancies accordingly. In Leeds special classes for Scouts in 
ordinary subjects are held, and they are enabled also to qualify for the car- 
penter, handN'man, pathfinder, prospector, strawman and surveyor badges. At 
Workshop where, in the past, the evening schools have met with very small 
success, a new scheme to take in the Scouts promises well. In Surrey 12 
centres gave instruction to Boy Scouts in gardening, woodwork, ambulance 
work, electricity and engineering. General Baden-Powell already takes a place 
in the front rank of world educators, past and present. 



An interesting experiment in the training of school girls is being tried at 
St. Phillip's School, Hu'me, Manchester. A small house has been rented and 
furnished by the managers close to the school, where the girls can be taught 
housewifery. A fully qualified teacher lives on the premises and conducts the 
classes. 



A debate has been held at the National School of Cookery, London, on 
"Gas versus Electricity in Cooking." An expert spoke on behalf of each 
form of heat energy; and electricity obtained one-third more votes than gas 
in its support. 



Nothwithstanding strong protests from the advocates of pure eihication, 
(whatever that is) cobbling classes are on the increase in schools of London's 
poor districts. 



512 M.LM.^L TRrllMXG MAGAZINE 

The London County Council ophthalmologist says that children suffering 
from a high degree of myopia should attend classes where all oral work can 
be taken in association witli normal sighted children, that all literary work 
can be learned without books, pens or paper, and a very full use should be 
made of ever\- sort of handicraft that would develop attention and skill with a 
minimum use of the eves. 



A feature of the Boys' Pay Department of the Shoreditch Technical In- 
stitute is the centre established for training teachers of manual subjects. In 
addition to the practical training in hanilicraft, the students receive instruction 
in elementary science, mathematics, applied art work, English, and in the 
science and practice of teaching. The course is for four years' training, and 
ten students are admitted each year by scholarships awarded on the results 
of a competitive examination. This is, I believe, the only centre of its kind 
as vet established in England. 



For a number of years tlie School Board of London (now defunct) held 
exhibitions of art and manual training, which the L. C. C. allowed afterwards 
to drop. Exhibitions are unreliable assets of education; they maj' easily be 
hindrances as well as helps. I will speak plain: they should be irreproach- 
ably honest: the exhibits should be the work of children only. One of the 
most patently straightforward shows of recent years has just closed at White 
chapel. It was devoted entirely to Handwork from the Kindergarten to the 
toys class of the elementary school, and with very few exceptions was obviously 
prepared by the children. It was tlie kind of exliibition I should like to see 
repeated. 



.Mrs. HuTiii)l)re_\ Ward has done something better tiian writing novels: she 
has promoted and encouraged the London play centres for poor cliiUireii. The 
largest play centre in the Metropolis is the Jewish centre in Middlesex Street 
(old Petticoat Lane, renamed) one of the most thickly populated of urban 
areas. Here hundreds of boys and girls are kept off the streets after school 
hours and provided with recreation in the shape of useful crafts and nice 
games. Woodwork goes strong in these play centres, which are held in school 
buildings, and several manual teachers are doing good work in this coimection. 



A special requisition list of apparatus and material for use in connection 
with hdndwork in the lower classes has been approved by the L. C. C. Four 
hundred schfx)l departments have been granted permission to take up this kind 
of work. With the list will l>e issued a pamphlet containing hints as to the 
care of to')ls, the best rneihod of keeping and iirejiaring modelling clay, etc. 



Tlie Hoard of Il(!ucati(ni (for luigland and Wales) is gratified to note 
a continued increase in the number of centres and schools where instruction 
in special subjects is given, and in the number of scholars receiving such 



FOREIGN NOTES 513 

instruction. The subjects tau^;lit ami the number of ret^istered scholars in eacii 
are as follows: — Cookery, 327,632 scholars; laundry work, 133,995; house- 
wifery, 28,731; combined domestic subjects, 8,379; dairy work, 180; handi- 
craft, 239,653; light woodwork, 2,100; gardening, 39,531. These figures 
relate to 1910-11, but the number of centres for 1911-12 is given as follows: — 
cookery, 1,987; laundry work, 673; housewifery, 194; combined domestic 
subjects, 95; dairy work, 10; handicraft, 1,038; light woodwork, 4; garden- 
ing, 21. These show in some cases a large increase over tlie preceding vear — 
135 new cookery centres; 65 laundry, 72 housewifery, and SS handicraft 
centres. 

In Volume 4 of the Annual Reports of the London Covmty Council, the 
Education Officer's chapter on elementary education gives first place to the 
subject of handwork. The greater portion of the report consists of a memo- 
randum by Mr. P. B. Ballard, M. A., a district inspector who takes great 
interest in the subject, and who is recognized as one of the best exponents 
of manual training in England. 



London manual teachers have had their salary maximvun raised ivom £155 
to £175. It is not enough, but it is something. 



In London schools accomodation for cookery is lacking at 298 schools, for 
laundrywork at 412, for housewifery at 512, for woodwork at 351, while 
only 13 metalwork centres have up to the present been provided in council 
schools. A total number of 1,200 additional centres are still required. The 
additional capital cost of providing these 1,200 centres, not including expendi- 
ture on the acquisition of sites, would be not less than £900,000. To etjuip 
these centres would cost £80,000; and to pay the salaries of the additional 
teachers over £150,000 would be needed yearly. A Dreadnought battleship 
costs £2,000,000 and gets out of date in ten years. I am afraid the Dread- 
noughts come before manual training centres in the nation's conisderation. 



REVIEWS 

Si/ioo! tin J Home Gurdcns by W. H. D. Meier; Gimi aiui Company; SVaxS 
inches; pp. 319; price SO cents. 

The special value of this new hooV. on tjartlenin^ is its detiniteness of direc- 
tions and its recognition of the limitations of school conditions. The author 
takes it for granted that the reader is in favor of school and home gardens, 
and so wastes no time in theorizing or pleading a cause. The first chapter 
tells exactly how to make window gardens, the second tells how to grow plants 
in pots, and so on, each chapter heiiig a definite description of just how to get 
results in some phase of school or home gardening. Careful diagrams, abundant 
and helpful half-tones, tables for planting, and illustrated garden plans sup- 
plement th.e text in making tliis a highly commendable handbook for teachers 
and amateur gardeners. The author is a biologist and school gardener of many 
years' experience, being head of the department of biology and school gardening 
at the State Normal school, Framinghaiu, Massaclnisetts. — V. E. W. 

Art for Life's Sake by Cliarles H. Caffin ; the Prang Company; 5x7% 
inches; pp. 287; price $1.25. 

Occasionally there appears a book which expresses clearly and forcibly 
what a large number of people have been feeling more or less inarticidately 
for a long time. Such a book is "Art for Life's Sake," a book of broad scope, 
of careful logic, of informational \alue, and of high ideals. It shows the rela- 
tion of art to life in the past and liow it may be more closely and helpfully 
united with real life in the present. The author skilfully satirizes the so-called 
artists who believe in Art only for Art's sake. The ultimate aim of the book 
is to "further the getting together of each and all, no matter what may be their 
specialized work, in an organized cooperation, animated by the ideal of in- 
dividual and collective betterment." I'hus the book is seen to have a broad 
message for the general reader, as well as a special message for the artist in 
colors, stone, metal, wood or other medium. To the latter he holds up a liigh 
standard, saying; "Hence the proud distinction of the artist proper, if he 
understand himself aright and be rightly luuierstood, is to hold aloft the ensign 
to humanity, pointing the way to nearer and nearer approaches toward per- 
fection." It is impossible in a brief review to further suggest the character of 
the subject matter of a book such as tliis, but the reader may be assured that his 
ideas about art will be clarified and his efforts toward human betterment will 
be given renewed impulse by close study of the chapters of this book. 

/Jrsif;n and Construction by Arthur 11. ('hanil)erlain, Neibert Murphy, and 
Alfred Guillou; Whitaker and Ray-Wiggin Co., San Francisco; Sxll inches; 
pp. 54; paper covers, price 35 cents. 

This is an attractively made book, illustrated wiiii three plates in color, and 
numerous half-tones and line drawings. The chief value of the book lies in 

514 



REIIEJVS 515 

these illustrations, since the accompanying text is too brief and iiuletinite to he 
very helpful. As a supplement to a serious study of the principles of design and 
construction, used by students with considerable experience with the materials to 
which the designs are applied, the book will be welcomed by teachers who seek 
an inexpensive collection of commendable designs. The authors make ac- 
knowledgement to Ernest A. Batchelder, whose influence is plainly seen in the 
designs. — V. E. W. 

Annual Magazine Subject — Index, 1912, Edited by Frederick Winthrop 
Faxon. Published by the Boston Book Company, Boston, Mass. 9V^x7 inches, 
299 pages. 

This is the fifth annual volume covering a selected list of American and 
English periodicals. Owing to the suspension of the publication of Poole's 
Index this volume will seem to have greater value than ever before, though it 
still considers its special field to be in history, travel, mountaineering, explor- 
ation, forestry, outdoor life, the fine arts, and architecture. However, the general 
field, which is not neglected, includes articles on education. 

The book is printed on heavy paper, witli wide margins for jiossible notes, 
and is well bound. 

RECEIVED 

Report of a Conference on the Teaching of Handicraft in London Ele- 
mentary Schools. London County Council. Can be purchased from P. S. King 
and Son, 2 and 4 Great Smith street, Victoria street. Westminister, S. W. 
London, England. Price 7 d. This is the much-discussed report of the Con- 
ference of which Mr. Shadrach Hicks, Principal of the Shoreditcli Technical 
Institute was chairman. 

Correlation of the Textile Phase of Industrial Jl^ork in the Elementary 
Schools. A chart published by the School of Practical Arts, Teachers College, 
N. Y. Price 20 cents. A scheme of work used in the Speyer Scliool. 

Studies in Construction, by Louis C. Peterson, the January number of the 
Normal School Bulletin, published at the Southern Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, Carbondale, Illinois. This is an effort to make clear to persons without 
technical training the principles and formulas concerning the deflection of beams 
under different loads, the trussing of beams, and the strength of floors and 
roofs. 

School of Fine and Applied Arts, State Normal School, Milwaukee, Wiscon- 
sin. Catalog for 1912-13. A very attractive illustrated catalog of a school 
offering excellent facilities for the study of art with reference to teaching. 
A manual arts course has been added during the past year with Edward Ray 
Tompkins in charge of the woodworking. 

The Importance of Art Museums in Our Smaller Cities. By Robert W. 
DeForest. Reprint of a paper in Volume X of the American Art Manual, 
edited by Florence N. Levy and published by The American Federation of 
Arts, 215 West 57th Street, New York Citj-. 



516 M.I. Mil. TR.IIMXC M.IC.I/IXH 

SloyJ Trainirti^ School. Tlie aiiiiouiu-eineiit of tlie twenty-fovirth year of 
the sclux>l establislieii by Mrs. Qiiincy A. Shaw of wliich Cnistaf l.arsson has 
always been principal. Tliis circular gives ilhistrations of some of tlie newer 
courses in tl>e schmil ; for example, forginii, wooil-tviniinc;, bm^kbinding and 
designing. 

Rff>ort of BoiirJ of EJtuatwn, Loiilsvillr, Ky. A comprehensive report 
including that of the supervisor of manual trainiiiii ami ilomestic science, Louis 
A. Bacon, and of the supervisor of industrial work, Miss Sarah Logan Rogers; 
also the report of the manual training high school. 

Occii/>iitions iirtj huiustriul Jf'ork. Outlines useil in tlie first six grades of 
the public schixils of Louisville, Ky. uiuler tlie supervision of Miss Sarah Logan 
Rogers. These include details of e<iuipment, materials, aim, and processes. 

T/ir Montfssori Mftliod. An exposition ami criticism b\ Hr. S. A. Morgan, 
principal of Normal School, Hamilton, Ontario. Publishetl by L. K. Cameron. 
Toronto. A bulletin of the Ontario Department of Kducation. 

l.athrop IrtJiistrial Si/iool. An account of the new prevocational public 
school in Kansas City, Mo. of which Clarence A. Hlociier is the principal. It 
contains outlines of courses of study. 

.1 jfridiltural Ittslruition in Itii^li Silmols. By C. H. Robison and F. B. Jenks. 
Bulletin No. 6, 1913. Published by the Cnited States Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

Elfmcntttry Manual Trainini,;. The 1913 S\llabus of the courses and 
examinations for teachers' certificates in the ProN ince of Ontario. Ontario 
ncpartinent of Education, Toronto. Similar pamphlets are issued for art and 
household science. 

.IJiirfsses and ProcrrJini^s of the Xafional Edttcalion .1 ssodat'inn 1912. 

Durand \V. Springer, Secretary, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Price, $2.00. This 

report of the Chicago meeting contains 1427 pages. About 100 pages are given 
to the report of the Oepartment of Manual Training ami Art Education. 

Partial Course of Study, Public Schools, I-os .\ngcles, California. A iiamplilet 
of forty pages outlining and illustrating the work in drawing, manual training, 
primary manual arts and home economics. 

Ornamrntal Trees and Shrubbery. Arbor Day Ainuial 1913. Compiled by 
Cjeorge Martin Wiley. Published by the lulucation Department, Albany, N. Y. 
A beautiful pamphlet quite in harmf)ny willi previous annuals from New York. 

Wisconsin /Irbor and Bird Day .Inniinl, 1913. Compiled by O. S. Rice. 
Issued by C. P. Carey, State Superintendent of i'uiilic Instruction, Madison, Wis. 
A book of 109 pagCM full of facts and inspiration for nature liners atid students. 

Pennsylvania .Irhor Day Manual, 1913. Nathan C. Schaeffer, Superintendent 
of Public Instrurfifni, IFarrisburg, Pa. Contains many poems and songs for 
arbor clav cclcbrati'ins as well as some scientific articles. 



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